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Volume-3 Issue-1: Published on June 10, 2013
Volume-3 Issue-1: Published on June 10, 2013

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Volume-3 Issue-1, June 2013, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Santanu Halder, Abul Hasnat, Amina Khatun, Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri

Paper Title:

A Fast FPGA Based Architecture for Skin Region Detection

Abstract:   This paper presents an efficient FPGA based architecture for skin region detection algorithm from a facial image. A lot of research work has been carried out on skin region detection for image processing applications. But there is a very limited work to design a hardware module for the same purpose which is very useful for a real time system where speed is a key factor. In this paper, an attempt has been made towards the designing of an efficient FPGA based skin region detection algorithm which is better than the existing architectures in respect of both space and time complexity. The methodology proposed by Zhang et al. in 2000, has been chosen as the skin region detection algorithm for the present work due to its property of simplicity resulting in faster computation. The experimental result shows a significant improvement in space complexity over an existing architectures and the module is able to operate at 285.919MHz speed which is more than twice of the operating speed of the existing architectures.

 Skin detection, Pixel classification, FPGA, YIQ.


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12.     Weste, Neil H. and Eshraghian, Kamran (2000). “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A Systems Perspective”, Pearson Education Asia.

13.     Wakerly, John F. (2002). “Digital Design: Principles and Practices”, Pearson Education Asia.

14.     Guangdong Liu; Zhongke Shi, (2011) "Embedded implementation of real-time skin detection system," Transportation, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering (TMEE), IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.2463,2466, 16-18 Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TMEE.2011.6199720.

15.     Mustafah, Y.M.; Azman, A.W. (2012), "Skin region detector for real time face detection system," Computer and Communication Engineering (ICCCE), 2012 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.653,658, 3-5 July 2012, doi: 10.1109/ICCCE.2012.6271269.   




Santanu Halder, Abul Hasnat, Amina Khatun, Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri

Paper Title:

Development of a Bangla Character Recognition (BCR) System for Generation of Bengali Text from Braille Notation

Abstract:   This paper presents a novel Bangla Character Recognition (BCR) system which converts a Braille Document into Bengali text which is not attempted in research work so far. The system is capable of doing the extraction of Braille Characters from a Braille document followed by decoding them into Bengali characters and then the decoded Bengali characters are normalized to Bengali text which is in human-understandable form. This system can be very useful for the blind communities and the associated persons who want to know the Braille system through Bengali language. The proposed methodology has been tested on the Braille documents collected from the Jhunka Pratibondhi Aloke Niketan, West Bengal.

 Braille Cell, Braille Notation and Bengali Character, Decoding, Normalization, Bengali Text.


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Information Systems Conference 2001, pp 141–146, 2001.

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12.     Nestor Falcon, Carlos M. Travieso, Jestis B. Alonso and Miguel A Ferrer, “Image Processing Techniques for Braille writing Recognition”, EUROCAST 2005, LNCS 3643.

13.     Abdul Malik Al-Salman, Yosef ALOHAI, Mohammed ALKanhal and Abdulla AIRajith, “An Arabic Optical Braille Recognition System”, ICTA 07 April 12-14 Hammamet, Tunisia.

14.     Amany AL-Saleh, Ali EL-Zaart, and Abdul Malik AISalman, “Dot Detection of Optical Braille Images for Braille Cells Recognition”, ICCHP 2008 LNCS 5105.

15.     Shanjun ZHANG and Kazuyoshi YOSHINO, “A Braille Recognition System by the Mobile Phone with Embedded Camera” 2010.

16.     Saad D. Al-Shamma and Sami Fathi, “Arabic Braille Recognition and Transcription into Text and Voice”, 5th Cairo International Biomedical Engineering Conference, Cairo, Egypt, December 16-18, 2010. 




Sangheethaa Sukumaran, Mariya Seby, Neethu Kurian

Paper Title:

Advanced Scheme for Data Transmission with Early Congestion Detection

Abstract:   We develop a distributed opportunistic routing scheme with early congestion detection for multi-hop wireless networks. The introduced scheme utilizes the functionality of opportunistic routing and considering an expected average per packet reward criterion, shortest path and so on. Congestion in network causes packet loss and delayed packet delivery. By detecting congestion earlier, the routing scheme which utilizes the opportunities in the network can increase the rate of performance and reliability of the network. We implement it in the NS2 simulator and experiment with AODV routing protocol.  

 AODV protocol, Congestion Detection, Opportunistic Routing, r-Decider Algorithm


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March 2006.

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Santanu Halder, Abul Hasnat, Azizul Hoque, Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri

Paper Title:

Pipelining Based Floating Point Division: Architecture and Modeling

Abstract:   In this paper, an efficient FPGA based architecture for a fractional division based on Newton-Raphson method for IEEE single-precision floating point number is presented. With advent of more graphic, scientific and medical applications, floating point dividers have become indispensable and increasingly important. However, most of these modern applications need higher frequency or low latency of operations with minimal area occupancy. In this work, highly optimized pipelined architecture of an IEEE-754 single precision floating point divider is designed to achieve high frequency on FPGA. The division is performed by multiplying the numerator by the reciprocal value of the denominator and the initial approximation of the denominator is obtained from a Look-up Table.

 FPGA, Newton-Raphson Method, IEEE 754 Single precision format, VHDL


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5.        Wakerly, John F. (2002). Digital Design: Principles and Practices, Pearson Education Asia.

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Anupam Bhakta, Sandip Maity, Ramkrishna Das, Saurabh Dutta

Paper Title:

An Approach of Visual Cryptography Scheme by Cumulative Image Encryption Technique Using Image-key Encryption, Bit-Sieved Operation and K-N Secret Sharing Scheme

Abstract:   Visual Cryptography is a special type of encryption technique to obscure image-based secret information which can be decrypted by Human Visual System (HVS). It is imperceptible to reveal the secret information unless a certain number of shares (k)  or more  among n number of shares are superimposed. As the decryption process is done by human visual system, secret information can be retrieved by anyone if the person gets at least k number of shares. For this, simple visual cryptography is very in secure. In this current work we have proposed a method where we done the encryption in several level. First we use a variable length image key to encrypt the original image then bit sieve procedure is used on resultant image and lastly we perform K-N secret sharing scheme on the final encrypted image. Decryption is done in reverse level of encryption that means we do K-N secret sharing scheme, bit sieve method and image key decryption respectively. As multiple levels of encryptions are being used thus the security is being increased in great extant.

 Bit Sieve Operation, Image Key Encryption, K-N Secret Sharing Scheme, Visual Cryptography.


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5.        Krishmoorthy R, Prabhu S, Internet & Java Programming, New Age International, pp 234.

6.        How to Split an Image into Chunks - Java ImageIO,, Feb 2010

7.        Naskar P.,Chaudhuri A, Chaudhuri Atal, Image Secret Sharing using a Novel Secret Sharing Technique with Steganography, IEEE CASCOM 2010, Jadavpur University pp 62-65

8.        F. Liu1, C.K. Wu1, X.J. Lin, Colour visual cryptography schemes, IET Information Security, July 2008

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Shimna M S, Sangeetha P S

Paper Title:

Dynamic Password Schemes for Protecting Users from Password Theft for E-Banking

Abstract:   In this paper, we discuss how to prevent users passwords from being stolen by adversaries in online banking and automated teller machines. We propose dynamic password mechanisms in which a user has a mobile, in that mobile the dynamic password scheme is implemented using Android Operating System, so dynamic password requires a small amount of human computing to secure users passwords. Among the schemes, we have a default method (i.e., traditional password scheme), system recommended functions, user-specified functions, user-specified programs. A function/program is used to implement the dynamic password concept. For user-specified functions, we adopt secret little functions and a constant value, in which security is enhanced by hiding both. The computation of human can be reduce by using mobile applications with builtin dynamic password. Here the user only needs to input the system random digits which the system provides and then the dynamic password is automatically calculated for the user. Thus we can overcome the main attacks like phishing, key-logger, shoulder-surfing, mobile malwar attacks simultaneously.

 dynamic password, Net banking, secret little function, codebook, Phishing, key-loggers, shoulder-surfing, mobile malwar attack.


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Praneethchandran, M.Lokesha, M.C.Majumder, K.P.Ramachandran

Paper Title:

Laplace and Morlet Wavelet Analysis for Gear Fault Diagnosis: A Comparative Study

Abstract:   The machines need to be developed with high speed and light weight to acquire market in this present competitive world and maintenance of these machines become critical and important to ensure failure free operation. Gear drives form a major component of any industrial machine and detection of faults at incipient stage is very crucial in order to reduce maintenance downtime of machine before the major failure. Vibrations emitted from faulty gears are rather non stationary and non-periodic signals and hence it is difficult to detect the gear fault by conventional FFT analysis. Therefore an effective and sophisticated signal processing method using wavelet analysis has successfully being applied. This paper investigates the application of Laplace wavelet kurtosis for gear fault diagnosis. Also, this paper presents the optimisation of wavelet parameters to maximize the kurtosis parameter in order to render the wavelet coefficients sensitive to the generated fault signals. Further, this paper compares the use of Morlet and Laplace wavelet kurtosis for automated fault detection in gears for various fault stages and also compares the Laplace and Morlet wavelet kurtosis for varying working condition.

 Wavelet, Morlet wavelet, Laplace Wavelet Kurtosis, Gear,  


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13.     Jérôme Antonia,,R.B. Randallb2006,The spectral kurtosis: application to the vibratory surveillanceand diagnostics of rotating machines,Mechanical Systems and SignalProcessing (Ed. Elsevier), vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 308–331. 




S. Venkateswaran, S. Karuppannan, S. Vijay prabhu, R. Kannan, S. Malar, P. Prabu

Paper Title:

Hydro Chemical Characteristics and Groundwater Quality Assessment in Parts of Pambar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract:   Understanding geochemical characteristics of groundwater is vital for the support of habitat and for maintaining the quality of base flow to rivers, while its quality assessment is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of the resources for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Twenty seven sample sites were selected systematically and samples were taken for a reference line study to understand the geochemistry of the groundwater and to assess the overall physicochemical faces for pre and post monsoon. Sampling was carried out using pre-cleaned polyethylene containers. The physical and chemical parameters of the analytical results of groundwater were compared with the standard guideline values recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking and public health standards. Thematic maps pertaining to TDS, EC, TH, Cl, NO3, SO4, F , SAR, Na, Na % and RSC were generated using ArcGIS platform. To find out the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the spatial maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented.  

 Geochemistry; Spatial Analysis; Water quality; Pambar


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Kavitha G M, Vinay Kumar A N, Balasubrhamanya

Paper Title:

Secure Cloud Storage with Multi Cloud Architecture

Abstract:   The use of cloud computing has increased rapidly in many organizations. Cloud computing provides many benefits in terms of low cost and accessibility of data. Ensuring the security of cloud computing is a major factor in the cloud computing environment, as users often store sensitive information with cloud storage providers but these providers may be untrusted. Dealing with “single cloud” providers is predicted to become less popular with customers due to risks of service availability failure and the possibility of malicious insiders in the single cloud. A movement towards “multi-clouds”, or in other words interclouds or cloud-of-clouds has emerged recently.    In this paper, we provide solutions for secure cloud storage in multi cloud based system. This work aims to promote the use of multi-clouds due to its ability to reduce security risks that affect the cloud computing user. 

Keywords:  Cloud computing, single cloud, multi-clouds, cloud storage, data integrity, data intrusion, service availability.


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8.        A. Bessani, M. Correia, B. Quaresma, F. André and P. Sousa, "DepSky: dependable and secure storage in a cloud-of-clouds", EuroSys'11:Proc. 6thConf. On Computer systems, 2011, pp. 31-46.

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Sonali Anil Deshpande

Paper Title:

ARM Based Design of Density and Viscosity Measuring Instrument For Petroleum

Abstract:   Real-time viscosity measurement remains a necessity for highly automated industry. The off-line viscosity measuring destroys the real time performance and the precision, and the change of temperature causes a biggish impact to the output. Density is one of the most universal and easily measurable qualitative characteristics of petroleum products. Knowledge of this quantity enables one not only optimize the operation of internal combustion engines but also to grade the petroleum products and take their mass into account. This paper proposed an improved method based on single chip, which realized the on-line signals gathering and the data processing of many kinds of signals, to measure the fluid viscosity. The configuration of the sensor was given, which was designed independently after many times tests and error analysis. The temperature measurement was carried out by temperature sensor and it’s signal conditioning circuits.

 Viscosity, Density, Temperature, Viscometer Component, Petroleum, Diesel, Petrol, Kerosene.


1.  “Density Measurement in petroleum industries” Sandra Chirk, Linda Levine, CRS Report for Congress: Retiring Baby-Boomers = A Labor Shortage?,, (2008).
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3.           “Tech Brief 13 – Oil Viscosity”, ZPlus LLC, Burlington, NC 27215, June 2008.

4.           “Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of HydrocarbonFractions” , Pavol Daucik, Jozef Visnovsky, Acta Chimica Slovaca, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008, 43-57.

5.           “Real Time Viscosity Measurement For Condition Based Monitoring Using Solid State Viscosity Sensor”, Kerem Durdag, jeff Andle, vectron International, Sensors and Advanced Packing, Hudson, tribology Tranaction 51: 296-302, 2008.

6.           “Viscosity Sensors For Engine Oil Condition Moitoring –Application And Interpretation Of Results”, A. Agoston, C. Otsch, Sensors and Actuators, A 121, 327-323, 2005.

7.           “Viscosity Sensor Based On Biconvex Quartz Crystal Thikness Shear Resonator In A Novel Stress Free Holder”, Ewald Benes, Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Generl Physics, Wiedner  Hauptstr. 8, A – 1040, Vienna Austria/ Europe.

8.           “Oil Viscosity – How it’s Measured and Reported”, Machinery Lubrication, A Nuria Publication.

9.           E. Irion, K. Land, T. G¨urtler, M. Klein, Oil-Quality Prediction and Oil -Level Detection With The Temic QLT-Sensor leads to Variable Maintenance Intervals, SAE Technical Paper 970847, SAE Spec. Publ. SP-1220, 1997, pp. 105–110.

10.        S.S. Wang, Road tests of oil condition sensor and sensing technique, Sens. Actuators B 73 (2–3) (2001) 106–111.

11.        Basu, A. Berndorfer, C. Buelna, J. Campbell, K. Ismail, Y. Lin, L. Rodriguez, S.S. Wang, “Smart Sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines, SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-1366, SAE 2000 World Congress, Detroit, Michigan.

12.        S. Morishita, K. Suzuki, T. Ashida, K. Tasaka, M. Nakada, Development of an On-Board Type Oil Deterioration Sensor, 932840, Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (October 18–21), 1993, pp. 311–316.

13.        B. Jakoby, M. Buskies, M. Scherer, S. Henzler, H. Eisenschmid, O.Schatz, A novel multifunctional oil condition sensor, in: S. Krueger,W. Gessner (Eds.), Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications,Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, 2001, pp. 157–165.

14.        B. Jakoby, M. Scherer, M. Buskies, H. Eisenschmid, An automotive engine oil viscosity sensor, IEEE Sens. J. 3 (2003) 562–568

15.        J.R. Vig: On acoustic sensor sensitivity, IEEE Trans. Ultras. Ferr. Freq. Contr., 38(3), 1991,311.

16.        ASTM D341 (2003) Standard test method for Viscosity Temperature charts for liquid petroleum products.

17.        “The design of The ultrasonic liquid density measuring instrument “ Wang haiqun, Cao yi, Zhang yugui, Chen zhikun, 2011 Third International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation

18.        “Development of Magnetostriction Sensor for on-line Liquid Level and Density Measurement”, Yibo LiLi ying Sun and Shijiu Jin Li o Sun, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, June 21 - 23, 2006, Dalian, China

19.        A Novel High-accuracy Fluid Densimeter Design,LI  Qiong KONG Lingwang




Puspanjali Mohapatra, Soumya Das, Ashutosh Bhoi, Tapas Kumar Patra

Paper Title:

Mining Foreign Exchange rates using Bio- inspired Neuralnets

Abstract:   To calculate the profit and risk associated with international transactions, currency exchange forecasting is highly desirable. If the forecasting is done accurately then the transaction can give maximum profit.To perform the above task several statistical and machine learning methods have already been proposed by the researchers in the literature. However this paper presents a comparative study between two predominantly used bio-inspired optimization techniques namely particle swarm optimization (PSO) and differential evolution (DE) to forecast the currency exchange rates for one day and one week ahead. For both the algorithms the functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) model is taken into consideration. In the proposed model DE and PSO are used as the evolutionary algorithms for supplementing the optimized value of unknown parameters of the FLANN model. Root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are considered for performance evaluation of the proposed model. Here JAPANESE YEN(JPY),  INDIAN RUPEE(INR), FRENCH FRANC(FRF) to US DOLLAR(USD)  datasets are considered as the  training and testing datasets.The results of FLANN-DE and FLANN-PSO are analyzed.The simulation results show that FLANN-DE outperforms the FLANN-PSO  model  regarding the accuracy , convergence speed over different time spans.

 FLANN, PSO, DE, Currency exchange rate prediction.


1.        Yusuf Perwej ,Asif Perwej,April 2012 ;Forecasting of Indian Rupee (INR)  US Dollar (USD) Currency Exchange Rate Using Artificial Neural Network; IJCSEA,vol.2, no.2, pp.41-52.
2.        Majhi, R., Panda, G., Sahoo, G., 2009. Efficient prediction of exchange  rates with low complexity artificial neural network models. Expert systems    with applications, vol. 36, issue.1, pp.181–189.

3.        Yan-Qing Zhang,Xuhui Wan;2007;Statistical fuzzy interval neural network for currency exchange rate time series prediction;Applied Soft Computing;vol:7;pp.1149-1156.

4.        Mansour Sheikhan,Behzad Movaghar;2009;Exchange Rate Prediction Using an Evolutionary Connectionist Model;World Applied Science Journal(Special Issue of Computer &IT);vol.7;pp.08-16, ©IDOSI Publication. 

5.        Bingxiang Liu,Hua Wang,Xiang Cheng;2011;Exchange Rate Forecasting Method Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Probabilistic Neural Network Model;International Conference on Network Computing and Information Security;vol:01;pp.288-292.                                              

6.        Nicholas I. Sapankevych,Ravi Shankar;2009;Time series prediction using Support Vector Machine    A Survey;IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine; pp.24-38.                                                                                                             

7.        Rout M.,Majhi B.,Majhi R.,Panda G.;2013; Forecasting of currency exchange rates using an adaptive ARMA model with differential evolution based training.Journal of King Saud University –Computer and Information Sciences(Article in press).                                                                                  

8.        Majhi B.,Rout M.,Majhi R.,Panda G.,Fleming PJ.,2012;New robust forecasting models for exchange rate prediction ;Expert System with Applications;vol.39,pp.12658-12670.                                                                 

9.        B Majhi, M Rout,U M Mohapatra,2012,Efficient long  range prediction of exchange rates using  Radial Basis Function Neural Network model; International Conference on Advances in Engineering Science & Management(ICAESM), pp.530-535.                                               

10.     Leonidas Anastasakis,Neil Mort;2009;Exchange rate forecasting using a combined parametric and non-parametric self-organising modelling approach;Expert System with Application;vol.36;pp:12001-12011.               

11.     Storn, R., Price, K., 1995. Differential Evolution – A Simple and Efficient Adaptive Scheme for Global Optimization over Continuous Spaces . International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, TR-95–012.

12.     Majhi Ritanjali, Panda G, Panda Abhisek, Choubey Arvind (2008):Prediction of S&P500 and DJIA stock indices using particle swarm optimization Technique, 978-1-4244-1823-7/08 ,IEEE

13.     Jui Chang Hung,”Adaptive Fuzzy-GARCH model applied to forecasting the volatility of  stock markets using particle swarm optimization”,journal of Information Science,2011,pp:4673-4683

14.     Satyobroto Talukder,” Mathematical Modelling and Applications of Particle Swarm Optimization”, Master’s Thesis Mathematical Modelling and Simulation  Thesis no: 2010:8

15.     Dian Palupi Rini et al,” Particle Swarm Optimization: Technique, System and Challenges”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 14– No.1, January 2011





Himanshu Verma, Jaimala Gambhir, Sachin Goyal

Paper Title:

Energy Storage: A Review

Abstract:   Efficient and economic energy storage, if implemented in the current power infrastructure on a large scale, could bring about some of the greatest changes in the power industry in decades. Additionally, energy storage would improve the reliability and dynamic stability of the power system by providing stable, abundant energy reserves that require little ramp time and are less susceptible to varying fuel prices or shortages. Energy storage can shift the higher peak load to off-peak hours in order to level the generation requirement, allowing generators to run more efficiently at a stable power level, potentially decreasing the average cost of electricity. Additionally, increased energy storage capacity can avoid generation capacity, decrease transmission congestion, and help enable distributed generation such as residential solar and wind systems. In this paper energy storage methods are discussed in such a way to provide a detailed overview of how each of the energy storage devices work so that the reader is able to get a better feel for the potential benefits and drawbacks of each device.

 Energy Storage , Battery ,Renewable Energy Sources, CAES ,PHS, Fuel Cell, Flywheel.


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3.        Armand Boyette and Shahrokh Saadate,  "Direct and indirect control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator wind turbine including a storage unit," IEEE,  September 2006.

4.        Peiwen Li, "Energy Storage is The Core Of Renewable Energy Technologies,"  IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine December 2008.

5.        M. Stanley Whittingham, "History, Evolution, And Future Status Of Energy Storage," IEEE , Vol. 100, May 13th, 2012.

6.        Bradford P. Roberts, Chet Sandberg," The Role Of Energy Storage In Development Of Smart Grids,"  February 2, 2012.

7.        Vijay Chand Ganti, Bhim Singh, Fellow, IEEE, Shiv Kumar Aggarwal, and Tara Chandra Kandpa " DFIG-Based Wind Power Conversion With Grid Power Leveling for Reduced Gusts ,"  IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2012.

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10.     Liyan Qu, Wei Qiao "Constant Power Control and Fault-Ride-Through Enhancement of DFIG Wind Turbines with Energy Storage ," IEEE,  September 2009.

11.     Sergio Vazquez, Srdjan M. Lukic, Eduardo Galvan, Leopoldo G. Franquelo ,Juan M. Carrasco, " Energy Storage Systems for Transport and Grid Applications", IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 12, December 2010.

12.     Murali Bottu, Mariesa L. Crow, " Design of a Coonditioner for Smoothing wind turbine output power ," IEEE,   2009.

13.     Murat Yilmaz  Review of Battery Charger Topologies, Charging Power Levels and Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles  IEEE 2011.

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15.     Daniel H. Doughty, Paul C. Butler, Abbas A. Akhil, Nancy H. Clark, and John D. Boyes , "Batteries for Large-Scale Stationary Electrical Energy Storage," The Electrochemical Society Interface • Fall 2010.

16.     M. Georgescu, L. Barote, C. Marinescu, L. Clotea, Members, " Smart Electrical Energy Storage System for Small Power Wind Turbines," 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, OPTIM 2010

17.     Wnrrcn Ruck-lc-s ;ind William V. Ihsscnzahl "Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage," IEEE power engineering magazine 2011.

18.     M. Al-Ramadhan and M. A. Abido "Design and Simulation of Supercapacitor Energy Storage System," International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12) Spain, 28th to 30th March, 2012.

19.     domenico casa, gabriele grandi ,claudio rossi, "A Super Capacitor Based Power Conditioning System Power Quality Improvement And Ups," IEEE 2002.

20.     Mohd. Hasan Ali,  Bin Wu, , and Roger A. Dougal "An Overview of SMES Applications in Power and Energy Systems,"  IEEE Transactions On Sustainable Energy, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2010.

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22.     Melissa M. Reading, Ph.D. "Flywheel Energy Storage System consultant report," Feb. 2004.

23.     Joseph H. Simmons, Ardeth M. Barnhart, Stanley Reynolds  and Young-Jun Son " Study of Compressed Air Energy Storage with Grid and Photovoltaic Energy Generation,"  Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy  July 2010 .

24.     Peter vandaz ,Compressed Air Energy Storage, Energy Storage System Vol 1 Encyclopedia.

25.     Sandip Pasricha, Marc Keppler  "Comparison and identifcation of static electrical terminal fuel cell models,"  IEEE Transactions On  Energy conversion, Vol. 22, No. 3, September 2007.

26.     Akito Takasaki "A Review of the hydrogen storage system for fuel cell vehicles in Japan ,"  Journal Mekanikal,  No. 30, June 2010.

27.     Phatiphat Thounthong "Fuell cell high power applications"  IEEE Industrial Electronics Magzine, March  2009. 




Abhay A D, Ganesh Krishna, Channabasappa Baligar

Paper Title:

Smart Card Reader Meeting ISO 7816-3 and EMV Level 1 Specifications Using PIC24F Microcontroller

Abstract:   A smart card is a pocket-sized card containing an embedded intelligent integrated circuit (i.e., intelligence to respond to a request from an external device). Smart cards contain a microprocessor chip that serves the dual functions of communication and extensive data storage. These cards are user friendly and have the capacity to retain, and protect the critical information stored in an electronic form. Smart cards are being deployed in most public and private sectors. Typically, a smart card reader is used for data transactions with the smart card. The smart card can be divided into two types: 1) Contact type 2) Contactless type. In contact type smart cards, the card communicates with the reader through a direct physical contact. In contactless type smart cards, the card communicates with the reader through a remote radio frequency interface. This paper shows the design of smart card reader meeting ISO 7816-3 & EMV Level 1 specifications using PIC24F microcontroller.

 Block wait time, Character wait time, Character guard time, EMV Level 1 Reader, IFD ,ISO 7816-2, ISO 7816-3, T=1, T=0


1.        Matanovic G and Mikuc M, “Implementing Certificate -based Authentication Protocol on Smart Cards” IEEE Proceedings of the 35th International Convention, pp.1514-1519,  May 2012.
2.        de Koning Gans G and de Ruiter J, “The SmartLogic Tool: Analysing and Testing Smart Card Protocols”, IEEE Fifth International Conference, pp.864-871, April 2012.

3.        “Cards with contacts — Electrical interface and transmission protocols” ISO 7816-3 Specifications, third edition, pp. 1−58, Nov 2006.

4.        “Application Independent ICC to Terminal Interface Requirements” EMVCo, LLC, v4.3, pp. 1−189, Nov. 2011.

5.        “Cards with contacts — Electrical interface and transmission protocols” EMVCo, LLC, v2.1,pp. 1−158, July. 2009.

6.        “Specification for Integrated Circuit Cards Interface Devices” USB CCID Specifications,v1.1, pp. 1−123, Apr 2005.

7.        “Organization, Security & Commands for Interchange” ISO 7816-4 Specifications, second edition, pp. 1−90, Jan 2005.




S.A Ngabea, J.T Liberty, G.I Bassey

Paper Title:

Environmental Impacts of Kashimbilla Multipurpose Buffer Dam and Associated Structures, Taraba State, Nigeria

Abstract:   People keep struggling for decades in order to shape the ecosphere in a manner they wants since the first day. The period in which this struggles was observed most intensively was the period covering the transition from a migrant and primitive hunter society to a resident life and farming. The most deep-seated environmental modification against the nature that had been realized in the history of the human being has started at this time. Even the development and downfall of civilizations are correlated to this interaction between the people and nature. One of the most important roles in utilizing water resource by dams were started to construct long years before gaining present information about hydrology and hydro-mechanics. Dams have a great deal of impact on the environment besides their benefits like controlling stream regimes consequently preventing floods, obtaining domestic and irrigation water from the stored water and generating energy. The environmental impacts of Kashimbilla dams are classified according to different criterions as long term and short term impacts, the impacts on the close area and the impacts on the regions where the dam services, social and unsocial impacts, beneficial and harmful impacts. These effects may be ordered in an intensive and complicated manner like climatic, hydraulic, biologic, social, cultural archaeological etc.  

 Dam, Environmental, Impacts, Kashimbilla


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3.        Baxter R.M. (2005). Environmental Effects of Dams and Impoundment. Journal of Annual Review Ecological Systems.

4.        Boycen K.M. (2012). An Assessment of Socio-Economic Impacts of the construction of Siya Dam. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Volume 14. No. 4.

5.        Baba K. and Toshio H. (2000). Water Storage Transport and Distribution E/A of Dams and Reservoirs. UNESCO Eohss sample chapters.

6.        Carteledge B. (1993). Energy and the Environment. Oxford Press UK.

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9.        Sait et al (1995). Positive and Negative Impacts of Dams on the Environment. International Congress  on River Basin Management.  

10.     Usman A. and Ifabiyi I.P. (2012). Socio-Economic Analysis of the operational impact of Shinroro Hydroelectric power Generation in the low land Area of middle River Niger. Research in Business and social science vol. 2 no. 4.  





Divya Sharma, Oves Khan, Kanika Aggarwal, Preeti Vaidya

Paper Title:

A New Approach to Prevent ARP Spoofing

Abstract:   Many intra-domain protocols (like IP, ARP) do not have protection against malicious activities by network users. As   a result IP and ARP spoofing are used by attackers to launch Man in the Middle (MITM), Denial of Service (DoS) and other attacks. These attacks are severe threats to the network users.   Detecting   and    preventing    IP-ARP spoofing will enhance the security to great extent. This paper presents a simple mechanism for detection and prevention of IP-ARP spoofing.  

 ARP Spoofing, IP Spoofing, Spoofing Detection and prevention.


1.        David C. Plummer, "An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol", Request For Comments: 826
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3.        T. Bradley, C. Brown, and A. Malis. Inverse address resolution protocol.RFC 2390, September 1998.

4.        S. Whalen. An introduction to arp spoofing.2600: The Hacker Quarterly,18(3), Fall 2001.


6.        C. Schluting. Configure your catalyst for a more secure layer 2, January 2005.

7.        M. V. Tripunitara and P. Dutta,” A middleware approach to asynchronousand backward compatible detection and prevention of arp Cache poisoning”,In Proc. 15th Annual Computer Security Application Conference(ACSAC), pages 303–309, 1999.

8.        Neminath H, S Biswas, S Roopa, R Ratti, R Nandi,FA Barbhuiya, A Sur, V Ramachandran, "A DES Approach to Intrusion Detection System foe ARP Spoofing Attacks", 18th Mediterranean Conference onControl & Automation (MED), ISBN: 978-1-4244-8091-3, IEEE 2010.

9.        Wenjian Xing, Yunlan Zhao, Tonglei Li, "Research on the defense against ARP Spoofing Attacks based on Winpcap", 2010 Second International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, Digital Object Identifier: 1O.l109IETCS.201O.75, 2010 IEEE.

10.     Somnuk Puangpronpitag, Narongrit Masusai, "An Efficient and Feasible Solution to ARP Spoof Problem", 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering lElectronics, Computer,Telecommunications and Information Technology,2009. ECTI-CON 2009. ISBN: 978-1-4244-3387-2.

11.     D. Bruschi, A. Omaghi, E. Rosti, "S-ARP: a secure address resolution protocol, "Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC), 2003. 




Divya Sharma, Preeti Vaidya, Oves Khan

Paper Title:

Survey on Security Issues in Cloud Computing

Abstract:   Cloud Computing is a new technology that allows organizations and individuals to share resources, information and software on-demand over the Internet. It is a new consumption, supplement and delivery model wherein resources are provided in a cost effective manner. It typically involves the use of software and hardware that are delivered as a service. The technology of cloud computing deals with leaving the provision of resources to a remote server and this server has performs services as per the user’s need and data. This Research Paper discusses the concepts of the ‘Cloud’, the issues arisen by the cloud as well as discusses a method to select the best “Cloud” for an organization.   

 Cloud Computing, Infrastructure, Information Technology and Scalability.




4.        ENISA. (2009, Feb) "Cloud computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information security." Available: [Jul. 10, 2010].

5.        R. K. Balachandra, P. V. Ramakrishna and A. Rakshit. “Cloud Security Issues.” In PROC ‘09 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, 2009, pp 517-520.

6.        P. Kresimir and H. Zeljko "Cloud computing security issues and challenges." In PROC Third International Conference on Advances in Human-oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies, and Services, 2010, pp. 344-349.

7.        B. Grobauer, T. Walloschek and E. Stöcker, "Understanding Cloud Computing Vulnerabilities," IEEE Security and Privacy, vol. 99, 2010.

8.        S. Subashini, and V. Kavitha. (2010) “A survey on security issues in service delivery models of cloud computing.” J Network Comput Appl doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2010.07.006. Jul., 2010.

9.        S. Ramgovind, M. M. Eloff, E. Smith. “The Management of Security in Cloud Computing” In PROC 2010 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing 2010.

10.     M. A. Morsy, J. Grundy and Müller I. “An Analysis of the Cloud Computing Security Problem” In PROC APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop. 2010.

11.     Cloud Computing Use Case Discussion Group. "Cloud Computing UseCases Version 3.0," 2010.


13. J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73. 


15.     Hayes, B. (2008). Cloud computing. Commun. ACM, 51(7), 9-11. Retrieved from


17.     Raj, H., Nathuji, R., Singh, A., & England, P. (2009),” Resource management for isolation enhanced cloud services”, In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM workshop on Cloud computing security (pp. 77-84). Chicago, Illinois.





Pradnya A. Shirsath, Vijay Kumar Verma

Paper Title:

A Recent Survey on Incremental Temporal Association Rule Mining

Abstract:   One of the most challenging areas in data mining is Association rule mining. Several algorithms have been developed to solve this problem. These algorithms work efficiently with static datasets. But if new records are added time to time to the datasets means if the datasets are incremental in nature, scenario of association rules may changed. Some of the new itemsets may become frequent, while some previously derived frequent set may become infrequent. Due to updated dataset some rules that are already derived may dropped and some new rules may arrive up. For the up to-date rules over the updated dataset, if the association mining technique redo the rule generation process for the whole dataset, based on the frequent itemsets, simply by discarding the earlier computed results, it will inefficient. It is mostly due to the multiple scanning over the older dataset. Recently, temporal data mining has become a core technical data processing technique to deal with changing data. Actually, temporal databases are continually appended or updated so that the discovered rules need to be updated. In this paper we represent the survey of various methods for incremental as well as temporal association rule mining.

 Mining, Incremental, Temporal, Inefficient, Frequent pattern.


1.        J. Han, M. Kamber, Data mining, Concepts and techniques, Academic Press, 2003.
2.        Arun K. Pujari, Data mining Techniques, University Press (India) Private Limited, 2006 Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, 2001

3.        B. Nath1, D K Bhattacharyya2 & A Ghosh3, “Discovering Association Rules from Incremental Datasets, International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Vol. 1, No. 2, July-December 2010, pp. 433-441.

4.        Tannu Arora1, Rahul Yadav2, “Improved Association Mining Algorithm for Large Dataset”, IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 13, July 2011

5.        Chin-Chen Chang , Yu-Chiang Li, “ An Efficient Algorithm for Incremental Mining of Association Rules” Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Research Issues in Data Engineering: Stream Data Mining and Applications 2005 IEEE

6.        Tarek F. Gharib, Hamed Nassar, Mohamed Taha, Ajith Abraham, “An efficient algorithm for incremental mining of temporal association rules”, An International Journal Expert System with Application.

7.        Abhay Mundra, Poonam Tomar, Deepak Kulhare, “Rapid Update in Frequent Pattern form Large Dynamic Database to Increase Scalability”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-6, January 2013

8.        Abhay Mundra, Poonam Tomar, Deepak Kulhare, “ Rapid Update in Frequent Pattern form Large Dynamic Database to Increase Scalability”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-6, January 2013

9.        Anour F.A. Dafa-Alla, Ho Sun Shon, Khalid E.K. Saeed, “IMTAR: Incremental Mining of General Temporal Association Rules”, Journal of Information Processing Systems, Vol.6, No.2, June 2010

10.     Mohsin Naqvi, Kashif Hussain, Sohail Asghar, Simon Fong, “Mining Temporal Association Rules with Incremental Standing for Segment Progressive Filter”

11.     Siddharth Shah, N. C. Chauhan, S. D. Bhanderi, “Incremental Mining of Association Rules: A Survey”, (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 3 (3) , 2012,4071-4074

12.     Pauray S.M. Tsai , Chih-Chong Lee , and Arbee L.P. Chen An “Efficient Approach for Incremental  Association Rule Mining”, Department of Information Management, Ming Hsin Institute of Technology,      Hsin-Feng, Hsinchu 304, Taiwan, R.O.C

13.     N.L. Sarda N. V. Srinivas, “ An Adaptive Algorithm for Incremental Mining of Association Rules” Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai, India Downloaded on April 24, 2009 at 06:04 from IEEE Xplore

14.     Siddharth Shah, N. C. Chauhan ,S. D. Bhander, “Incremental Mining of Association Rules: A Survey”,  College, V.V.Nagar, Gujarat, India A. D. Patel Institute of Technology , Gujarat, India International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 3 (3) , 2012,4071-4074

15.     Animesh Tripathy, Subhalaxmi Das & Prashanta Kumar Patra, “An Association Rule Based Algorithmic Approach to Mine Frequent Pattern in Spatial Database System”, International Journal of Computer Science & CommunicationVol. 1, No. 2, July-December 2010, pp. 357-363

16.     Sandhya Rani Jetti, Sujatha D, “Mining Frequent Item Sets from incremental database : A single pass approach”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 2, Issue 12, December-2011 1 ISSN 2229-5518

17.     Rakesh Agrawal,  Ramakrishnan Srikant,  “Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules”,  Almaden Research Center 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120

18.     D. Cheung, J. Han, V. Ng, and C. Y. Wong. Maintenance of Discovered Association Rules in Large Databases: An Incremental Updating Technique. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Data Engineering, pages 106—114, February 1996 




P.Kodanda Rama Rao, U.Ranga Raju, K.RamaMohan Rao, S.R.K. Reddy

Paper Title:

Response of Coastal Structures against Earthquake Forces Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Tsunami Run-Up Forces

Abstract:   The catastrophic tsunamis generated by the great Indonesia earthquake triggered on December 26th, 2004, warned the coastal community on preparedness and constructing safe structures to resist against such events. Earthquake occurs suddenly without warning and bulk of destruction takes place within a short period of time. Similarly, when tsunami strikes, there will be a tremendous loss and damage in coastal regions. Apart from having a sound warning system in case of tsunamis, it is necessary to build Earthquake–Tsunami Resistant (ETR) shelters, where residents living in coastal plain regions cannot move to farther distances before tsunami arrives the coast. Hence it is necessary to establish analytical methods for obtaining the response of coastal structures subjected to earthquake forces considering soil-structure interaction and also against tsunami run-up forces. A three storied shelter building with four different cases of structural configurations and another typical structure, an elevated water tank of 6 lakh liters capacity are chosen for the analysis. A comparative study is made on the response of these structures against earthquake forces, when they rest on different soil/rock media. In the analysis, IS 1893-2002 seismic code for determining the base shear values against earthquake loads and FEMA 55 to calculate hydrodynamic and impact forces against tsunami impact are used.  From the results, it is observed that the refuge shelters that are chosen are more vulnerable to high tide tsunami loads compared to earthquake loads. In general, it is noticed that Base shears and Displacements increase with the decreases in stiffness of the soil and this increase attributes more due to rocking effect of the soil. Buildings with open storey at bottom and upper stories with heavy mass give significant rise to time period of these structures causing early failures during an earthquake before tsunami arrives. In this study, a useful guideline is evaluated demarcating the heights below which earthquake forces and above which tsunami forces are predominant in the structure.

 Earthquake; tsunami; shelter; soil-structure interaction; time period; base shear; displacement; inundation depth; hydrodynamic force; and Impact force.


1.        David J. Dowrick. (1996). Earthquake Resistant Design for Engineers and Architects”, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
2.        Gazetas G.  “Analysis of Machine foundations vibrations: state of the art” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering Vol.2,  1983 pp. 2-42.

3.        Gupta V.K. and Trifunac M.D.  “Seismic response of Multi storied buildings including the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction” Soil dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol-10, No.8, 1991 pp 414-422.

4.        IS 1893. (Part-1). (2002). “Criteria for Earthquake resistant design of structures”.

5.        Pankaj Agarwal and Manish Shrikhande; “Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” Printice Hall of  India, New Delhi (2006).

6.        Reddy S.R.K. and Raju  P.S.N. “Terrain Evaluation and Influence of Soil-Structure Interaction on  Seismic Response of Structures in Urban Environs” Proc. of 3rd International Conference on Protection of   Structures against Hazards: Italy, 2006 ,pp 235 – 242.

7.        Stafford Smith ” Behavior of squre infilled frames:Journal of the structural  Divisions proc.of ASCE,vol 91,No STI 1966  pp381-483

8.        Tsuneo Okada,Tadashi sugano,Tadashi Ishikawe, Shigemitu Takai and Tomokazu   Tateno. (2005) “Tsunami loads and Structural Design of  Tsunami Refuge Buildings”.

9.        Yeh.H; Robertson.I; and Preuss.J (2005) “Development of design guidelines for structures that serve as tsunami vertical evacuation sites” Report No.2005-4, Washington State Department of Natural Resources. 




CH.Siva Rama Krishna, P.Venkateswara Rao

Paper Title:

Spectrum Efficiency for Rate-Adaptive MIMO OSFBC-OFDM Systems over Various Adaptation Policies

Abstract:   In this paper, closed-form expressions for capacities per unit bandwidth for multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems employing Orthogonal Space-Frequency Block Coding (OSFBC) over multipath frequency-selective fading channels are derived for optimal power adaptation, optimal rate adaptation with constant transmit power, channel inversion with fixed rate, and truncated channel inversion adaptation polices. A Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) based user selection scheme is considered. Closed-form expressions are derived for OSFBC-OFDM system. Optimal power adaptation policy provides the highest capacity over the other adaptation policies. Capacity gains are more prominent for optimal rate adaptation with constant transmit power policy as compared to other adaptation policies.

 Orthogonal space-frequency block coding; optimal power adaptation; optimal rate adaptation with constant transmit power; channel inversion with fixed rate; truncated channel inversion; outage probability.


1.        Duman, T. M., and Ghrayeb, A., Coding for MIMO Communication Systems, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex, England, 2007.
2.        Yang, H., “A road to future broadband wireless access: MIMO-OFDM Based air interface,” IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 53–60, Jan. 2005.

3.        Liew, T., and Hanzo, L., “Space–time trellis and space–time block coding versus adaptive modulation and coding aided OFDM for wideband channels,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 173–187, Jan. 2006.

4.        Jiang, M., and Hango, L., “Multiuser MIMO-OFDM for next generation wireless systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1430-1469,  March 2007.

5.        Niyato, D., Hossain, E., and Bhargava, V., “Scheduling and admission control in power-constrained OFDM wireless mesh routers: Analysis and optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 3738– 3748, Oct. 2007.

6.        Chieochan, S., and Hossain, E., “Adaptive radio resource allocation in OFDMA systems: A survey of the state-of-the-art approaches,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 513–527, April 2009.

7.        Niyato, and D., Hossain, E., “Adaptive fair subcarrier/rate allocation in multirate OFDMA networks: Radio link level queuing performance analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1897–1907, Nov. 2006.

8.        Zhang, Y. J., and Letaief, K. B., “Multiuser adaptive subcarrier-and-bit allocation with adaptive cell selection for OFDM systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1566–1575, Sep. 2004.

9.        Zhang, Y. J., and Letaief, K. B., “An efficient resource-allocation scheme for spatial multiuser access in MIMO/OFDM systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 107–116, Jan. 2005.

10.     Torabi, M., Ajib, W., and Haccoun, D., “Performance Analysis of scheduling schemes for Rate-adaptive MIMO  OSFBC-OFDM Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2363-2379, June 2010.

11.     Bhaskar, V., “Spectrum Efficiency Evaluation for MRC Diversity schemes  Under Different Adaptation Policies Over Generalized Rayleigh Fading channels,” International Journal of Wireless Information Networks, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 191-203, Sep. 2007.

12.     Bhaskar, V., “Capacity evaluation for equal gain diversity scheme over Rayleigh fading channels,” International Journal of Electronics and communications, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 235-240, Sep. 2008.

13.     Alouini, M. S., and Goldsmith, A. J., “Capacity of Rayleigh Fading Channels Under Different Adaptive Transmission and Diversity-Combining Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 11653–1181, July 1999.

14.     Gradshteyn, I and Ryzhik, I., Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 6th edition, Academic press, London, 2000. 




Himanshu Ratawal, Bharti Nagpal

Paper Title:

A New Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET

Abstract:   MANET can be defined as a  accumulation  of mobile hosts which move in different directions and speeds with no  need to create connectivity with existing network infrastructure. Various routing protocols  have been made from the time of  the existence of ad hoc networks.   We proposes a new routing protocol for ad hoc networks which will  reduce network overhead, power consumption, Multi-user Interference  (MUI), and provide link reliability.



1.        M. Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, "Mobile Ad  hoc Networking (MANET):  Routing  Protocol   Performance  Issues  and  Evaluation Considerations", 1999.
2.        Martin Mauve, Jörg Widmer, and Hannes Hartenstein, "A Survey on Position-Based   Routing   in   Mobile   Ad   Hoc   Networks",   IEEE Networks, pages 30–39, Nov. Dec. 2001.

3.        Mehran  Abolhasan  a,  Tadeusz  Wysocki  a,  Eryk  Dutkiewicz,  "Areview of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks", Received 25 March 2003; accepted 4 June 2003, Elsevier B.V

4.        Elizabeth M. Royer, Santa Barbara, Chai-Keong Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad hoc  Mobile Wireless Networks”, IEEE Personal Communications, April 1999..Nodes move in the same direction

5.        T. Clausen, P. Jacquet, A, Laouiti, P. Muhlethaler, A. Qayyum, and L.Viennot, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol,” in Proceedings ofIEEE INMIC, 2001.

6.        C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, "Ad hoc  On-DemandDistance Vector (AODV) Routing", July 2003. 




Nagaraj P, Siva Yellampalli

Paper Title:

8 Bit Second-Order Continuous-Time Band-Pass Sigma-Delta ADC

Abstract:  In this paper, a technique to design the 8 bit continuous-time band-pass Sigma-Delta converters for 70 MHz is presented. The conversion from discrete-time (z-domain) loop-filter transfer function into continuous-time (s-domain) is done by using Impulse-invariant-transformation. The transconductor-capacitor filter is used to implement continuous-time loop-filter. A latched-type comparator and a TSPC D Flip-flop are being used as the quantizer of the Sigma-Delta converter. The decimation filter is designed by a CIC Filter and an FIR filter of high-speed digital. A full adder cell and a TSPC D Flip-flop are used as basic building blocks of CIC Filter and FIR Filter. The 8 bit second-order continuous Sigma-Delta converter circuit has been implemented in Cadence using 180nm CMOS technology and the total power consumption is 57.9 mW. At a supply voltage of 3 V, the maximum SNDR is measured to be 35.13 dB, which corresponds to a resolution of 8 bits.

Analog-to-digital converter, Continuous Sigma-Delta ADC, Decimation Filter, Sigma-Delta modulator.


1.        Issac Hsu, and Howard C. Luong. “A 70-MHz Continuous-time CMOS Band-pass ΣΔ Modulator for GSM Receivers” ISCAS 2000 - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Geneva, Switzerland, volume 3, page(s): 750-753, May 28-31, 2000.
2.        W. Singor & W. M. Snelgrove, “Switched-Capacitor Bandpass Delta-Sigma A/D Modulation at 10.7 MHz”, IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 30, no. 3, pp.184-192, March 1995..

3.        S. Bazarjani & M. Snelgrove, “A 40 MHz IF Fourth-order Double-Sampled SC Bandpass Sigma-Delta Modulator”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symp. on Circuits & Systems, June 1997.

4.        A.K.Ong & B. A. Wooley, “A two-path bandpass Sigma Delta modulator for digital IF extraction at 20 MHz”, IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 12, pp.1920-34, Dec. 1997.

5.        Kuskie C., Zhang B., Schreier R., “A decimation filter architecture for GHz delta- sigma modulators,” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1995. Volume 2, pages(s):953 – 956, 28 April-3 May 1995.

6.        Kim D.D., Brooke M.A., “A 1.4G samples/sec comb filter design for decimation of sigma-delta modulator output,” Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2003. Volume 1, page(s): I-1009 - I-1012 25-28 May 2003.

7.        Steven R. Norsworthy., Richard Schreier., & Gabor C. Temes.,Delta-Sigma data converters theory, Design, and Simulation, New York: IEEE press, 1996.

8.        Phillip E. Allen and Douglas R. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2nd edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

9.        Steven R. Norsworthy., Richard Schreier., & Gabor C. Temes., Delta-Sigma data converters theory, Design, and Simulation, New York: IEEE press, 1996.

10.     Luh, J. Choma & J. Draper, “A 50-MHz Continuous-time switched-current ΣΔ modulator”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symp. on Circuits & Systems, June 1998.

11.     S. Bazarjani & M. Snelgrove, “A 40 MHz IF Fourth-order Double-Sampled SC Bandpass ΣΔ Modulator”, Proceedings of IEEE International Symp. on Circuits & Systems, June 1997.

12.     Phillip E. Allen and Douglas R. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2nd edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 




Bharath.S.V, Ashwini.S.Shivannavar, M.Z.Kurian

Paper Title:

Design of Efficient SOC Bus Based on WISHBONE

Abstract:   In this paper wishbone bus is used to interconnect variety of devices. SOC designs are usually based on FPGA and ASIC which are widely used in embedded systems. In SOC design flexible interconnection between variety of devices is crucial to get maximum performance. Usually, in SOC design variety of devices such as high performance units like CPU, DMA, RAM ext., low performance devices like UART, GPIO’s are connected to a single bus. The interconnecting bus runs at the speed of low speed device. An extra logic needs to be used in SOC to increase the performance of low speed devices, but this increases overall system power consumption. This paper proposes double bus architecture to interconnect the different devices according to the speed of the devices. High speed devices are connected to first level wishbone bus and low speed devices are connected to second level bus. This architecture shows that double bus design is feasible in low power SOC design.

 Double bus, IP Core, SOC, Wishbone.


1.        Rudolf Usselmen. (2001, January) “Opencores SOC Bus Review” [Available].
2.        Richard Herveille. “WISHBONE System-on-Chip(SOC) Interconnection Architecture for Portable IP Cores”.Revision: B. 3, pp:4- 32,September 2002.

3.        Raul Fajardo. (2010, September). “MInimal OpenRISC System on Chip, Rev.1.1” [Online]. Available:

4.        Rudolf Usselmann. (2001, October). “WISHBONE Conmax IP Core”, Rev.1.1 [Online]. Available:

5.        Wayne Wolf, “FPGA-Based System Design”, Prentice Hall, 2005.

6.        Hartwig Jeschke, “Efficiency measures for SOC concepts”, Journal of System Architecture, vol 54, pp1039-1045, April 2008.1

7.        Ayas Kanta swain, Kamalakanta Mahapatra, “Design and verification of WISHBONE bus interface for System-On-Chip integration”, Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), 389-1-4244-9073-8/10, 2010.   

8.        Rajendra Prasad, Dhanabal R, “Low Power ASIC Design for Automation in Various Industrial Applications”, (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 6, Issue No. 1, 144 – 149, 2011.

9.        Resve Seleh, Steve Wilton, Shahriar Mirabbasi, et al, "System-onchip: Reuse and integration", Procedings of the IEEE,Vol 94(6), pp. 1050- 1069, June 2006.

10.     Wade Peterson, “An introduction to WISHBONE: A chip-level microcomputer bus”, Reprinted from VMEbus Systems / February 2004.

11.     S.Titri, N.Izebdjen, L.Sahli, D.Lazib, F.Louiz, “Open Cores based System on Chip Platform for Telecommunication Applications: VOIP”, IEEE conference 2007

12.     “Wishbone Specification”, Rev B3 [Online]. Available:

13.     Henry Chang, Merrill Hunt, Larry Cooke, “Surviving the SOC Revolution”, Pub.Date: July 2008, Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC, ISBN: 0792386795

14.     Daniel Akerlund, Master’s thesis, “Implementation of 2x2 NoC with Wishbone Interface”, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden, Nov-2005. 




Naresh Kumar Malik, Jasvir Singh, Rajiv Kumar, Neelam Rathi

Paper Title:

A Review on Solar PV Cell

Abstract:   Photovoltaic  cells  provide  an  additional  method  of acquiring  energy,  converting  sunlight  directly  into  electricity through  the  use  of  semiconductors.    Effective  photovoltaic implementation  is  reviewed,  focusing  on  semiconductor properties and overall photovoltaic system configuration.[1]

 energy conversion efficiency, photovoltaic, PV,solar cell.


1.        Toub, “Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester New York 14627.

3.        Philip Davies,“ Global warming and renewable energy,”

4.        Yinghao Chu, Research Associate, “Global Energy Network Institute (GENI)),” August 2011.

5.        kinal kachhiya,Makarand lokhande and mukesh patle “MATLAB/Simulink Model of Solar PV Module and MPPT Algorithm” national conference on recent trends in engineering and technology.

6.        I. H. Altas1,* and A.M. Sharaf2 “ A Photovoltaic Array Simulation Model for  Matlab-Simulink GUI Environment” 2007 IEEE.

7.        Huan-Liang Tsai, Ci-Siang Tu, and Yi-Jie Su, “Development of Generalized Photovoltaic Model Using MATLAB/SIMULINK” Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008, October 22 - 24, 2008, San Francisco, USA.   




Mirza Raheber Raza, Praveen Kumar Y G, M. Z. Kurian, K.V. Narayanswamy

Paper Title:

FPGA Implementation of MPLS

Abstract:   This paper presents a hardware architecture of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). MPLS is a protocol used primarily to prioritize internet traffic and improve bandwidth utilization. MPLS solutions are meant to be used with Layer 2 or Layer 3 protocols. This paper presents hardware architecture to implement MPLS on FPGA.    

 Bandwidth, FPGA, Internet traffic, MPLS.


1.        E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Callon “RFC 3031:Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture”, January 2001.
2.        M. Abou-Gabal, R. Peterkin, D. Ionescu: “IS-IS protocol Hardware Architecture for VPN solutions”, in Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Communications, Athens, Greece, July 12-15, 2004.

3.        M. Abou-Gabal, R. Peterkin, D. Ionescu “An Architecture for a Hardware Implementation of the OSPF Protocol”, CAINE 2004 - 17th International Conference on Computer Applications in Industry and Engineering, Orlando, Florida, USA, November 17-19, 2004.

4.        H. Wang, M. Veeraraghavan, R. Karri, T. Li, “A Hardware-Accelerated Implementation of the RSVP-TE Signaling Protocol”, 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Volume 3, 20-24 June 2004 Page(s):1609 – 1614.

5.        T. Li, Z. Tao, H. Wang, M. Veeraraghavan, “Specification of a Subset  of CR-LDP for Hardware Implementation”, January 2005.

6.        Raymond Peterkin, “ A Reconfigurable Hardware Architecture  for VPN MPLS based Services” University of Saskatchewan Electrical Engineering Master Thesis, August 2007.

7.        S. Li, “System Architecture and Hardware Implementations for a Reconfigurable MPLS Router” University of Saskatchewan Electrical Engineering Master Thesis, August 2003.

8.        Peterkin.R, ionescu.D, “Embedded MPLS Architecture” Parallel and Distributed processing symposium, IEEE 2005.

9.        Peterkin.R, ionescu.D, “A Hardware/Software Co-Design for RSVP-TE MPLS” Parallel and Distributed processing symposium, IEEE 2005. 




Ch. Sudha Rani, Phani Kumar Vaddi,N.V.Vamsi Krishna Togati

Paper Title:

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) For Prediction of Engineering Properties of Soils

Abstract:   The behaviour of soil at the location of the project and interactions of the earth materials during and after construction has a major influence on the success, economy and safety of the work. Another complexity associated with some geotechnical engineering materials, such as sand and gravel, is the difficulty in obtaining undisturbed samples and time consuming involving skilled technician. Shear strength of a soil is perhaps the most important of its Engineering properties, as all stability analyses in the field of Geotechnical Engineering are dependent on Shear strength of soil. Permeability is very important engineering property of soils. Knowledge of permeability is essential in settlement of buildings, yield of wells, seepage trough and below the earth structures. The compression of a saturated soil under a steady static pressure is known as consolidation. It is entirely due to expulsion of water from the voids.  To cope up with the difficulties involved, an attempt has been made to model Engineering properties of soil i.e. Shear Strength parameters, permeability and compression index in terms of Fine Fraction (FF), Liquid Limit (WL), Plasticity Index (IP), Maximum Dry density(MDD), and Optimum Moisture content(OMC). A multi-layer perceptron network with feed forward back propagation is used to model varying the number of hidden layers. For this purposes 68 soils test data was collected from the laboratory test results. Among the test data 47 soils data is used for training and remaining 27 soils for testing using 60-40 distribution. The architectures developed are 5-5-4(inputs-hidden layers-outputs), 5-6-4, 5-7-4, and 5-8-4. Model with 5-8-4 architecture is found to be quite satisfactory in predicting Engineering properties of soil i.e. Shear Strength parameters, permeability and compression index. Pictorial presentation of results gives a better idea than quantative assessment. A graph is plotted between the predicted values and observed values of outputs for training and testing process, from the graph it is found that all the points are close to equality line, indicating predicted values are close to observed values.

 Artificial Neural Networks, Shear Strength, permeability, Compression  Index, Fine fraction, Liquid limit, Optimum Moisture content, Maximum Dry density and  plasticity index.  


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3.        Hornik KM, Stinchcombe M, White H, “Multi-layer feedforward networks are universal approximator”, Neural Networks, 1994; 2(5):359–66.

4.        Kwok, T.Y., Yeung, D.Y., “Constructive Algorithms for Structure Learning in Feedforward Neural Networks for Regression Problems”, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 1997, 8 (3), 630–645.

5.        Levine, E.R., Kimes, D.S., Sigillito, V.G., “Classifying soil structure using neural networks”, Ecol. Model, 1996, 92 (1), 101–108.

6.        M.A. Shahin, M.B. Jaksa, H.R. Maier, “Artificial neural network applications in geotechnical engineering”, Australian Geomechanics 36 (1) (2001) 49–62.

7.        M. Banimahd, S.S. Yasrobi, P.K. Woodward, “Artificial neural network for stress–strain behavior of sandy soils: Knowledge based verification”, Computers and Geotechnics 32 (2005) 377–386.

8.        Pernot S, Lamarque CH, “Application of neural networks to the modeling of some constitutive laws”, Neural Networks 1999;12:371–92.

9.        Rumelhart, D.E., Hinton, G.E. and Williams, R.J., “Learning representations by back-propagation errors”, Nature, 1986, 323: 533-536.

10.     S.K. Das, P.K. Basudhar, “Prediction of coefficient of lateral earth pressure using artificial neural networks”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 10—Bundle A (2005) paper 0506.

11.     Wang J, Rahman MS, “A neural network model for liquefaction induced horizontal ground displacement”, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 1999; 18(8):555-68.

12.     YushunZhai, J. Alex Thomassonb, Julian E, Boggess III, Ruixiu Sui, “Soil texture classification with artificial neural networks operating on remote sensing data”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 54 (2006) 53–68. 




Hema Sharma, Ilyas, Suryakant

Paper Title:

Optimal Power Flow Using Dynamic Bacterial Forging Algorithm

Abstract:   Optimal power flow (OPF) problem has already been attempted as a static optimization problem, by adopting conventional gradient-based methods and more recently, no conventional ones, such as evolutionary algorithms. However, as the loads, generation capacities and network connections in a power system are always in a changing status, these static-oriented methods are of limited use for this issue. This paper presents a new algorithm, dynamic bacterial foraging algorithm (DBFA), for solving an OPF problem in a dynamic environment in which system loads are changing. DBFA is based on the recently proposed BFA which mimics the basic foraging behaviour of E. coli bacteria. A selection scheme for bacteria’s reproduction is employed in DBFA, which explores the self-adaptability of each bacterium in the group searching activities. DBFA has been evaluated, for optimizing the power system fuel cost with the OPF embedded, on the standard IEEE 30-bus with a range of load changes which occurred in different probabilities. The simulation results show that DBFA can more rapidly adapt to load changes, and more closely trace the global optimum of the system fuel cost, in comparison with BFA and some other techniques.

 Bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA), Optimal Power Flow, Dynamic Bacterial foraging algorithm


1.        K. M. Passino, Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control, IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 52—67, Jun. 2002.
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3.        D. H. Kim, A. Abraham, and J. H. Cho, A hybrid genetic algorithm and bacterial foraging approach for global optimization, Inform. Sci., vol. 177, no. 18, pp. 3918—3937, 2007.

4.        S. Mishra, A hybrid least square-fuzzy bacterial foraging strategy for harmonic estimation, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61— 73, Feb. 2005.

5.        M.Tripathy,S.Mishra,L.L.Lai,andQ.P.Zhang,Transmissionloss reduction based on FACTS and bacteria foraging algorithm, in Proc. PPSN, 2006, pp. 222—231.

6.        S. Mishra, and C. N. Bhende, Bacterial foraging technique-based optimized active power lter for load compensation, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 457—465, Jan. 2007.

7.        D. H. Kim and C. H. Cho, Bacterial foraging based neural network fuzzy learning, in Proc. IICAI 2005, pp. 2030—2036.

8.        B. D. Hughes, Random Walks and Random Environments: Volume 1: Random Walks. London, U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.

9.        M. Avriel, Nonlinear Programming: Analysis and Methods.1sted.New York: Dover, 2003. ch. 10, sec. 10.1, pp. 288—299.

10.     J. A. Snyman, Practical Mathematical Optimization: An Introduction to Basic Optimization Theory and Classical and New Gradient-Based Algorithms. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005.

11.     J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization,” in Proc. Of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Neural Networks. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Service Center, 1995, pp. 1942–1948.

12.     Sambarta Dasgupta, Swagatam Das, Ajith Abraham, Adaptive Computational Chemotaxis in Bacterial Foraging Optimization: An Analysis, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION, VOL. 13, NO. 4, AUGUST 2009

13.     Qiaoling Wang, Xiao-Zhi Gao and Changhong Wang, AN ADAPTIVE BACTERIAL FORAGING ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control Volume 6, Number 8, August 2010

14.     Hai Shen, Yunlong Zhu, Xiaoming Zhou, Haifeng Guo, Chunguang Chang, Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization Strategy for Global Numerical Optimization, GEC’09, June 12– 14, 2009, Shanghai, China. 




Ira Gaba, Paramjit Kaur

Paper Title:

A Novel Technique Used for Gait Recognition MDA, LDA and BPNN- A Review

Abstract:   Gait is the manner of the limb movement or the manner a foot of an individual and recognition of an individual is the task of identify a people. Gait Recognition is the biometric process by which an individual can be identify by the manner of walk. The advantage of gait over other biometric traits such as face, iris and fingerprint etc is that it is non-invasive and less unobtrusive biometric, which offers to identify people at the distance, without any interaction from the subject or at low resolution. In this paper we present the review of gait recognition system and different approaches MDA, LDA, PCA and BPNN.  

  BPNN, Feature Extraction, Gait Recognition, LDA, MDA, PCA, Silhouette Extraction.


1.        Hayder Ali, Jamal Dargham, Chekima Ali, Ervin Gobin Moung|, “Gait Recognition using principle Component Analysis” International Conference on Machine Vision 2011.
2.        Qinghan, “Technology review- Biometrics Technology, Application, Challenge and Computational Intelligence Solution” ,IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, Vol 2,pp5-25,2007.

3.        Lili Liu, Yilong Yin, Wei Qin, Ying Li, “Gait Recognition based on Outermost Contour ,” International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems,  Vol. 4, September 2011, pp. 1090–1099.

4.        Sanjeev Sharma, Ritu Tiwari, Anupam Shukla, Vikas Singh, “Identification of People Using Gait Biometrics”, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computaing, Vol 1, No. 4, Oct 2011.

5.        C.Y.Yam, M.S Nixon, J.N Carter, “Extended Model Based Automatic Gait Recognition of Walking and Running” 3rd proc.AVBPA2001,pp.278-283 June 2011.

6.        M.Pushparani, D.Sasikala, “A Survey of Gait Recognition approach using PCA & ICA”, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Network,Web & security, Vol. 12, Issue 10, Version 1.0, May 2012.

7.        A. Hayder, J.Dargham, A.Chekima, G.M.Eryin, “Person Identification Using Gait”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011.

8.        Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan, Huazhong Ning, Weiming Hu “Silhouette Analysis-Based Gait Recognition for Human Identification”, IEEE Transcation on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 25, No. 12, December 2003.

9.        Jollifer I.T Principal Component Analysis, series: Springer Series in Statistics, 2nd Springer, NY, XXIV, 487 pp. 28illus, ISBN 978-0387-95442-4, 2002.

10.     Boulgouris, N.V Plataniotis, K.N. Hatzinakos ,“ An Angulalar Transform of Gait Sequences for Gait Assisted Recognition”, In:Proc IEEE int. conf. Image Processing Singapore, pp. 857-860, 2004.

11.     Wang, Jin, She, Mary, Nahavandi, Saeid and Kouzani, Abbas 2010, “A Review of Vision-Based Gait Recognition Methods of Human Identification”, in DICTA 2010: Proceedings of the Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Application, IEEE Piscataway, N.J.,pp. 320-327, 2010.

12.     Qiong Cheng, Bo Fu, Hui Chen, “Gait Recognition Based on PCA and LDA,” proc: 2nd Symposium International Computer Science and Computational Technology, ISBN 978-952-5726-07-7, pp. 26-28, December 2009.

13.     R.O.Duda, P.E.Hart, D.G.Strok, “Pattern Classification,” Second Edition, Wiley, 2000.

14.     T.Chau, “A Review of Analytical Technique for Gait Data part 2:Neural Network and Wavelet Method”, Gait and Posture, IS(2),pp. 101-120, 1997. 




Ira Gaba, Paramjit Kaur

Paper Title:

A Novel Technique Used for Gait Recognition MDA, LDA and BPNN- A Review

Abstract:   Gait is the manner of the limb movement or the manner a foot of an individual and recognition of an individual is the task of identify a people. Gait Recognition is the biometric process by which an individual can be identify by the manner of walk. The advantage of gait over other biometric traits such as face, iris and fingerprint etc is that it is non-invasive and less unobtrusive biometric, which offers to identify people at the distance, without any interaction from the subject or at low resolution. In this paper we present the review of gait recognition system and different approaches MDA, LDA, PCA and BPNN.  

  BPNN, Feature Extraction, Gait Recognition, LDA, MDA, PCA, Silhouette Extraction.


1.        Hayder Ali, Jamal Dargham, Chekima Ali, Ervin Gobin Moung|, “Gait Recognition using principle Component Analysis” International Conference on Machine Vision 2011.
2.        Qinghan, “Technology review- Biometrics Technology, Application, Challenge and Computational Intelligence Solution” ,IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, Vol 2,pp5-25,2007.

3.        Lili Liu, Yilong Yin, Wei Qin, Ying Li, “Gait Recognition based on Outermost Contour ,” International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems,  Vol. 4, September 2011, pp. 1090–1099.

4.        Sanjeev Sharma, Ritu Tiwari, Anupam Shukla, Vikas Singh, “Identification of People Using Gait Biometrics”, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computaing, Vol 1, No. 4, Oct 2011.

5.        C.Y.Yam, M.S Nixon, J.N Carter, “Extended Model Based Automatic Gait Recognition of Walking and Running” 3rd proc.AVBPA2001,pp.278-283 June 2011.

6.        M.Pushparani, D.Sasikala, “A Survey of Gait Recognition approach using PCA & ICA”, Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Network,Web & security, Vol. 12, Issue 10, Version 1.0, May 2012.

7.        A. Hayder, J.Dargham, A.Chekima, G.M.Eryin, “Person Identification Using Gait”, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011.

8.        Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan, Huazhong Ning, Weiming Hu “Silhouette Analysis-Based Gait Recognition for Human Identification”, IEEE Transcation on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 25, No. 12, December 2003.

9.        Jollifer I.T Principal Component Analysis, series: Springer Series in Statistics, 2nd Springer, NY, XXIV, 487 pp. 28illus, ISBN 978-0387-95442-4, 2002.

10.     Boulgouris, N.V Plataniotis, K.N. Hatzinakos ,“ An Angulalar Transform of Gait Sequences for Gait Assisted Recognition”, In:Proc IEEE int. conf. Image Processing Singapore, pp. 857-860, 2004.

11.     Wang, Jin, She, Mary, Nahavandi, Saeid and Kouzani, Abbas 2010, “A Review of Vision-Based Gait Recognition Methods of Human Identification”, in DICTA 2010: Proceedings of the Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Application, IEEE Piscataway, N.J.,pp. 320-327, 2010.

12.     Qiong Cheng, Bo Fu, Hui Chen, “Gait Recognition Based on PCA and LDA,” proc: 2nd Symposium International Computer Science and Computational Technology, ISBN 978-952-5726-07-7, pp. 26-28, December 2009.

13.     R.O.Duda, P.E.Hart, D.G.Strok, “Pattern Classification,” Second Edition, Wiley, 2000.

14.     T.Chau, “A Review of Analytical Technique for Gait Data part 2:Neural Network and Wavelet Method”, Gait and Posture, IS(2),pp. 101-120, 1997. 




Mannini Goyal

Paper Title:

An Efficient Technique Used To Generate Test Case on Embedded System Using Fuzzy Logic 

Abstract:   Logical generation of the test case process ensures that the test cases have been derived in a consistent and objective manner and which covers all the requirements of the system. Temperature monitoring and controlling of nuclear reactor system is used which is an embedded system in which simulation is done and fuzzy logic is used to generate the test cases. The goal of my paper is to make a more efficient technique that could find the least number of test cases of the output domain for the hardware so that we can analyse the accuracy. Fuzzy logic is best technique because it reduces the test cases of an output domain in few second and gives the correct result. As the test cases are reduced, it will increase the performance of the system and save the time, effort of the user.

  Test case, Embedded system, Fuzzy logic, Output domain.


1.        Haider Aftab Ali, Rafiq Shahzad, Nadeem Aamer (2012), “Test Suite Optimization using Fuzzy Logic”,IEEE, pp. 1-6.
2.        Sastry K. Seshadri, Babu Dr.M.S.Prasad (2010), “Adaptive Modulation for OFDM system using fuzzy logic interface”, IEEE, pp. 368 – 371.

3.        Tang Cassandra X.H., Lau H.C.W (2011), “A rule- based system with fuzzy logic for risk estimation”, IEEE, pp. 554-559.

4.        Vudhata Chandra Prakash, Nalliboena Sateesh, Jaammalamadaka Dr. Sastry KR, Duvvuri Krishna Kamesh (2011), “Automated generation of test cases domain and critical region of embedded system using genetic algorithm”, IEEE ,pp.1-6.

5.        Yang Kai-Chao, Chang Yu-Tsang, Wu Chien-Ming, and Huang Chun-Ming, Luo Hua-Hsin  (2011),  “Application-Oriented Teaching of Embedded System” ,IEEE, pp. 118- 121. 




A.D.Chaudhari, S.D.Shirbahadurkar

Paper Title:

VHDL Implementation of IDEA Architectures

Abstract:   Cryptography is the art of keeping data secure from unauthorized access so as to guarantee that only the intended users can access it. Data security is an important issue in computer networks and cryptographic algorithms are essential parts in network security.This paper covers the implementation of the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) using Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) with the help of Xilinx – ISE 9.1. In terms of security, this algorithm is very much superior. In IDEA, the plaintext and the cipher text are 64 bit blocks, while the secret key is 128 bit long. The cipher is based on the design concept of mixing operations from different algebraic groups.

  Cryptographic Algorithm, IDEA, Modulo Multiplier, VHDL, Xilinx.


1.       Modugu.R, Yong-Bin Kim, Minsu Choi, “Design and performance measurement of efficient IDEA cryptohardware using novel modulararithmetic components”, Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2010 IEEE, 3-6 May2010, pp1222-1227.
2.       O.Y.H. Cheung, K.H.Tsoi, P.H.W. Leong, and M.P Leong. “Tradeoffs in Parallel and Serial Implementations of the International Data Encryption Algorithm IDEA”

3.       M.P.Leong, O.Y.H Cheung, K.H.Tsoi, and P.H.W.Leong“A Bit-serial implementation of the International DataEncryption Algorithm IDEA”. In B.Hutchings,editor, IEEE Symposium of Field Programmable Custom Computing Machines, pages 122 -13. IEEE Computer Society, 2000.

4.       Efficient Online Self-Checking Modulo 2n+1 Multiplier Design “IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS,VOL.60, NO.9, SEPTEMBER 2011” Wonhak Hong, RajashekharModugu, and Minsu Choi, Senior Member, IEEE

5.       Thaduri, M., Yoo, S.M. and Gaede, R., “An efficient implementation of IDEA encryption algorithm using VHDL”, ©2004 Elsevier.

6.       R. Modugu, N. Park and M. Choi, A Fast Low-Power Modulo 2n+1 Multiplier Design, 2009 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, pp.951-956, May 2009.

7.       Rahul Ranjan and I. Poonguzhali, “VLSI Implementation of IDEA Encryption Algorithm”, Mobile and Pervasive Computing(CoMPC –2008).

8.       Dr. Salah Elagooz, Dr. Hamdy,Dr. KhaledShehata and Eng.M. Helmy, “Design and implementation of Highand Low Modulo (216+1) multiplier used in IDEA Algorithm on FPGA”, 20th  National     Radio Science Conference CAIRO, Egypt , March 18-20 , 2003.

9.       Zimmermann, A.Curiger, H.Bonnenberg,H.Kaeslin,N.Felber and W.Fichtner, A 177 Mb/s VLSI implementation of the international data encryption algorithm, IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, 1994, 29, (3), pp. 303-307 




Narendra M R

Paper Title:

Study of Transmission Characteristics of MIMO System for Different Modulation Techniques

Abstract:   The performance of 2X2 Multiple Input multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems has been analyzed by determining the transmit diversity using Alamouti Space Time Coding (STBC) techniques. For the BPSK and QPSK modulation technique transmission characteristics are determined. Adaptive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) has been used presuming flat fading Rayleigh channel. On receiver side, linear equalization techniques such as Zero Forcing (ZF) and Maximum Likelihood Detector (MLD) were employed for computing BER. It is found that for 5 dB Eb/No, the BER values of BPSK using ZF Equalizer 0.0687, BPSK using MLD Equalizer 0.0151, QPSK using ZF Equalizer 0.0070, QPSK using MLD Equalizer 1 is obtained. But BER value for BPSK Modulation with 2X2 Alamouti STBC and the BER value for QPSK Modulation with same 2X2 Alamouti STBC are obtained respectively as 0.0038 and 0.0034. The results indicate that the STBC multiplexing schemes show an overall improvement of ~67.95 dB between BPSK and QPSK modulation for the same 5 dB Eb/No  value. The STBC multiplexing for digital transmission shows significant improvement in BER performance with higher levels of digital modulation. MATLAB tool is used for simulation and results are discussed in the paper.

  Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), Space Time Block Code (STBC) Phase Shift Keying (PSK)


1.        M. Jankiraman,“Space –Time Codes and MIMO Systems”, Artech    House,2004.
2.        S.M. Alamouti, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.16, pp. 1451-1458, October 1998

3.        “DM Wireless Systems: Basics, Perspectives, and Challenges”, IEEE Wireless Communications, Aug 2006, Pages 31 – 37.

4.        R Bhagya, A G Ananth  “Study Of Transmission  Characteristics  Of 2x2 Mimo System For  Different Modulation Techniques Using Alamouti Stbc  Coding And Zf, Mmse Equalizer Receivers”, JERS/Vol. II/ Issue IV/October-December, 2011/208- 212.

5.        Dr.Jacob Sharony, “Introduction to Wireless MIMO–Theory and Applications”, IEEE LI, November 15,2006.

6.        Shreedhar A Joshi, T S Rukmini, Mahesh H M, “Space Time Block Coding For Mimo Systems Using Almout Method With Digital Modulation Techniqes” World Journal of Science and Technology 2011, 1(8): 125-131 ISSN: 2231 – 2587.

7.        “Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems”, IEEE 802.16-2001, IEEE standards for local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part16, April 2002. 




S.Janaki, Siva Yellampalli

Paper Title:

Design and Implementation of Impulse Distributed Waveform Generator Time Interleaved Impulse Generator

Abstract:   This paper presents the design and implementation of impulse distributed waveform generator which generates UWB pulses with a bandwidth of 7GHz (1GHz to 8GHz).It utilizes time interleaved impulse generators to generate waveforms. Wide bandwidth is achieved by reducing the width of the impulses generated by time-interleaved impulse generators. Each of the impulse generators are triggered by the tunable delay unit which introduces the delay between the impulses generated. The Pulse shaping circuit shapes the impulses, by pulse amplitude tuning. The amplitude tuned impulses are combined together to obtain the waveform by using on-chip transmission line. Pulse width tuning and delay tuning makes this circuit reconfigurable. The pulse width can be tuned from 80ps to 1ns, and trigger delay can be varied from 30ps to 100ps.

  delay tuning, impulse generator, pulse width tuning, time-interleaved.


1.        JU-CHING LI, “  The Design of CMOS Impulse Generators for Ultra- WideBand Communication and Radar Systems”,The University of Texas at Arlington,  August 2011., pp. 123–135.
2.        A. Jha, R. Gharpurey, and P. Kinget, "Quadrature-DAC based pulse generation for UWB pulse radio transceivers," Circuits and Systems, 2006. ISCAS 2006. Proceedings. 2006 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.4 pp., 0-0 0, 2006.

3.        Yunliang Zhu, Member, IEEE, Jonathan D. Zuegel, John R. Marciante, and Hui Wu, Member, IEEE, “ Distributed Waveform Generator:  A New Circuit Technique for Ultra- Wideband Pulse Generation Shaping and Modulation”, IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 44, No. 3, 808-823, March 2009.

4.        Shin- Chih Chang, “CMOS 5th derivative Gaussian Impulse Generator for UWB application”, The University of Texas at Arlington. December -2009

5.        Y. Zhu, J.D. Zuegel, J.R. Marciante, H. Wu, "A 10GS/s Distributed Waveform Generator for Subnanosecond Pulse Generation and Modulation in 0.18um standard Digital CMOS", inProc. IEEE Radio Freq. Integrated Circuit Symp. , 2007.

6.        Yunliang  Zhu_, Jonathan D. Zuegel_, John R. Marciante_, and Hui Wu ,”A 10.9 GS/s, 64 Taps Distributed Waveform Generator with DAC-Assisted Current-Steering Pulse Generators in .18µm  Digital CMOS”,IEEE Topical meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems,2008.

7.        Sanghoon Sim, Dong-Wook Kim, Member, IEEE, and Songcheol Hong, Member, IEEE, “ A CMOS UWB Pulse Generator for 6 – 10 GHz Applications”, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 19, NO.2, 83-85, February 2009.

8.        W. C. Black and D. A. Hodges, “Time interleaved converter arrays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. SC-15, pp. 1022–1029, Dec. 1980.

9.        T.A Phan et al., “A 18-pJ/pulse OOK CMOS transmitter for multiband UWB impulse radio, “IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon, Lett., Vol.17, pp.688 -690, sep. 2007

10.     D. D. Wentzloff and A. P. Chandrakasan, “Gaussian pulse generators for subbanded ultra-wideband transmitter,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1647–1655, Apr. 2006.

11.     S.-C. Chang, S. Jung, S. Tjuatja, J. Gao, and Y. Joo, “A CMOS 5th derivative impulse generator for an IR-UWB,” in Proc. 49th IEEE Int. Midwest Symp. Circuits and Systems, 2006 (MWSCAS’06), Aug. 2006, vol. 2, pp. 376–380.

12.     S. Kozu et al., “A 100 MHz 0.4WRISC processor with 200 MHz multiply- adder, using pulse-register technique,” in IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers, 1996, pp. 140–141. 




Manjunath Putted, Ganesh V Bhat

Paper Title:

Control System Based Tiny Webserver

Abstract:   With the growing popularity of Internet, Embedded Technology and Web Technology developing a control system based on embedded web server, by using a Ethernet as communication media, this is finding wide spread application in embedded field. The proposed work plans to control the appliances placed in industrial area through the web server, in this plans to  use of  LPC1768 CORTEX-M3 based embedded board in the implementation of a Tiny web server (embedded web server) for control of  industrial appliances in the server side. To communicate server with client a Ethernet is using here, Ethernet network communication Interface by using TCP/IP protocol and an Ethernet interface with HTML web page. This TCP/IP protocol is act as bridge between client and server and initialize to communicate. The webpage and firmware is done in HTML and dynamic C programming language respectively. Here the embedded system board acts as central heart of the server between webpage and appliances.

  Controlling appliances, Embedded web server, Remote I/O data, TCP/IP.


1.        Joby Antony, Basanta Mahato, Sachin Sharma, Gaurav Chitranshi  “Distributed data acquisition and control system based on low cost Embedded Web servers”. Cryogenic Control, Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi 110067, India. 2Electronics and Communication Department, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology (JIIT).
2.        R. Kirubashankar, K. Krishnamurthy, J. Indra, B.Vignesh “Design and Implementation of Web Based Remote Supervisory Control and Information System”  IJSCE ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-1, Issue-4, September 2011.

3.        TAN JIN HONG “An Embedded Web Server-Based Remote Monitoring System”  University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

4.        Monita N. Jadhav and G. R. Gidveer  “Internet Based Remote Monitoring And Control System”  Department of Electronics Engineering, J.N.E.C., BAMU, Aurangabad, India. IJAET, ISSN: 2231-1963 542 Vol. March 2012.

5.        Pau Martí, Manel Velasco, Josep M. Fuertes, Antonio Camacho, and Giorgio Buttazzo, “Design of an Embedded Control System Laboratory Experiment” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010

6.        Soyoung Hwang and Donghui Yu “Remote Monitoring and Controlling System Based on ZigBee Networks”  Department of Multimedia Engineering, Catholic University of Pusan, South Korea. International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications Vol. 6, No. 3, July, 2012 




Karthika M.T., Neethu Kurian, Mariya Seby

Paper Title:

Comparison of Load Balancing and Scheduling Algorithms in Cloud Environment

Abstract:   The importance of cloud computing is increasing nowadays. Cloud computing is used for the delivery of hosted services like reliable, fault tolerant and scalable infrastructure over Internet. A variety of algorithms is used in the cloud environment for scheduling and load balancing, thereby reducing the total cost. The main algorithms usually used include, optimal cloud resource provisioning (OCRP) algorithm and hybrid cloud optimized cost(HCOC)scheduling algorithm These algorithms will formulate the optimized cost of resources in the cloud environment.

  Cloud computing, load balancing, scheduling


1.        A.J. Conejo, E. Castillo, and R. Garcı´a-Bertrand, “Linear Programming: Complicating Variables,” Decomposition Techniques in Mathematical Programming, chapter 3, pp. 107-139, Springer, 2006.
2.        Jiayin Li a, Meikang Qiu a, Zhong Mingb, Gang Quanc, Xiao Qin d, Zonghua Gue, “Online optimization for scheduling preemptable tasks on IaaS cloud systems”..

3.        S. Chaisiri, B.S. Lee, and D. Niyato, “Optimal Virtual Machine Placement across Multiple  Cloud Providers,” Proc. IEEE Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conf.2009.

4.        Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances, reserved-instances, 2012.

5.        F. Hermenier, X. Lorca, and J.-M. Menaud, “Entropy: A Consolidation Manager for Clusters,” Proc. ACM SIGPLAN/ SIGOPS Int’l Conf. Virtual Execution Environments (VEE ’09), 2009.

6.        D. Kusic and N. Kandasamy, “Risk-Aware Limited Lookahead Control for Dynamic Resource Provisioning in Enterprise Computing Systems,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Autonomic Computing, 2006.M. Young, The Techincal Writers Handbook.  Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

7.        F.V. Louveaux, “Stochastic Integer Programming,” Handbooks in OR & MS, vol. 10, pp. 213-266, 2005. 




Reena Sharma, Aziz Ahmad, Shailendra Kr. Saroj

Paper Title:

Protection of Transmission Lines using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Abstract:   The main objectives of transmission line protection scheme are precisely differentiate the faults zone and  indicate exact fault type using one end data only so that only faulted line will be removed .Fault generates transient current wave contained distinct frequency bands. In this paper discrete wavelet transform is used to capture two bands of frequencies from the transient current signal using db1 as a mother wavelet. The spectral energies of these two bands are obtained to determine the fault zone. The faulted phase selection is done by the discrete wavelet transform using Haar as the mother wavelet. The coefficient of a frequency band in the range of 1 KHz-3 KHz are obtained for the three phase and ground currents. The average value of the coefficients of each current wave is then computed and used to classify the faulted phase. Fault simulations are performed using MATLAB/Simulink and then the results are interfaced to MATLAB where the algorithm is implemented.

  boundary protection, high frequency transient signals, mother wavelet, non-unit protection, power system faults, unit type protection, Wavelet transforms.


1.        J. A. S. B. Jayasinge, R. K. Aggarwal, A. T. Johns,and Z. Q Bo, “novel nonunit protection for series compen  sated EHV transmissionLines based on fault generated high  frequency voltage signals,” IEEE  Trans. Power Del.vol.13,no. 2, pp. 405–411, Apr. 1998.
2.        Nan Zhang, Member, IEEE, and Mladen Kezunovic, Fellow, IEEE Transmission Line Boundary Protection Using Wavelet Transform and    Neural Network”IEEE Transaction power delivery Vol .22 No.  2, April 2007.

3.        V.S.Kale, S.R.Bhide, P.P.Bedekar and  G.V.K. Mohan  “Detection and  Classification of Faults on Parallel Transmission Lines using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network” International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 1:4 2008.

4.        Feng Liang and B. Jeyasurya, Senior Member,IEEE,"Transmission Line   Distance Protection Using Wavelet Transform Algorithm”IEEE   Transactions on power
Delivery,Vol.19, no.2,April2004.           

5.        Jians, P.Fan, C.Chen, C.Yu, J.Sheu,“A fault Detection and faulted   phase selection approa for transmission line with Harr wavelet  transform,” IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conf. 2003.

6.        K.Kashyap, U.J.Shenoy, “Classification of power system faults using  wavelet transforms and probabilistic neural networks,” IEEE Int  Symposium on circuit and systems,pp.423-426, 2003.

7.        F.Martin, J.A.Aguado, M.Medina, J.Mufio “Classification of fault in double circuit Transmission lines using Wavelet transforms,” IEEE  Int.Conf.,on Industrial Technology,pp.1-6 2008.

8.        P.S Bhowmik, P.Purkait, K.Bhattacharyya, “A novel Wavelet assisted neural network for transmission line fault Analysis,” IEEE Annual India conf., pp.223-228, 2008.

9.        C.Pothisarn, A.Ngaopitakkul, “Discrete wavelet trans form and back propogation neural networks algorithm for fault classification on  transmission line,”IEEE Asia & Pacific Transmission and Distribution conf & Exposition,pp.1-4,2009.

10.     A. H. Osman, and O. P. Malik, “Lines Using Wavelet Transform Protection of Parallel Transmission”,IEEE trans. on power delivery vol.19 no.1Jan 2004.

11.     V. Pathirana and P. G. McLaren, “A hybrid Algorithm for high speed transmission line protection,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 2422–2428, Oct. 2005. 




Nithya.E, TousifAhamed Nadaf

Paper Title:

Secure Sharing of Health Records in Cloud Using ABE

Abstract:   In recent years, Personal health record (PHR) has emerged as a patient-centric model of health information exchange. This stands in contrast with the more widely used electronic medical record, which is operated by institutions (such as a hospital) and contains data entered by doctors or billing data to support insurance claims. Individual Patient is the owner of the PHR. The main purpose of a PHR is to provide accurate and complete summary of an individual's medical history which is accessible online. Especially, each patient is promised the full control of his/her medical records and can share his/her health record with a wide range of users, including healthcare providers, family members or friends. PHR is often outsourced to be stored at a third party, such as cloud providers. To assure the patients’ control over the access to their own PHRs, it is a promising method to encrypt the PHRs before outsourcing. Heretofore, issues such as risks of privacy exposure, scalability in key management, flexible access and efficient user revocation have remained, which are some of the most important challenges toward achieving fine-grained, cryptographically enforced data access control.

  Personal Health Record, Data Privacy, Attribute Based encryption, Cloud Computing.


1.        Saman Iftikhar, Wajahat Ali Khan, Maqbool Hussain, Muhammad Afzal, Farooq Ahmad,” Design of Semantic Electronic Medical Record (SEMR) system as SaaS service model for Efficient Healthcare”,IEEE 3rd International conference on cloud computing 2010,pages 344-347.
2.        Luis M. Vaquero, Luis Rodero-Merino, Juan Caceres, "A Break in the Clouds: Towards a Cloud Definition," in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Volume 39, Number 1, January 2009

3.        Zhuo-Rong Li1, En-Chi Chang1, Kuo-Hsuan Huang1, Feipei Lai2,”  A Secure Electronic Medical Record Sharing Mechanism  in the Cloud Computing Platform,” IEEE 15th International Symposium on Consumer Electronics 2011, pages 450-457.

4.        Microsoft health vault

5.        R. Zhang and L. Liu, “Security Models and Requirements for Healthcare Application Clouds,” Proceedings of  IEEE 3rd International Conference on Cloud Computing, 2010, pages 268-275.

6.        Q. Wang, C. Wang, J. Li, K. Ren, and W. Lou, “Enabling public verifiability and data dynamics for storage security in cloud computing,” in  Proc. of ESORICS ’09, 2009.

7.        Yves Giard, André Lessard “Decisions about switching to cloud computing should be based on sound practices despite any limitations”

8.        V. Goyal, O. Pandey, A. Sahai, and B. Waters, “Attribute-based encryption for fine-grained access control of encrypted data,” in Proc. Of CCS’06, 2006

9.        Ran Canetti and Susan Hohenberger. Chosen-ciphertext secure proxy re-encryption. Cryptology,ePrint Report 2007/171, 2007.

10.     Benaloh, J, Chase M., Horvitz E., and Lauter K.(2009) Patient controlled encryption: ensuring privacy of electronic medical records. Proceedings of the 2009 ACM workshop on Cloud computing security, New York, NY, USA, pp. 103{114, CCSW '09, ACM.

11.     X. Liang, R. Lu, X. Lin, and X. S. Shen, “Patient self-controllable access policy on phi in ehealthcare systems,” in AHIC 2010, 2010.

12.     S. D. C. di Vimercati, S. Foresti, S. Jajodia, S. Paraboschi, and P. Samarati, “Over-encryption: Management of access control evolution on outsourced data,” in Proc. of VLDB’07, 2007.kjnk

13.     G. Ateniese, K. Fu, M. Green, and S. Hohenberger, “Improved proxy re-encryption schemes with applications to secure distributed storage,” in  Proc. of NDSS’05, 2005.

14.     J. Hur and D. K. Noh, “Attribute-based access control with efficient revocation in data outsourcing systems,” IEEE Transactionson Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 99, no. PrePrints,2010.

15.     John Bethencourt, Amit Sahai, and Brent Waters. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, SP '07, pages 321{334, Washington, DC, USA, 2007. IEEE Computer Society.

16.     Ling Cheung and Calvin Newport. Provably Secure Ciphertext Policy ABE. CryptologyePrint Archive, Report 2007/183, 2007.

17.     Luan Ibraimi, Qiang Tang, Pieter Hartel, and Willem Jonker. Ecient and Provable Secure Cipher text-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption Schemes. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Security Practice and Experience, ISPEC '09, pages 1{12,Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009. Springer-Verlag. 




Manoj Kumar, S. K. Suman, Vinita Vasundhara

Paper Title:

Integrating Non-Conventional Energy Sources to Supply a Local Load with Fuel Cell as Backup System

Abstract:   The electrical energy is distributed worldwide by overhead transmission lines or cables from generating stations. However, power systems are still needed at locations which are isolated or far from electrical energy suppliers. Renewable energy resources in micro-grid power systems are interesting topics of recent research as environmental pollution and scarcity of energy resources come to the fore. Moreover the integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) in smart grids (SGs) is a tough task, mainly due to the intermittent, varying and unpredictable nature of the sources, typically wind or sun due to changing weather conditions throughout the year. Sometimes there are low wind speeds and lesser sunny conditions and therefore power generation by solar and wind energy is reduced. This paper proposes a system in which solar and wind energy is integrated with fuel cell to provide a continuous power supply to a small local load to enhance reliability of power supply. Here PV and wind energy is used as the primary source of power with the fuel cell section acting as a current source, feeding only the deficit power. The proposed system is analyzed with a case study using MATLAB.

  Fuel Cell Backup System, Micro-Grid, Renewable Energy Sources, Solar Energy, Wind Energy.


1.        Anne Maczuluk, “Renewable Energy Sources and Methods".
2.        Zhu, Y. Tomsovic. K, Development of Models for Analyzing the Load following Performance of Micro turbines and Fuel Cells Electric Power Systems Research, 2002.

3.        Kaushik Rajashekara ,  Hybrid Fuel-cell Strategies for Clean Power Generation," IEEE Transactions  on Industry Application, vol. 41, no. 3, May/ June 2005.

4.        J. J. Brey, A. Castro, E. Moreno and C. Garcia Smith, “Integration of Renewable Energy Sources as an Optimized Solution for Distributed Generation”, 28th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, 2002, vol. 4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.

5.        Rao, S. and Parulekar, B.B, “Energy Technology: Non-conventional, Renewable and Conventional”, Third Revised and Updated Edition, Khanna Publishers, pp. 13-14, 25-28, 976-977 & 989-993.

6.        Sathyajith Mathew, 2006, “Wind Energy Fundaments, Resource Analysis and Economics”. 1st ed., vol.1, Springer. 




Prabhat Kumar Pallav, S.R. Ganorkar

Paper Title:

Investigation and Analysis of Hough-DCT-Hamming Distance Based Method of Iris Recognition

Abstract:   As we know that iris recognition is widely used biometric identification system. This system is having growing future in the area of security.  In the real time security systems we need to have reliable, efficient, faster iris recognition system. Iris recognition process is consisting of iris segmentation, normalization, localization as well as matching techniques. And hence the performance of this system is majorly depends on use of such techniques.  In this paper we will first present the literature review over the different methods for iris segmentation, iris encoding as well matching. Thereafter, we will present the experimental evaluation of Hough-DCT-Hamming distance based Iris Recognition system.  We simulated this approach using MATLAB and different datasets.  

  Iris Segmentation, Hough Transform, Canny Edge, DCT, False Acceptance Rate, False Rejection Rate.


1.        Prateek Verma, Maheedhar Dubey, Somak Basu, Praveen Verma, “Hough Transform Method for Iris Recognition-A Biometric Approach”, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 6, June 2012.
2.        Donald M. Monro, Soumyadip Rakshit, and Dexin Zhang, “DCT-Based Iris Recognition”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE, VOL. 29, NO. 4, APRIL 2007.

3.        S V Sheela, P A Vijaya, “Iris Recognition Methods – Survey”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 3 – No.5, June 2010.

4.        T. Rakesh, M G Khogare, “Survey of Biometric Recognition System for Iris”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2012)

5.        J. Daugman. Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. United States Patent, Patent Number: 5,291,560, 1994.

6.        J. Daugman. High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1993.

7.        R. Wildes, J. Asmuth, G. Green, S. Hsu, R. Kolczynski, J. Matey, S. McBride. A system for automated iris recognition. Proceedings IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, Sarasota, FL, pp. 121-128, 1994.

8.        W. Boles, B. Boashash. A human identification technique using images of the iris and wavelet transform.IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 46, No. 4, 1998.

9.        S. Lim, K. Lee, O. Byeon, T. Kim. Efficient iris recognition through improvement of feature vector and classifier. ETRI Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2, Korea, 2001.

10.     S. Noh, K. Pae, C. Lee, J. Kim. Multiresolution independent component analysis for iris identification. The 2002 International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications, Phuket, Thailand, 2002.

11.     C. Tisse, L. Martin, L. Torres, M. Robert. Person identification technique using human iris recognition. International Conference on Vision Interface, Canada, 2002.

12.     Chinese Academy of Sciences – Institute of Automation. Database of 756 Greyscale Eye Images. Version 1.0, 2003.




Sunila Godara, Amita Verma

Paper Title:

Analysis of Various Clustering Algorithms

Abstract:   Data clustering is a process of putting similar data into groups. A clustering algorithm partitions a data set into several groups such that the similarity within a group is larger than among groups. This paper reviews four types of clustering techniques- k-Means Clustering, Farther first clustering, Density Based Clustering, Filtered clusterer. These clustering techniques are implemented and analyzed using a clustering tool WEKA. Performance of the 4 techniques are presented and compared.  

  Data clustering, Density Based Clustering, Farther first clustering, Filtered clusterer, K-Means Clustering.


1.       Johannes Grabmeier, Fayyad, Mannila, Ramakrishnan, “Techniques of Cluster Algorithms in Data Mining,”May 23 2001.
2.       Osama Abu Abbas, Jordan, “Comparisons Between Data Clustering Algorithms, ”The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp.320-326,Jul. 2008.

3.       Manish Verma, Mauly Srivastava, Neha Chack, Atul Kumar Diswar, Nidhi Gupta, “A Comparative Study of Various Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining, ”International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, vol. 2, Issue 3, pp.1379-1384,May-Jun. 2012.

4.       Tajunisha and Saravanan, “Performance analysis of k-means with different initialization methods for high dimensional datasets, ”International Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications (IJAIA), vol. 1, no.4, pp.44-52,Oct. 2010.

5.       D.Napoleon, S. Pavalakodi, ”A New Method for Dimensionality Reduction using K-Means Clustering Algorithm for High Dimensional Data Set, ”International Journal of Computer Applications (0975– 8887),vol. 13, no.7, pp.41-46, Jan 2011.

6.       Kehar Singh, Dimple Malik and Naveen Sharma, “Evolving limitations in K-means algorithm in data mining and their removal, ”IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering    &Management, vol. 12, pp.105-109,Apr. 2011.

7.       N. S. Chandolikar, V. D. Nandavadekar, “Comparative Analysis of Two Algorithms for Intrusion Attack Classification Using KDD CUP Dataset, ”International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering(IJCSE),vol.1,pp.81-88,Aug 2012. 




Tanvi Agrawal, Arun P. Agrawal

Paper Title:

Regression Test Selection Using Metaheuristics

Abstract:   Regression Testing is a very expensive activity which is to be completed in a very limited time span. Regression test case selection is an effective technique which helps in reducing the cost and time of the testing. To select the efficient test cases for regression test case selection technique, metaheuristic algorithms Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm are used.

  Genetic Algorithm, Metaheuristics, NP-hard, Regression Testing, Tabu Search. 


1.        F. Glover and G. A. Kochenberger. (2003). Handbook of Metaheuristics [Online]. Available:
2.        S. Biswas and R. Mall, “Regression Test Selection Techniques: A Survey”, Informatica 35, 2011.

3.        S. Ólafsson,”Handbook on Simulation: Metaheuristics”, Nelson and Henderson, p. 633-654.

4.        G. M. Kapfhammer, “Software Testing”, Department of Computer Science Allegheny College.

5.        T. L. Graves, M. J. Harrold, JM Kim, A Porter, G Rothermel, “An Empirical Study of Regression Test Selection Techniques”, ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, vol. 10, no. 2, April 2001, P. 184–208.

6.        C. L. B. Maia,  R. A.F.  Carmo and  F. G. Freitas  “A Multi-Objective Approach for the Regression Test Case Selection Problem”.

7.        S.Sundar and A. Singh, “A hybrid heuristic for the set covering problem”, September 2010, Springer.

8.        C. L. B. Maia,  R. A.F.  Carmo and  F. G. Freitas  “A Multi-Objective Approach for the Regression Test Case Selection Problem”.

9.        E.G. Talbi. (2009).Metaheuristics from design to implementation. [Online].Available:

10.     G. Rothermel and M.J. Harrold, “Analyzing Regression Test Selection Techniques”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 22, no. 8, August1996.

11.     C. Blum and A. Roli, “Metaheuristics in Combinatorial Optimization: Overview and Conceptual Comparison”, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 35, No. 3, Sept- 2003, p. 268–308.

12.     R. A.Valdés, E. Crespo and J. M. Tamarit, “Tabu Search: An efficient Metaheuristic for University Organization Problems”, Revista Investigation Operacional, Vol.22, No.2,2001.

13.     J. Oenen, “Improving Regression Test Code Coverage with Meta-heuristics”, M.S dissertation, Dept. Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, 2008. 




Chandrakant N, Bijil A P, Puneeth P, Deepa Shenoy P, Venugopal K R, L M Patnaik

Paper Title:

WSN Integrated Cloud Computing for N-Care System (NCS) Using Middleware Services

Abstract:   The number of wireless devices with powerful sensing capabilities is constantly growing. A mobile phone is an example of a device that is packed with several powerful sensors.  Cloud computing is another area that been in focus over the last decade. Cloud computing can be defined as an architectural abstraction that provides scalability and reliability based on requirement.  The challenge lies in the fact that sensors for different purposes are heterogeneous in nature. We propose a framework called the N-Care System that utilizes heterogeneous wireless networks to collect data, cloud services to provide additional computational capabilities and provides information for different types of end users. A wireless sensor network consisting of sensors that possess both sensing and transmitting capabilities forms a communication back-bone that can capture a wide variety of data.  Multiple sensors are grouped in to a cluster that consists of an internet capable computing device called cluster head that collects data from the constituent sensor nodes and pushes it in to a cloud based database.  End users can log in and access data from sensors that fall under the user’s domain.

  Middleware, WSN, MANET, NCS, Cluster, Cloud


1.        R. Bloor. What is a cloud database. Technical report.
2.        S. Bose and R. Liu.   Cloud computing  complements wireless sensor networks to connect the physical world. Technical report.

3.        Chandrakant N, Bijil A P, Deepa Shenoy P, Venugopal K R, and L M Patnaik. Middleware service oriented rescue and crime information system (rcis) using heterogeneous  fixed nodes in wsns.  In ADCONS 2011, December 16-18, 2011, Karnataka, India.

4.        Chandrakant N, Bijil A P, Deepa Shenoy P, Venugopal K R, and L M Patnaik. Middleware service oriented rescue and crime information on cloud (rcic) using heterogeneous nodes in wsns.  In ADCONS 2011, December 16-18, 2011, Karnataka, India, pages 1–5, 2012.

4.I. Giurgiu, O. Riva, D. Juric, I. Krivulev, and G. Alonso. Calling the cloud: Enabling mobile phones as interfaces to cloud applications.  In Proceedings of the 10th International  Middleware  Conference Middleware’09), November 30 December 4, 2009.

5.        D. Huang, X. Zhang, M. Kang, and J. Luo. Mobicloud: Building secure cloud framework for mobile computing and communication. In Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2010 Fifth IEEE International Symposium, pages 27 – 34, June 2010.

6.        Hung-Chin Jang, Yao-Nan Lien, and Tzu-Chieh Tsai. Rescue  information  system  for  earthquake  disasters based on manet emergency communication platform. In IWCMC09, June 21  24, 2009, Leipzig, Germany.

7.        G. Kaefar. Cloud computing architecture.

8.        A. Khan and K. Ahirwar. Mobile cloud computing as a future of mobile multimedia database. In International Journal of Computer Science and Communication.

9.        D. Kovachev, Y. Cao, and R. Klamma.  Mobile cloud computing:  A comparison of application models.   In Service  Oriented  System Engineering  (SOSE),  2010 Fifth IEEE International Symposium.

10.     E. E. Marinelli.  Hyrax:  Cloud computing on  mobile devices using mapreduce. September 2009.

11.     A. P. Miettinen and J. K. Nurminen. Energy efficiency of mobile clients in cloud computing.

12.     C. S., G. Kumar, M. K. K. Dinesh, and A. M.A.  Cloud computing for mobile world.

13.     Q. A. Wang. Mobile cloud computing.

14.     Xinwen Zhang, Joshua Schiffman, S. Gibbs, Anugeetha Kunjithapatham, and Sangoh Jeong.   Securing elastic applications on mobile devices for cloud computing.

15.     Xuan Hung Le, Sungyoung Lee, Phan Truc, La  The Vinh, A. Khattak, Manhyung Han, Dang Viet  Hung, M. Hassan, M. Kim, Kyo-Ho Koo, Young-Koo Lee, and Eui-Nam Huh.  Secured wsn-integrated cloud computing for u-life care.  In Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 2010 7th IEEE, pages 1 – 2, January 2010.

16.     Yao-Nan Lien, Hung-Chin Jang, and Tzu-Chieh Tsai. A manet based emergency communication  and information system for catastrophic natural disasters.  In Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, 2009.

17.     M. Yuriyama and T. Kushida. Sensor-cloud infrastructure physical sensor management with virtualized sensors on cloud computing.  In Network-Based Information Systems (NBiS), 2010 13th  International  Conference, pages 1 – 8, September 2010. 




Vandana Sharma, Arun Prakash Agrawal

Paper Title:

Regression Testing for Data-Driven Applications

Abstract:   Regression testing is a part of software maintenance and it consumes about two-third of the overall software life cycle cost. It is an expensive activity that is done whenever there are some changes takes places in software. Regression testing tests both the modified code and other parts of the program that may be adversely affected by the changes introduced in the program or a part of it. The regression testing of database applications concerns with the state of the database as it contributes too many components that increase the complexity of the applications because in case of database the test cases are not independent of each other and the database requires to be reset all the time. In this paper we have done a survey of regression testing techniques for testing database applications. 

Keywords:  Data-driven Applications, Database Testing, Regression Testing, Software testing.


1.        H. Leung,  and L. White, “ Insights into regression testing,”  In Proceedings of the Conference on Software Maintenance IEEE CH2744-1/89/0000/0060.
2.        B.  Daou, R. A. Haraty,  N. Mansour, “Regression Testing of Database Applications,” Las Vegas, NV ACM 2001 1-58113-287.

3.        S. W. Ambler, IBM, 2007 “Test Driven Development of Database Applications,” IEEE Software 0740-7459.

4.        D. Kossmann, C. Binnig, E. Lo, “Testing Database Applications,” SIGMOD 2006, June 27–29, 2006, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ACM 1595932569/06/0006.

5.        G. M. Kapfhammer, “Regression Testing,” Department of Computer Science Allegheny College.

6.        Regression Testing Tools and Methods [online],    Available at: (Accessed: 4th May 2013).

7.        D. Kossmann, C. Binnig, E. Lo, “Testing Database Applications,” SIGMOD 2006, June 27–29, 2006, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ACM 1595932569/06/0006.

8.        F.  Haftmann, D.  Kossmann,  A. Kreutz, “Efficient Regression Tests for Database Applications.” In Proceedings of the 2005 CIDR Conference

9.        X. Lin,  “Regression Testing in Research And Practice,” Computer Science and Engineering Department University of Nebraska, Lincoln 1-402-472-4058

10.     A. P. Mathur, “Foundations of Software Testing: Fundamental Algorithms and Techniques,” 2008

11.     SmartBear Software White Paper on Getting started with TestComplete9 (TestComplete by SmartBear [The easiest access to this source is by Internet]

12.     SalesForce White Paper on ApexCode Developer’s Guide ( [The easiest access to this source is by Internet] 

13.     IBM Rational White Paper on create a functional test (IBM Corp.2007 [The easiest access to this source is by Internet]

14. [homepage on the internet], TestNG: Complete Documentation. Available at: (Accessed: 8th May 2013). 




Vandana Sharma, Arun Prakash Agrawal

Paper Title:

Regression Test Case Selection for Testing Database Applications

Abstract:   Regression testing is a part of software maintenance and it consumes about two-third of the overall software life cycle cost. It is the process of executing the full or partial test cases from the original test suite after any modifications to the original program. It tests both the modified code and other parts of the program that may be adversely affected by changes introduced in the program or a part of it. It is an expensive activity that is done whenever there are some changes in software. Regression testing tests both the modified code and other parts of the program that may be adversely affected by changes introduced in the program or a part of it. Test case selection selects the test cases to test the modified as well as unmodified part of the program from the original test suite. The regression testing of database applications concerns with the state of the database as it contributes too many components that increase the complexity of the applications because in case of database the test cases are not independent of each other and the database requires to be reset every time. The database applications are frequently modified due to the need of different requirements like, increase in number of users, components and data. Therefore regression testing of database applications is an essential activity as it requires maintaining the state of the database. It may be conducted either manually by re-executing a subset of all test cases of the original test suite or using automated tools. These tools enable the software testers to capture test cases and results for subsequent playback and comparison. In this paper, we have shown a study of the time taken in resets made to a database that is done manually or automatically with the help of various tools. We have also proposed the way in which the reset time of database state is reduced to a large extent. The database always requires to be reset after executing every query that too is done manually by the tester or with the help of some automated tool. In our work after reducing the reset time of database state we have presented the test cases with the details of the time taken in execution and code coverage of database application. Then the resulted test cases are selected from the original test cases that achieves the selection of maximum number of fault revealing test cases.

  Database Applications, Database Testing, Regression Testing, Regression Test case Selection, Software Testing.


1.        G. M. Kapfhammer, “Software Testing”, Department of Computer Science Allegheny College.
2.        H. Leung, and L. White, “Insights into regression testing,” In Proceedings of the Conference on Software Maintenance IEEE CH2744-1/89/0000/0060.

3.        S. Yoo,  M. Harman,  “Regression Testing Minimisation, Selection and Prioritization: A Survey,” King’s College London, Centre for Research on Evolution, Search & Testing, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS, UK

4.        S. Nachiyappan, A. Vimaladevi and C. B. SelvaLakshmi, “An Evolutionary Algorithm for Regression Test Suite Reduction”, International Conference on Communication and Computational Intelligence, Dec-2010, p. 503-508.

5.        G. Rothermel,  M. J. Harrold, “Analyzing Regression Test Selection Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, VOL. 22, NO. 8, AUGUST 1996

6.        X. Lin, “Regression Testing in Research And Practice,” Computer Science and Engineering Department University of Nebraska, Lincoln 1-402-472-4058.

7.        G. M. Kapfhammer, “Regression Testing,” Department of Computer Science Allegheny College.

8.        X. Lin, “Regression Testing in Research And Practice,” Computer Science and Engineering Department University of Nebraska, Lincoln 1-402-472-4058.

9.        D. Kossmann, C. Binnig,  E. Lo, “A Framework for Testing DBMS Features,” The VLDB Journal, Springer-Verlag 2009. DOI 10.1007/ s00778-009-0157.

10.     Regression Testing Tools and Methods [online],    Available at: (Accessed: 4th May 2013). 




Oshin Sharma, Sushil Kumar Bansal

Paper Title:

Gait Recogniton System for Human Identification Using BPNN Classifier

Abstract:   Recognition of any individual is a task to identify people. Human recognition methods such as face, fingerprints, and iris generally require user’s cooperation, physical contact or close proximity. These methods are not able to recognize an individual at a distance therefore recognition using gait is relatively new biometric technique without these disadvantages.  Human identification using Gait is method to identify an individual by the way he walk or manner of moving on foot. Gait offers ability of distance recognition or at low resolution. In this paper, firstly binary silhouette of a walking person is detected from each frame. Secondly, feature from each frame is extracted using image processing operation. Here center of mass, step size length, and cycle length are talking as key feature. At last BPNN technique is used for training and testing purpose. Here all experiments are done on gait database and input video.

  Backpropagation neural network (BPNN), gait recognition, silhouette images, background subtraction, features extraction.


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3.       C.Y.Yam, M.S.Nixon, “extended model based automatic gait recognition of walking and running,” 3rd Proc. AVBPA 2001, pp 278-283, June 2001.

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6.       C.BenAbdelkadaer, R.Culter, H.Nanda, and L.Davis, “Eigen Gait: Motion-Based Recognition of people Using Image Self-similarity,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person authentication, pp. 284-294, 2001.

7.       P.Huang, C.Harris, and M.Nixon, “Human Gait Recognition in Canonical Space Using Processing,” Conf., vol. 146, no.2, pp. 93-100, 1999.

8.       L. Wang, W. Hu, and T. Tan, “A New Attempt to Gait Based Human identification,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Pattern Recognition, 2002.

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10.    D.Cunado, M. Nixon, and J, Carter, “using gait as a biometric, via phase-Weighted magnitude spectra,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Audio and Video-based biometric person authentication, pp. 95-102, 1997.

11.    Sagar A. More and Pramod J Deore, “A survey on gait biometrics,” Conf. World journal of science and technology, pp. 146-151, 2012.

12.    Xiaxi Huang, Nikolaos V. Boulgouris, 2009 , “ model based human gait recognition using fusion of features,” in processing of IEEE international conference on Acoustics, speech and signal, ICASSP 2009, pp. 1469-1472.

13.    Sanjeev Sharma, Ritu tiwari, Anupam shukla and Vikas singh, “Identification of people using gait biometric,” International journal of machine learning and computing, vol.1, No.4, October 2011.

14.    J. Han and B. Bhanu, “Individual recognition using gait energy image,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no.2, pp. 316-322, Feb 2006.

15.    Su-li XU, Qian-jin ZHANG, “Gait recognition using fuzzy principal component analysis”, 2nd International conference on e-business and information system security, IEEE, 27 may 2010.

16.    Junping Zhang, Member, IEEE, Jian Pu, Changyou Chen, and Rudolf Fleischer, “Low Resolution Gait Recognition”, IEEE Transaction on system, man, and cybernetics- part B: cybernetics vol, 40, no. 4, august 2010.

17.    Liang Wang, Tieniu Tan, “Silhouette Analysis-Based Gait Recognition for Human identification”, IEEE Transaction on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, vol 25, no. 12, December 2003.   




Manish Chaudhary, Mandeep Singh Narula

Paper Title:

FPGA Implementation of Booth’s and Baugh- Wooley Multiplier Using Verilog

Abstract:   Here, in this paper we have designed and implemented a Signed-Unsigned Booth’s Multiplier and a Signed-Unsigned Baugh-Wooley Multiplier for 32-bits multiplication. The designing and verification is done through verilog on Xilinx 12.4. In this paper we tried to explain the step by step process that was adopted for Signed-Unsigned Booth’s Multiplier. Also, two different approaches for implementing the Signed Baugh-Wooley multiplier in Singed-Unsigned Baugh-Wooley multiplier and after, the implementation we could see the differences in certain parameters. The array structure of Signed-Unsigned Booth’s Multiplier and Signed-Unsigned Baugh-Wooley Multiplier is obtained from RTL synthesis are shown. Different parameters like power, CPU usage, CPU time, memory usage etc. have been compared.

  array, booth, baugh-wooley, signed, unsigned, verilog,


1.        Ravindra P Rajput M. N Shanmukha Swamy” High speed Modified Booth Encoder multiplier for signed and unsigned numbers”, 2012 14th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, 978-0-7695-4682-7/12
2.        Shiann-Rong Kuang, Member, IEEE, Jiun-Ping Wang, and Cang-Yuan Guo” Modified Booth Multipliers With a Regular Partial Product Array”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 56, NO. 5, MAY 2009, 1549-7747

3.        J.Yeo ”Low Voltage,LowPower Vlsi”

4.        Floyd, Floyd Thomas L. “Digital Fundamentals”   ISBN-978-81-7758-763-0  ,2009

5.        James E. Stine  “Digital Computer Arithmetic Datapath Design Using Verilog Hdl”, Volume 1, ISBN-1-4020-7710-6

6.        Magnus Själander and Per Larsson-Edefors” High-Speed and Low-Power Multipliers Using the Baugh-Wooley Algorithm and HPM Reduction Tree”, 978-1-4244-2182-4/08, 2008 IEEE

7.        Andrew D. Booth. A signed binary Multiplication technique. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Volume IV, Pt. 2, 1951

8.        Baugh-Wooly Data Sheet ” High Performance Multipliers in Quick Logic FPGAs”




V.R.Elangovan, E.Ramaraj

Paper Title:

Comparative Study of Domain Driven Data Mining for It Infrastructure Suport

Abstract:   Information Technology (IT) is one of the most emerging fields in today’s Internet world.  IT can be defined in various ways, but is broadly considered to encompass the use of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data.  Infrastructure is the base for everything.  IT also has an infrastructure, which can be managed and maintained properly. For an organization’s Information Technology, Infrastructure Management (IM) is the management of essential operation components, such as policies, processes, equipment, data, human resources and external contacts. This paper, propose a methodology to manage the IT Infrastructure in a better way.  In the proposed methodology uses the tree-structure based architecture to manage the infrastructure with less manual power. To maintain such services, we have to set up an infrastructure and also provide essential steps to maintain and manage those kinds of services.  This kind of management is termed as IT Infrastructure Management Services.  While the user wants to use this kind of IT Services, the infrastructure paves way for this by providing proper responses for the requests made by the user.  These responses are provided by the IT resource persons who are managing and maintaining the services. The proposed methodology deals with this by undertaking the requests from the user and providing proper responses for the requests.  The response is provided by analyzing the requests and then redirecting the requests to the resource person who are considering that kind of request.  Thus the proposed methodology provides proper services for the user by managing the work flow in the IT Infrastructure. This paper also compared with the other methods in the domain driven data mining area, to ensure that the proposed method is more efficient in terms of SLA service level agreement and methodology when compared to other methods.

(IM) (IT).


1.       Girish Keshav Palshikar, Harrick M. Vin, Mohammed Mudassar, Maitreya Natu, Tata Research Development and Design Centre, Tata Consultancy Service Limited, Pune, India, “Domain-driven Data Mining for IT Infrastructure Support”,   Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), IEEE International conference, Dec (2010).
2.       ERIK BEULEN, Tilburg University, PAUL VAN FENEMA, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, WENDY CURRIE, Warwick Business School,  “From Application Outsourcing to Infrastructure Management: Extending the Offshore Outsourcing Service Portfolio”, European Management Journal Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 133–144, April (2005).

3.       Borja Sotomayor, Rub´en S. Montero, Ignacio M. Llorente, and Ian Foster, “An Open Source Solution for Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds”, IEEE Internet Computing, Special Issue on Cloud Computing, July 7, (2009).

4.       DIIMITRIOS GEORGAKOPOULOS AND MARK HORNICK, AMIT SHETH, University of Georgia, “An Overview of Workflow Management: From Process Modeling to Workflow Automation Infrastructure”, Distributed and Parallel Databases, 3, 119-153 (1995).

5.       Jie ZHANG, William Chandra TJHI, Bu Sung LEE, Kee Khoon LEE, Julita VASSILEVA & Chee Kit LOOI, “A Framework of User-Driven Data Analytics in the Cloud for Course Management”, S. L. Wong et al. (Eds.)  Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, (2010).

6.       Mahmoud R. HalfawyA, David PyzohaB, and Taymour El-HosseinyB, A Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Canada, B EMH&T, Inc., 170 Mill Street, Gahanna, Ohio 43230, USA, “AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GIS-BASED CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS”, Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, June 5-8, (2002).

7.       Pablo L. Durango-Cohen, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Transportation Center, Northwestern University, US, “A time series analysis framework for transportation infrastructure management”, Received 2 June 2005; accepted 29 August 2006.

8.       K. Keahey, I. Foster, T. Freeman, and X. Zhang, “Virtual workspaces: Achieving quality of service and quality of life on the grid,” Scientific Programming, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 265–276, (2005).

9.       D. Nurmi, R. Wolski, C. Grzegorczyk, G. Obertelli, S. Soman, L. Youseff, and D. Zagorodnov, “The eucalyptus open-source cloudcomputing system,” in Cloud Computing and Applications 2008 (CCA08), (2008).

10.     R. Medina-Mora, T. Winograd, and R. Flores, “ActionWorkflow as the Enterprise Integration Technology,” Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Data Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 16, No.2, June, (1993).

11.     I. Foster, C. Kesselman, C. Lee, R. Lindell, K. Nahrstedt, and A. Roy, “A distributed resource management architecture that supports advance reservations and
co-allocation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Quality of Service, 1999.

12.     W. Smith, I. Foster, and V. Taylor, “Scheduling with advanced reservations,” in IPDPS ’00: Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing. IEEE Computer Society, 2000, p. 127.

13.     Q. Snell, M. J. Clement, D. B. Jackson, and C. Gregory, “The performance impact of advance reservation meta-scheduling,” in IPDPS ’00/JSSPP ’00: Proceedings of the Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing. London, UK: Springer-Verlag, 2000, pp. 137–153.

14.     B. Sotomayor, K. Keahey, I. Foster, and T. Freeman, “Enabling cost-effective resource leases with virtual machines,” in Hot Topics session in ACM/IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing 2007 (HPDC 2007), 2007.

15.     B. Sotomayor, K. Keahey, and I. Foster, “Combining batch execution and leasing using virtual machines,” in HPDC ’08: Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing. ACM, 2008, pp. 87–96.

16.     R. Medina-Mora, T. Winograd, and R. Flores, “ActionWorkflow as the Enterprise Integration Technology,” Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Data Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Vol. 16, No.2, June, 1993.

17.     T. Smith, “The Future of Work flow Software,” INFORM, April 1993.

18.     D. Black, “Workflow Software: A Layman’s Handbook, Part I,” INFORM, April 1994

19.     S. McCready, “There is more than one kind of Work-flow Software,” Computerworld, November 2, 1992.

20.     Michael Alan Smith, Sabyasachi Mitra, Sridhar Narasimhan, USA, “Offshore outsourcing of software development and maintenance: A framework for issues”, Information Management 31, 1996, 165-175. 




Sandra Mohan, Anish Joseph

Paper Title:

A Dynamic Priority Based Arbitration Algorithm

Abstract:   Today’s electronic industry consists of chips with multimillion gates. This new level of integration on a single chip is called the System on Chip (SoC) design. In an SoC, on-chip interconnection networks are mostly implemented using buses. The performance of the SoC design heavily depends upon the efficiency of its bus structure. The bus used in the SoC platform requires an arbitration process since multiple components connected to it can act as masters and hence initiate a transaction. As the number of system components in SoC design increases, it becomes that an efficient arbiter is one of the most critical factors for high system performance. This paper deals with an Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB) arbiter with a dynamic arbitration mechanism.

  AHB, AMBA, Arbiter, SoC.


1.        Jisuhn Suh, Jongsun Kim, Hoi-Jun Yoo, “An Analysis and Implementation of High  Fairness Arbitration Mechanism by Using Level-table and Static Priority Orders in Shared Bus Architecture” IP Based SoC Design 2003 - November 13-14, 2003.
2.        Yu-Jung Huang, Yu-Hung Chen, Chien-Kai Yang, And Shih-Jhe Lin, “Design and Implementation of A Reconfigurable Arbiter” Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Signal, Speech and Image Processing, Beijing, China, September 15-17, 200
3.        Ruibing Lu, Aiqun Cao, and Cheng-Kok Koh, Senior Member, IEEE, “SAMBA-Bus: A High Performance Bus Architecture for System-on-Chips” IEEE Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2007.

4.        Soo Yun Hwang, Dong Soo Kang, Hyeong Jun Park, and Kyoung Son Jhang, Member, IEEE, “Implementation of a Self-Motivated Arbitration Scheme for the Multilayer AHB Bus matrix”, IEEE Transactions On Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 18, No. 5, May 2010.

5.        ARM, “AHB Example AMBA System,” 2001 [Online].Available:




Ipta Thakur, Guide-Shaily Jain

Paper Title:

Countermeasures for Security Vulnerability in Android

Abstract:   The high speed penetration of Smartphone’s in the market with Android as the leading operating system makes the need for malware analysis on this platform an urgent and concerning issue. In our project we capitalize earlier approaches for dynamic analysis of location based and other suspicious permissions and classes which can cause vulnerability. Our framework has been demonstrated by analyzing the permissions those are vulnerable. Array list will be created on the basis of the permissions and names of classes, and then checked for vulnerabilities using automated approach and then assured through the manual cross checking for vulnerability.

  Android Security, Malware Analysis, Dynamic Analysis, Vulnerabilities.


1.        WILLIAM ENCK, MACHIGAR ONTANG and PATRICK MCDANIEL, Proceedings of the 20th USENIX Security Symposium, August, 2011, “Understanding Android Security”    [online available]:
2.        SASCHA FAHL, MARIAN HARBACH, THOMAS MUDERS, MATTHEW SMITH, LARS BAUMGARTNER,BERND FREISLEBEN CCS '12 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on Computer and communications security , Oct 18, 2012,  “Why Eve and Mallory love Android: An analysis of Android SSL(In) Security”  [online available]:

3.        KIRANDEEP, ANU GARG, The International journal of Engineering and Science, March, 2013, “Implementing Security on Android Application” [online available]:


5.        JESSE BURNS, Black Hat 2009, “Mobile Application Security On Android”.

6.        WILLIAM ENCK,DAMIEN OCTEAU, PATRICK MCDANIEL and SWARAT CHAUDHRI, In Proceedings of the 20th USENIX Security Symposium, San Francisco, Ca, August 2011. “ A Study of Android Application Security”.

7.        ADRIENNE PORTER FELT, ELIZABETH HA, SERGE EGELMAN, ARIEL HANKEY, ERIKA CHIN, DAVID WAGNER, “Android Permissions: User Attention, Comprehension and Behavior”.

8.        Asaf Shabtai, Yuval Fledel, and Yuval Eloivici, IEEE  May-June 2010 ,Security & Privacy, IEEE  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 3 ), “Securing Android-Powered Mobile Devices Using SELinux”.

9.        Shabtai, A,  Fledel, Y,  Kanonov, U,  Elovici, Y ,March-April 2010, Security & Privacy, IEEE  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 2 ) “Google Android: A Comprehensive Security Assessment”.

10.     Miller, C., July-Aug. 2011, Security & Privacy, IEEE  (Volume: 9,  Issue: 4 ) “Mobile Attacks and Defense”.

11.     Stavrou, A, Voas, J. ; Karygiannis , T. ; Quirolgico , S. Feb .,s 2012, Computer  (Volume:45 ,  Issue: 2 ), “Building Security into Off-the-Shelf Smartphones”

12.     Alessandro Reina, Aristide Fattori, Lorenzo cavallaro,6th European Workshop on Systems Security (EuroSec)Prague, Czech Republic, April 14, 2013, A system call
centric analysis and stimulation technique to automatically reconstruct android malware behaviors.

13.     Iker Burguera , urko  zurutuza , simin nadjm  tehrani , SPSM '11 Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Security and privacy in smartphones and mobile devices, 2011,Crowdroid:behavior based malware detection system for android.

14.     Mahmud AB RAHMAN, The HoneyNet Project 10th annual workshop, 2011-03-21, Reversing android malware. 




Srikanth Mandarapu, Sreedhar Lolla, M.V.Suresh Kumar

Paper Title:

Digital PI Controller Using Anti-Wind-Up Mechanism for A Speed Controlled Electric Drive System

Abstract:   This paper discusses the implementation of Digital PI Controller Using Anti Wind-Up Mechanism For A Speed Controlled Electric Drive System. To eliminate the system zeros relocated proportional integral controller is implemented. Which in turn reduces the over shoots. The torque is not limited, inspite of the use of relocated proportional integral controller. The motor windings get damaged, if the torque reaches higher values. In order to limit this torque, we introduce a torque limiter, which limits the torque value to the permissible limits. Due to limited torque, over shoots are produced for large inputs. To eliminate these overshoots, with limited torque, we implement the anti-windup mechanism. The scheme is implemented in MATLAB and from the obtained results its possible use and limitations are studied for torque limits varying from +3000 to +7000 N-m.

  anti wind –up, digital pi controller, quantizer, torque limiter.


1.        O¨ hr, J., 2003. On Anti-Windup and Control of Systems with Multiple Input Saturations: Tools, Solutions and Case Studies, 221 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 91-506-1691-9.
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3.        C. Bohn and D. P. Atherton. An analysis package comparing pid antiwindup strategies. IEEE Systems Magazine, 15(2):34—40, April 1995.

4.        Anti-windup Schemes for Proportional Integral and Proportional Resonant Controller, Anirban Ghoshal and Vinod John, National Power Electronic Conference 2010.

5.        Digital control in power electronics, Simone Buso and Paolo Mattavelli, ISBN – 10: 1598291130, 2006 by Morgan & Claypool. 

6.        Yu-Sheng Lu, “Non-overshooting PI control of variable-speed motor drives with sliding perturbation observers”, ELSEVIER, Mechatronics. vol.15, pp.1143-1158, March 2005.




Priyanka Singh, Mukesh Kumar, A.K.Jaiswal, RohiniSaxena

Paper Title:

Analysis of ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4 standard) for Star Topology with AODV Protocol

Abstract:   ZigBee is a new wireless technology based on the 802.15.4 standard which is extensively used in wireless communication. This isdesigned for applications like wirelessmonitoring andcontrol of lights, security alarms, motion sensors, thermostats and smoke detectors.ZigBee technology provides a low data rate, low power, and low costwireless networking on the device-level communication.IEEE 802.15.4 specifies physical and media access control layers. The MAC layer defines different network topologies, namely a star, tree and mesh topology. In this paper, we give a brief overview of ZigBee (IEEE 802.14.5 standard) which is the fundamental of low rate-wireless personal area network (LR-WPAN).Then we analysis the performance of ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) for star topology with different traffic scenarios namely CBR, FTP, and Poissonusing thesimulation tool NS-2.

  LR-WPANs, NS-2, ZigBee.


1.        ZigBee Alliance, Network Layer Specification 1.0, Dec. 2004.
2.        Lu, G., Krishnamachari, B., &Raghavendra, C. S. (2004). Performance Evaluation of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for Low-Rate Low-Power Wireless Networks. IEEE IPCCC, 701–706.

3.        B. Bougard, F. Catthoor, D.C. Daly, A. Chandrakasan, W. Dehaene, Energy efficiency of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard in dense wireless microsensor networks: modeling and improvement perspectives, in: Proceedings of Design, Automation, and Test in Europe (DATE), March 2005.

4.        IEEE 802.15.4, Wireless Medium Access Control(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications forLow-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LRWPANs),IEEE,
October 2003.

5.        S.A. Camtepe, B. Yener, Key distribution mechanisms for wireless sensor networks: a survey, Technical Report TR-05-07, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, March 23, 2005.

6.        IEEE std. 802.15.4, Part 15.4:Wireless MAC and PHY specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Are Networks, 2003.

7.        Alliance, Z. B. Draft standard: 02130r4ZB-NWK-Network layer specification, March 2003.

8.        Gomez, C.; Salvatella, P.; Alonso, O.; Paradells, J.; , "Adapting AODV for IEEE 802.15.4 Mesh Sensor Networks: Theoretical Discussion and Performance Evaluation in a Real Environment," World of Wireless,Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2006. WoWMoM 2006. InternationalSymposium on a , pp.9 -170, 2006.

9.        G. Montenegro, “AODV for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks”,draft-montenegro-lowpan-aodv-00, IETF Internet Draft(Work in progress), July 2005. 




Praful Kumar Singh, Mrityunjay Kumar Choudhary

Paper Title:

Scalar Multiplication Algorithms of Elliptic Curve Cryptography over GF (2m)

Abstract:   Since the inception of elliptic curve cryptography by Koblitz [1] and Miller [2] for implementing public-key protocols as the Diffie-Hellman key agreement, elliptic curve cryptography has become one of the most researched area for providing one stop  reliable and secure solution in the field of cryptography. The ECC covers all relevant asymmetric cryptographic primitives like digital signature (ECDSA), key exchange and agreement protocols. Point multiplication serves as the basic building block in all ECC primitives and is the computationally most expensive operation and our analysis revolves around this concept. This paper gives an introduction to Elliptic Curve Cryptography and deals with evaluation of fast scalar multiplication with parallelization of field operation and point addition/multiplication. Elliptic curve cryptography offers best optimized solution with minimum resources like Low memory, High Throughput, low power consumption and minimum key length for the same level of security as compared to its counterpart like RSA, DSA etc. in public key cryptography domain. The work is based on the extensive research work done by Julio Lopez, Ricardo Dahab, Montgomery and other pioneer scientists and academicians in the field of elliptic curve cryptography. Given the importance of Scalar multiplication , we  focused ourselves on the Fast Multiplication on Elliptic Curves over finite Binary field GF(2m) without Pre-computation whose background is set by Julio Lopez et al. in [1], because the finite field operations can be implemented very efficiently in hardware and software.

  Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Scalar Multiplication, Encryption


1.        N. Koblitz, “Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems", Mathematics of Computation, 48, pp. 203-209, 1987
2.        V. Miller, “Uses of elliptic curves in cryptography", Advances in Cryptology: proceedings of Crypto'85, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 218. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp. 417-426.

3.        Julio Lopez, Ricardo Dahab,” Fast Multiplication on Elliptic Curves over GF(2m) without Precomputation”, Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 1717, 1999, pp 316-327.

4.        A. Menezes, Elliptic Curve Public Key Cryptosystems,Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993.

5.        Blake, I., Seroussi, G., and Smart, N. Elliptic Curves in Cryptography, Cambridge University Press, 1999.

6.        Xiaopeng Zhang*, Shuguo Li “A High Performance ASIC Based Elliptic CurveCryptographic Processor over GF(p) ” Design and Test Workshop, 2007,  IDT 2007. 2nd International, pp. 182 – 186.

7.        P. Montgomery, “Speeding the Pollard and elliptic curve methods of factorization",Mathematics of Computation, vol 48, pp. 243-264, 1987.

8.        D. Chudnovsky and G. Chudnovsky, \Sequences of numbers generated by additionin formal groups and new primality and factoring tests", Advances in AppliedMathematics, 7 (1987), 385-434.

9.        J. Lopez and R. Dahab, “Improved algorithms for elliptic curve arithmetic inGF(2n)", Selected Areas in Cryptography - SAC '98, LNCS 1556, 1999, 201-212. 




Nemi Chand Neel, Ajay Kumar Banyal, Manu Kumar Sharma

Paper Title:

On-Chip High Speed Optical Interconnect with RLCG Electrical Interconnect: Challenges and Dimensions

Abstract:   Intrachip optical interconnects(OIs) have the pote-ntial to outperform electrical wires and to ultimately solve the communication bottleneck in high-performance integrated circuits. Performance targets and critical directions for Ics progress are yet to be fully explored. In this paper, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is used as a reference to explore the requirements that silicon-based Ics must satisfy to successfully outperform copper electrical interconnects (IEs). Consiering the state-of-art devices, these requirements are extended to specific IC components.  

  Integrated optoelectronic circuits, optoelectron-ics, optical interconnects(ICs), silicon photonics.


1.        J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 850– 866, Jul. 1984.
2.        N. Savage, “Linking with light,” IEEE Spectr. vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 32–36, Aug. 2002.

3.        H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature, vol. 433, pp. 725–728, Feb. 2005.

4.        P. M. Fauchet, “Light emission from Si quantum dots,” Mater. Today, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 26–31, Jan. 2005.

5.        L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based laser,” Mater. Today, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18–25, Jan. 2005.

6.        S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Yu. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2927–2939, Nov. 2003.

7.        A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6975, pp. 615–618, Feb. 2004.

8.        Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7040, pp. 325– 327, May 2005.

9.        M. R. Reshotko, D. L. Kencke, and B. Block, “High-speed CMOS compatible photodetectors for optical interconnects,” Proc. SPIE, Oct. 2004,vol. 5564, pp. 146–155.

10.     S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-ffficiency, Ge-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes with 29 GHz bandwidth,” in Proc.
Device Research Conf, Notre Dame, IN, 2004, pp. 175–176.

11.     M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J.-F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, “On-chip optical interconnects,” Intel Technol. J., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 129–141, May 2004.

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Vinod Kumar, Santosh KR Upadhyay, Satyam Kishore Mishra, Devesh Singh

Paper Title:

Modified Version of Playfair Cipher Using   Linear Feedback Shift Register and Transpose Matrix Concept

Abstract:   In this paper we are presenting a new technique for secure transmission of message by modified version of playfair cipher combining with random number generator and transpose of matrix concept. To develop such method of encryption technique we have used one of the simplest methods of random number generator called Linear Feedback Shift Register and Transpose Matrix concept has been used. The previous playfair cipher method is based on polyalphabetic cipher which is relatively easy to break because it leaves much of loop hole and a small hundreds of letters of cipher text are sufficient. Here we are generating random number sequences and placing it into 6X6 matrix. Then finding the transpose of it and  mapping it to secret key of playfair cipher method. Corresponding number s will be transmitted to the receiver instead of alphabetic numeric key. This method increases security of the transmitted key over unsecured transmission media.  

  Random number, Playfair Cipher, Poly-alphabetic-Numeric cipher, Linear Feedback Shift Register.


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