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Volume-3 Issue 12: Published on May 10, 2014
Volume-3 Issue 12: Published on May 10, 2014
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S. No

Volume-3 Issue-12, May 2014, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Stalin Babu G, Santosh Raju D

Paper Title:

Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks A Survey

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) contains hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with great capabilities like sensing, computation, wireless communications and these sensors have the ability to communicate either among each other or directly to an external Base Station. These Sensor nodes will collect information and also plays an important role of a Router by communicating through wireless channels. WSN ismainly  intended for gathering and sensing information in remote locations (required). Design Goal of WSN is to 1) Transmit data 2) Increase Network Life Time by employing Energy Efficient Routing Protocols.  Wireless networks are constrained by energy, storage capacity, and power. To increase the lifetime of networks, It is must to consider energy awareness. If we analyze routing protocols, these are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the sensor nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks.

  wireless Sensor networks, classification of routing protocols, Routing protocols.


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2.       S. Misra et al. (eds.), Guide to Wireless Sensor Networks, Computer Communications and Networks, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84882-218-4 4, Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009.

3.       W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan, Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless sensor networks, in: Proceeding of the Hawaii International Conference System Sciences, Hawaii, January 2000.

4.       Rafe Alasem, Ahmed Reda and Mahmud Mansour ”Location based energy efficient reliable routing protocol for wireless sensor network “World Scientific and Engineering Academy ANDC Society(WSEAS) Stevens Point, Wisconsin, USA,2011.

5.       K. Sohrabi, J. Gao, V. Ailawadhi and G. Pottie, “Protocols for Self- Organization of a Wireless Sensor Network, ” IEEE Personal Communi- cations, pp. 16-27, October 2000
6.       J. Luo, and J.- P. Hubaux, "Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks", Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM'05, vol. 3, Miami, FL, Mar. 2005, pp. 1735- 1746.
7.       Ganesan, D.; Govindan, R.; Shenker, S.; Estrin, D. Highly-Resilient, Energy-Efficient Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Mobile Comput. Commun.

8.       M. Chu, H. Haussecker, and F. Zhao: Scalable Information-Driven Sensor Querying and Routing for ad hoc Heterogeneous Sensor Networks, The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Vol. 16, No. 3 ( August 2002).




Sangeeta Bansal, Ajay Rana

Paper Title:

Analysis of Various Algorithms to Solve Vertex Cover Problem

Abstract: The vertex cover (VC) problem belongs to the class of Non Deterministic Polynomial time complete (NPC) graph theoretical problems, which plays a central role in theoretical computer science and it has a numerous real life applications. Since the problem is Non Deterministic Polynomial time complete (NPC) it is unlikely to find a polynomial-time algorithm for solving vertex-cover problem exactly. This paper analyses the various algorithms to find minimum vertex cover for standard classes of random graph. The performance of all algorithms is compared with the complexity and the output solution that of the approximation algorithm, clever greedy algorithm, branch-and-bound algorithm, and simple genetic algorithm (GA).

 Minimum vertex cover, Branch and bound, greedy algorithm, genetic algorithm, crossover, mutation.


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3.       X. Huang, J. Lai, and S. F. Jennings. Maximum common subgraph: Some upper bound and lower bound results. BMC Bioinformatics, 7(Suppl 4):S6, 2006, pp.80-94.

4.       M.Pelikan. Hierarchical Bayesian optimization algorithm: Toward a new generation of evolutionary algorithms. Springer-Verlag, 2005, pp.102-160.

5.       Alexandra K Hartmann and Martin Weigt. Statistical mechanics of the vertex-cover problem, j.phys. A; Math. Gen. 36(2003) 11069-11093.

6.       K.Clarkson. A modification to the greedy algorithm for the vertex cover problem, IPL, vol 16:23-25,(1983).

7.       R. Arakaki, and L. Lorena. A Constructive Genetic Algorithm for the Maximal Covering Location Problem, in Proceedings of Metaheuristics International Conference, 2001, pp 13-17.

8.       Ketan Kotecha and Nilesh Gambhava. A hybrid genetic algorithm for Minimum Vertex-cover Problem, vol 2: pp 16-20.




Vahid Rahmati, Morteza Husainy Yar, Ali Reza Malekijavan

Paper Title:

Neural Networks New Capacity Factor Measurement for Improvement of SOM

Abstract:  the artificial neural networks have an important role in current life with higher expectations. The art of using these ANNs give us a good insight for problem solving. For example the applications in pattern recognition and regression are two areas in which ANNs are working well. Signal processing itself investigates broad ranges of ANNs. The purpose of this paper is, scanning connection routes of one and two layer networks that may be used as default structure in data replacing and signal analyzing. When a signal is considered as a variable by a problem solver, the problem solver chooses the best possible ANNs to solve it. But the way we ensure the high possibilities of reliability for these types of networks, while the compatibility is still needed is important. We present several factors to measure the capability of a specific network, for a specific problem the one like E-machine learning. Formal proofs for claim are provided as well. Finally we try to optimize Kohonen SOM using factor C’.

  Artificial neural networks, Kohonen SOM, Machine learning, ANN connection route


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3.       Sandhya Samarasinghe (Sep 12, 2006), Neural Networks for Applied Sciences and Engineering: From Fundamentals to Complex Pattern Recognition

4.       Ke-Lin Du and M. N. S. Swamy (Dec 27, 2013), Neural Networks and Statistical Learning
5.       Jeff Heaton (Oct 2, 2008), Introduction to Neural Networks for C#
6.       Laurene V. Fausett (Dec 19, 1993), Fundamentals of Neural Networks: Architectures, Algorithms And Applications

7.       Jeff Heaton (Oct 1, 2008), Introduction to Neural Networks for Java

8.       Kevin Gurney (Aug 7, 1997), An Introduction to Neural Networks

9.       Olaf Sporns (Oct 1, 2010), Networks of the Brain

10.    Kohonen, T. ; Neural Networks Res. Centre, Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo, Finland ; Oja, E. ; Simula, O. ; Visa, A.more authors, Engineering applications of the self-organizing map

11.    SangHak Lee ; Ubiquitous Comput. Res. Center, Korea Electron. Technol. Inst., South Korea ; JuneJae Yoo ; TaeChoong Chung, Distance-based energy efficient clustering for wireless sensor networks

12.    Jari Kangas,Teuvo Kohonen,Developments and applications of the self-organizing map and related algorithms




Vivek Yadav, M. Pushpalatha

Paper Title:

A Framework to Increase the Lifetime of a Sensor Network by Dynamic Cluster Head Selection and Re-Clustering

Abstract:   In spatial correlated sensor networks, nearby sensor nodes show a high degree of similarity in their readings. Keeping this in mind, the monitored region is divided into clusters and one cluster head is assigned to a cluster which does the sensing work while other nodes are in sleep state. This results in considerable energy savings as only one cluster head representing other nodes in the cluster does the sensing and transmitting work. In this paper, a framework is proposed to add functionality to existing networks so as to increase the networks lifetime and also aid in better tracking of unusual phenomena such as forest fires. Increasing the lifetime has been done by the use of dynamic multiple cluster heads and tracking of unusual phenomena has been done on the basis of outlier detection.

  Lifetime Optimization, Spatial Correlation, Dynamic Cluster Head Selection.


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2.       S. Yoon and C. Shahabi. “Exploiting spatial correlation towards an energy efficient clustered aggregation technique (CAG),” IEEE International Conference on Communications, pages 3307-3313, May 2005.

3.       Chih-Chieh Hung, Wen-Chih Peng, Wang-Chien Lee, “Energy-Aware Set-Covering Approaches for Approximate Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng, vol 24, no 11, 2012.

4.       Yajie Ma, Yike Guo, Xiangchuan Tian, and Moustafa Ghanem, “Distributed Clustering-Based Aggregation algorithm for Spatial correlated Sensor networks”, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, no. 3, pp 641-648, March 2011.

5.       Ashanie Guanathillake, Kithsiri Samarasinghe, “Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm with Global & Local Re-clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International
Journal of Communication Science and Engineering Vol. 7, No. 7, pp. 45-52, 2013.

6.       Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, Hari Balakrishnan, “Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks”, Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, pp.1-10, 2000.

7.       Shakya, R.K. Singh, Y.N. ; Verma, N.K. “Generic correlation model for wireless sensor network applications” Wireless Sensor Systems, IET ,Vol 3  Issue: 4, pp. 266 – 276, ISSN: 2043-6386,    Dec 2013

8.       Guangzhou, China; Yiju Zhan ; Yonghua Wang “Data Density Correlation Degree Clustering Method for Data Aggregation in WSN,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, Vol 14 Issue, pp. 1089-1098, ISSN: 1530-437X, April 2014.

9.       Ghalib A., Shah, Muslim Bozyigit “Exploiting Energy aware Spatial Correlation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” 2nd International Workshop on software for Sensor Networks (Sensor Wave 2007), 2007.

10. accessed on 6.8.2013.

11.    C. Hua and T.-S. Yum, “Optimal routing and data aggregation for maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 892–903, Aug. 2008

12.    D. Chu, A. Deshpande, J.M. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, “Approximate Data Collection in Sensor Networks Using Probabilistic Models,” Proc. 22nd Int’l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), pp. 48-59, 2006

13.    O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “HEED: A Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering for Adhoc Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004

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Shikha Dogra, Sahil

Paper Title:

Cloud Computing and its Security Concerns A Survey

Abstract: Cloud Computing is evolving into the most desirous computing technology especially because of its low cost & resource independence but also incurs some of the most threatening concerns to the future of this technology i.e. its security. This paper presents a brief introduction to Cloud Computing with a comprehensive review of the most discussed security concerns to Cloud Systems.

  Grid Computing, Distributed Computing, Parallel Computing, Virtualization, Utility Computing, Image optimization, Image portability, Fault tolerance, Multitenancy, Virtual Appliance, OS Kernel, Cloud migration, DDoS, Virus, Data location, Data Recovery, Data Control, Data privacy, Data Availability, Data Transmission, Data Security, Data Reminisce, Data Disposal, Virtual Servers, Virtual Networks, Hypervisors, APIs, VM Portability, Uptime.


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17.       Mell, P., and T. Grance. "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Version 15, National Institute of Standards and Technology, October 7, 2009." (2009).

18.       Jain, Pritesh, Dheeraj Rane, and Shyam Patidar. "A survey and analysis of cloud model-based security for computing secure cloud bursting and aggregation in renal environment." In Information and Communication Technologies (WICT), 2011 World Congress on, pp. 456-461. IEEE, 2011.

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Md. K. M., Obetta S. E.

Paper Title:

Effects of Levels of Tillage on Destruction and Re – Emergence of Weeds of Benue River Makurdi Flood Plains

Abstract:  This study was conducted to investigate effects of different levels of soil tillage on weed destruction and re – emergence during the cropping season of the year 2012. The experiment was conducted on the experimental farm of Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The field was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were ploughing and harrowing once (PH), ploughing and harrowing twice (PHH), ploughing and harrowing thrice (PHHH) and no – tillage (NT). A 75 Hp four – wheel drive MF 375 E tractor, 3 – discs MF plough and 14 – discs offset MF harrow were used for the tillage operations. The parameters studied were weed destruction and re – emergence. The total rainfall within the period was 928.7 mm. Atmospheric temperatures fluctuated between 32ºC and 39ºC and the relative humidity was between 70 % and 86 %. Results showed that the soil of the experimental plot was generally dark and was predominantly sandy. Ploughing and harrowing thrice cut down the highest number of weeds and gave the best soil conditions which yielded the least number of weed re – emergence. More weeds re – emerged on no – tillage sub – plots with percentages ranging between 42.99 % and 65.11 %. The results also showed that tillage is a viable alternative to chemical weeds control.

  Effects, Destruction, Levels, Tillage, Weeds.


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13.       Mohammed, K. M. and Umogbai, V. I. (2014). Effects of Levels of Tillage on Germination Rate and Vegetation of Maize Crop of Benue River Makurdi Flood Plains.




Ranu Pandey, Sandeep Gonnade

Paper Title:

Assessing Collaboration Framework in Multi- Cloud Environment

Abstract:   Cloud computing has emerged as a popular paradigm that offers computing resources (e.g. CPU, storage, bandwidth, software) as scalable and on-demand services over the Internet. As more players enter this emerging market, a heterogeneous cloud computing market is expected to evolve, where individual players will have different volumes of resources, and will provide specialized services, and with different levels of quality of services. It is expected that service providers will thus, besides competing, also collaborate to complement their resources in order to improve resource utilization and combine individual services to offer more complex value chains and end-to-end solutions required by the customers. In this paper we explore the viability of collaboration framework in cloud computing environments. This collaboration will be driven by the growing need to offer diverse services without having to spend heavily on infrastructure. Collaboration can be a boon to all cloud service providers in a way that the customers would have on offer a combined catalogue of all partnering CSPs.

Cloud Computing, Cloud service provider(CSP), Proxy,SaaS, IaaS, PaaS


1.       R. Thandeeswaran, S. Subhashini, N. Jeyanthi1, M. A.  Saleem   Durai, “Secured Multi-Cloud Virtual Infrastructure with Improved Performance”, cybernetics and information technologies XII, ( 2), pp. 11-22, 2012
2.       Cong Wang, Student Member,  Qian Wang, Student Member,  Kui Ren, Senior Member, Ning Cao, and Wenjing Lou, “Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing”, IEEE transactions on services computing, V, (2), 2012.

3.       Ayad Barsoum and Anwar Hasan, “Enabling Dynamic Data and Indirect Mutual Trust for Cloud Computing Storage Systems”, IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems.

4.       Fawaz Paraiso, Nicolas Haderer, Philippe Merle, Romain Rouvoy, Lionel Seinturier,  “A Federated Multi-Cloud PaaS Infrastructure”, 5th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing  pp.392 – 399, 2

5.       Ana Juan Ferrer, Francisco Hernándezb, Johan Tordsson , Erik Elmroth, Ahmed Ali-Eldin, Csilla Zsigri, Raül Sirvent, Jordi Guitart, Rosa M. Badia, Karim Djemamee, Wolfgang Ziegler, Theo Dimitrakos, Srijith K. Nair, George Kousiouris, Kleopatra Konstanteli, Theodora Varvarigou, Benoit Hudzia, Alexander Kipp, Stefan Wesnerj, Marcelo Corrales, Nikolaus Forgó, Tabassum Sharif, Craig Sheridan, “OPTIMIS: A holistic approach to  cloud service provisioning”, Future Generation Computer Systems ELSEVIER pp. 66–77, 2012.

6.       Mukesh Singhal and Santosh Chandrasekhar, Tingjian Ge, Ravi Sandhu and Ram Krishnan, Gail-Joon Ahn, and Elisa Bertino “Collaboration in Multicloud Computing Environments: Framework and Security Issues”, Published by the IEEE Computer Society IEEE, 2013.

7.       Mohamed Almorsy, John Grundy, and Amani S. Ibrahim, “TOSSMA: A Tenant-Oriented SaaS Security Management Architecture”, 5th IEEE Conference on Cloud computing IEEE, 2012.

8.       Yashaswi Singh, Farah Kandah, Weiyi Zhang, “A Secured Cost-effective Multi-Cloud Storage in Cloud Computing”, IEEE INFOCOM Workshop on Cloud Computing,  2011.

9.       Anton Beloglazov, Jemal Abawajy, Rajkumar Buyyaa, “Energy-aware resource allocation heuristics for efficient management of data centers for Cloud computing”, Future Generation Computer Systems ELSEVIER , pp. 755–768, 2011.

10.    Jose Luis Lucas-Simarro, Rafael Moreno-Vozmediano, Ruben S. Montero and Ignacio M. Llorent, “Cost optimization of virtual infrastructures in dynamic multi-cloud scenarios”, Concurrency and Computation: practice and experience  Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper.  Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com2012.




T.Kasilingam, C.Thangavelu

Paper Title:

Nano Analyses of Protective Film onto Carbon Steel

Abstract:    The corrosion inhibition effect of cathodic surfactant, namely: dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and zinc ions, have been used as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in well water. Surface analysis using SEM, EDAX and AFM shows a significant morphological improvement on the carbon steel surface with the addition of inhibitors. FTIR spectra revealed the interaction between inhibitor molecules and carbon steel surface.

AFM, Inhibitor, SEM-EDAX, Weight loss,


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Mater Chem Phys 93 (2005) 48.

20.       A.M. Al Sabagh, M.A. Migahed, H.S. Awad HS, “reactivity of polyester aliphatic amine surfactants as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in formation water (deep well water)” Corros SCi 48 (2006) 813.

21.       R. Fuchs-Godec, V. Dolecek, “a effect of dodecylsulfate of the corrosion of copper in sulphuric acid media” Colloids Surf A 244 (2004) 73.

22.       H. Ma, S. Chen, B. Yin, S. Zhao, X. Liu, “impedance spectroscopic study of corrosion inhibition of copper by surfactant in the acidic solutions” Corros Sci 45 (2003) 867.

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27.       S.S. Abd El Rehim, H.H. Hassaan, M.A. Amin, “the corrosion inhibition study of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate to aluminium and its alloys in 1.0 M HCl solution” Mater ChemPhys 78 (2002) 337.

28.       A.K. Maayta, N.A.F. Al-Rawashdeh, “inhibition of acidic corrosion of pure aluminum by some organic compounds” Corros Sci 46 (2004) 1129.

29.       R. Guo, T. Liu, X. Wei, “effect of SDS and some alcohols on the inhibition efficiency of corrosion for nickel” Colloids Surf A 209 (2002) 273-278.

30.       Ph. Dumas, B. Butffakhreddine, C. Am, O.Vatel, E.Ands, R.Galindo and F.Salvan, “Quantitative microroughness analysis down to the nanometer scale, Europhys. Lett. 22 (1993)717-722.

31.       J.M. Bennett, J. Jahannir, J.C.Podlesny, T.L. Baiter and D.T.Hobbs, “Scanning force microscopy as a tool for studying optical surface, Appl. Opt 43(1995)213-230.

32.       A.Duparre, N.Kaiser, H.Truckenbrodi, M.Berger and A.Kohler, “Microtopography investigations of optical surfaces and thin films by light scattering, opticalprofilometry  SPIE, 1995(1993)181-192.

33.       C.Amra, C. Deumie, D.Torricini, P.Roche, R.Galindo, P.Dumas and F.Salvan Overlapping of roughness spectra measured in microscopic (Optical) and microscopic (AFM) bandwidths, Int. Symp. On Optical Interference Coatings, 6-10 June 1994. Grenoble, Proc. SPIE 2253(1994)614-630. 

34.       C.Thangavelu,  P.Patric Raymond, S. Rajendran, M. Sundaravadivelu, “Influence of Chloride Ion on the Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of the ATMP-Zn2+ System,” Asian j.  Research Chem.  4(3)(2011)402-405.

35.       C.Thangavelu,  M.Umarani, M. Sekar,  “Eco- Friendly Inhibitor System for Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in High Chloride Media”, RASAYAN.J.Chem. 4(2011)245-250.




Fahmida Khatoon, Tarana Afrin Chandel

Paper Title:

Design of Low Power, High Speed Differential Amplifier Ring Voltage Controlled Oscillator in CMOS Technology

Abstract: Designing a compact, power efficient Voltage- Controlled Oscillator (VCO) for high frequency phase lock loop (PLL) in modern wireless communication system is decisively a challenging task. Voltage-Controlled Ring Oscillator are crucial component in many wireless communication systems.VCRO is used in PLL circuit, to generate the oscillations and increase the speed of whole system. In this paper a low power and high speed VCRO is implemented using 250nm CMOS technology provided by generic with 2.5volt power supply. In favour of easy implementation of the module in small die size, a five-stage  CMOS differential Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator  has been adopted to fabricate the proposed VCRO.The Voltage Controlled Ring Oscillator is design in Tanner Tool Version 13 environment. Power Consumption should be reduced to improve the performance of the VCRO.We also used of several techniques such as transistor sizing to improve performance of VCRO.Simulated results show that the designed VCRO exhibits an output frequency from 87-910 MHz with tuning voltages of 0.7 V to 2.3 V.The VCRO consumes 0.359mW of power at Vtune=0.7 V supply.  

CMOS,High Speed, Low Power,VCRO 


1.       C.H.Park,O.Kim, and B.Kim 2001, “A 1.8-GHz self-calibrated phase locked loop with precisei/Q Matching ,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 36, pp.777-783.
2.       Hesieh Y.B. and Kao Y.H., “A Fully integrated spread-spectrum clock generation by using direct VCO modulation,” IEEE Trans CircuitSyst.I,Regular papers,vol.55,pp.1845-1853,August.

3.       Sun L. and Kwasniewski T.A., “ A 1.25- GHz 0.35µm monolithic CMOS PLL based on a multiphase ring oscillator,”IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits,vol. 36,pp.910-916,June 2001.

4.       M.Moghavvemi and A.Attaran, “Recent advances in delay cell VCOs,” IEEE Microw.Mag.,vol.12,no. 5,pp. 110-118,August 2011.

5.       Bosco Leung, “VLSI for Wireless Communication,”Pearson Education publisher,New York,2002,ISBN 81-297-0403-X.

6.       Behzad Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuit,”Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited,New Delhi,2002,ISBN 0-07-238032-2.

7.       Stephen Williams,Hugh Thompson,Michael Hufford,Eric Naviasky, “ An Improved CMOS Ring Oscillator PLL with less than 4ps RMS Accumulated Jitter,”IEEE 2004 custom integrated circuits conference,Cadence Design Services,6210 Old Dobbin Lane,Suite 100,Columbia,Maryland 21045,USA.

8.       Rashmi K Patli,M.A.Gaikward and V.G Nasre,“Area Efficient Wide Frequency Range CMOS Voltage Controlled Oscillator For PLL in 180nm CMOS Process,”IJERA,vol.2,pp.1696-1699.

9.       Mrs. Devendra Rani and Prof.Sanjeev M.Ranjan, ,“ A. Karnik, “A Voltage Controlled Oscillator using Ring structure in CMOS Technology,”International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering,vol.1 No.3,ISSN 2277-1956.

10.    Y.A.Eken and J.P.Uyemura, ,“A 5.9 GHz voltage controlled ring oscillator in 180nm CMOS,”IEEE J.Solid State Circuits,vol.39,No.1,pp.230-233,Januar 2004.




Yamuna Devi C R, S H Manjula, K R Venugopal, L M Patnaik

Paper Title:

Multi-hop Route Discovery Using Opportunistic Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:  In wireless sensor networks multi-hop routing is often used because of the limited transmission range of sensor nodes.  Opportunistic Routing is a multi-hop routing for wireless sensor networks.  In this routing, the neighbors of sender node overhear the transmission and f```orm multiple hops from source to the destination for transfer of information.  The neighbor nodes set participating in the routing are included in the forwarder list in the order of priority. The node with highest priority is allowed to forward the packet it hears.  A new protocol by Energy Efficient Selective Opportunistic Routing (EESOR), is implemented in this paper that reduces the size of forwarder list by applying a condition that the forwarding node is nearer to the destination.  The path followed by acknowledgment packet follows opportunistic routing, assuring reliability of transmission and energy balancing.   NS2 is the simulator used to implement the algorithm and results of simulation show that proposed EESOR protocol performs better than existing Energy Efficient Opportunistic Routing (EEOR) protocol with respect to parameters End-to-End Delay, Throughput, Routing Overhead and Network Lifetime.

Delay; Lifetime; Opportunistic Routing; Reliability; Throughput; Wireless Sensor Network.


1.       X.F. Mao, S. Tang, X. Xu, X. Y, Li, and H. Ma, :Energy Efficient Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Networks, Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1934–1942, November 2011.
2.       S Biswas and R Morris, :ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-hop Routing for Wireless Networks, in Proceedings of ACM SICGOMM, 133-144, 2005.

3.       Chen Wei, Chen Zhi, Pingyi Fan, and Khaled Ben Letaief, :AsOR: An Energy Efficient Multi-Hop Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks over Rayleigh Fading Channels, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2452–2463, May 2009.

4.       Anand Nasipuri, R. Castaneda, and S.R. Das, :Performance of Multipath Routing for On-Demand Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks, ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 339–349, 2001.

5.       Andrea Passarella, Mohan Kumar, Marco Conti, and Eleonora Borgia, :Minimum-Delay Service Provisioning in Opportunistic Networks, in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1267–1275, August 2011.

6.       Che-Jung Hsu, Huey-Ing Liu, Winston K.G. Seah, :Opportunistic Routing A Review and the Challenges Ahead, ELSEVIER Journal Computer Networks, vol. S5, pp. 3592–3603, 2011.

7.       Jihoon Myung, and Wonjun Lee, :Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, IEEE Communication Letters, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 510– 513, April 2012.

8.       K. Zeng, W. Lou, and H. Zhai, :On End-to-End Throughput of Opportunistic Routing in Multirate and Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proceedings of INFOCOMM, 2008.

9.       Shengling Wang, Siuzhen Cheng, :Opportunistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile P2P Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, vol.
31, pp. 369–379, September 2013.

10.    Won-Yong Shin, Sae-Young Chung, Yong H. Lee, :Parallel Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Networks, in IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 6290–6391, October 2013.

11.    Yanhuva Li, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Zhi-Li Zhang, :Trading Optimality for Scalability in Large-Scale Opprotunistic Routing, in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 2253 – 2263, June 2013.

12.    Zehua Wang, Yuanzhu Chen, Cheng Li, :CORMAN: A Novel Cooperative Opportunistic Routing Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, vol. 30, pp. 289–286, February 2012.

13.    Bogdan Pavkovic, Fabrice Theoley re and Andrzej Duda, “Multipath Opportunistic RPL Routing over IEEE 802.15.4”, MSWiM, 2011.

14.    Azad and Joarder Kamruzzaman, “Energy-Balanced Transmission Policies for Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 927-940, Jul. 2011.

15.    Xiaoli Ma, Min-Te Sun, Gang Zhao and Xiangqian Liu, “An Efficient Path Pruning Algorithm for Geographical Routing in Wireless Networks”, IEEE Transactions on  Vehicular  Technology,  vol.  57, no. 4, pp. 2474-2490, Jul. 2008.




Azher Jameel, Qazi Junaid, Suhail Ahmed

Paper Title:

Large Sliding Frictional Contact Problems by a Penalty Based Approach

Abstract:   The finite element method is used to model large sliding frictional contact problems in which one body slides over another body and there is relative motion at the interface of the two bodies. The penalty approach has been used within finite element frame work to consider various constraints at the contact surface. The large sliding behavior between two bodies has been formulated by employing the node-to-segment (NTS) algorithm. The NTS technique searches for the active slave nodes and the corresponding master segments at the contact surface and then the contact stiffness matrix is evaluated to enforce the contact conditions. Finally, three problems are solved to demonstrate the applicability of the given technique in solving large sliding fictional contact problems. The given problems have been solved for both the frictionless contact as well as the frictional contact at the interface of the two bodies.

FEM, Penalty Factor, Node-to-Segment Technique, Large Sliding.


1.          Wriggers, P., and Simo, J. C., 1985, “A note on tangent stiffness for fully nonlinear contact problems”, Communications in Applied Numerical Methods, 1, pp. 199–203.
2.          Parisch, H., 1989, “A consistent tangent stiffness matrix for three-dimensional non-linear contact analysis”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 28, pp. 1803–1812.

3.          Fracavilla, A., and Zienkiewicz, O. C., 1975, “A note on the numerical computation of elastic contact problems”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 9, pp. 913–924.

4.          Hughes, T. J. R., Taylor, R. L., Sackman, J. L., Curnier, A., and Kanoknukulchai, W., 1976, “A finite element method for a class of contact-impact problems”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 8, pp. 249–276.

5.          Beer, G., 1985, “An isoparametric joint/interface element for finite element analysis”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 21, pp. 585–600.

6.          Peric, D., and Owen, D. R. J., 1992, “Computational model for 3D contact problems with friction based on the penalty method”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 35, pp. 1289–1309.

7.          Belyschko, T., and Neal, M. O., 1991, “Contact–impact by the pinball algorithm with penalty and Lagrangian methods”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 31, pp. 547–572.

8.          Nistor, I., Guiton, M. L. E., Massin, P., Moes, N., and Geniaut, S., 2009, “An X-FEM approach for large sliding contact along discontinuities”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 78, pp. 1407–1435.

9.          Giorgio Zavarise, and Laura De Lorenzis, 2009, “The node-to-segment algorithm for 2D frictionless contact: Classical formulation and special cases”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 198, pp. 3428–3451.

10.       McDevitt, T. W., and Laursen, T. A., 2000, “A mortar-finite element formulation for frictional contact problems”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 48, pp. 1525–1547.

11.       ChehelAmirani, M., and Nemati, N., 2011, “Simulation of two dimensional unilateral contact using a coupled FE/EFG method”, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 35, pp. 96–104.

12.       Al-Dojayli, M., and Meguid, S. A., 2002, “Accurate modeling of contact using cubic splines”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 38, pp. 337–352.

13.       Khoei, A. R., and Taheri Mousavi, S. M. 2010, “Modeling of large deformation – Large sliding contact via the penalty X-FEM technique”, Computational Materials Science, 48, pp. 471–480.




Rohini Kadlag, Rohit Devikar

Paper Title:

A Survey on Automatic Protocol Blocker for Privacy -Preserving Public Auditing in Cloud Computing

Abstract: Cloud Computing is nothing but specific style of computing where everything from computing power to infrastructure, business apps are provided “as a service”. In cloud, shared resources, softwares and information is provided as a metered service over the network. By data outsourcing, users can be relieved from the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the fact that users no longer have physical possession of the possibly large size of outsourced data makes the data integrity protection in Cloud Computing a very challenging and potentially formidable task, especially for users with constrained computing resources and capabilities. Thus, enabling public auditability for cloud data storage security is of critical importance so that users can resort to an external audit party to check the integrity of outsourced data when needed. In particular, we consider the task of allowing a third party auditor (TPA), on behalf of the cloud client, to verify the integrity of the dynamic data stored in the cloud. In this paper we are extending the previous system by using automatic blocker for privacy preserving public auditing for data storage security in cloud computing. We utilize the public key based homomorphic authenticator and uniquely integrate it with random mask technique and automatic blocker. In particular, to achieve efficient data dynamics, we improve the existing proof of storage models by manipulating the block tag authentication. Thus, TPA eliminates the involvement of the client through the auditing of whether his Data stored in the Cloud are indeed intact, which can be important in achieving economies of scale For Cloud Computing.

Cloud computing, CSP, Data storage, Data dynamics, Protocol Blocker, Public auditability, TPA.


1.          Qian Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Cong Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Kui Ren, Member, IEEE Wenjing Lou, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jin Li “Enabling Public Auditability and Data Dynamics for Storage Security in Cloud Computing” IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 22, no.5, May 2011.
2.          P. Mell, T. Grance (2009),“Draft NIST working definition of cloud computing”, [Online]Available: http://www.csrc.nist. gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html.

3.          Juels and B.S. Kaliski Jr., “Pors: Proofs of Retrievability forLarge Files,”Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security(CCS ’07),pp. 584-597, 2007.

4.          H. Shacham and B. Waters, “Compact Proofs of Retrievability” Proc. 14th Int’l Conf. Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security: Advances in Cryptology (ASIACRYPT ’08),pp. 90-107, 2008.

5.          K.D. Bowers, A. Juels, and A. Oprea, “Proofs of Retrievability: Theory and Implementation,” Report 2008/175, Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2008.

6.          M. Naor and G.N. Rothblum, “The Complexity of Online ]memory Checking,” Proc. 46th Ann. IEEE Symp. Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS ’05),pp. 573-584, 2005.

7.          E.-C. Chang and J. Xu, “Remote Integrity Check with Dishonest Storage Server,”Proc. 13th European Symp. Research in Computer Security (ESORICS ’08),pp. 223-237, 2008.

8.          M.A. Shah, R. Swaminathan, and M. Baker, “Privacy-Preserving Audit and Extraction of Digital Contents,” Report 2008/186,Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2008.

9.          Oprea, M.K. Reiter, and K. Yang, “Space-Efficient Block Storage Integrity,”Proc. 12th Ann. Network and Distributed System Security Symp. (NDSS ’05), 2005.

10.       T. Schwarz and E.L. Miller, “Store, Forget, and Check: Using Algebraic Signatures to Check Remotely Administered Storage,” Proc. 26th IEEE Int’l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS’06),p. 12, 2006.

11.       Q. Wang, K. Ren, W. Lou, and Y. Zhang, “Dependable and Secure Sensor Data Storage with Dynamic Integrity Assurance,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 954-962, Apr. 2009.

12.       C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, “Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing,” Proc. 17th Int’l workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS ’09),2009.

13.       C. Wang, Q. Wang, K. Ren, and W. Lou, “Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing,” Proc. 17th Int’l Workshop Quality of Service (IWQoS ’09), 2009.

14.       G. Ateniese, R.D. Pietro, L.V. Mancini, and G. Tsudik, “Scalable and Efficient Provable Data Possession,”Proc. Fourth Int’l Conf. Security and Privacy in Comm. Networks (SecureComm ’08),pp. 1-10,20080.

15.       D. Boneh, C. Gentry, B. Lynn, H. Shacham,“Aggregate and verifiably encrypted signatures from bilinear maps”, in Proc. of Eurocrypt 2003, Vol. 2656 of LNCS. Springer-Verlag, 2003, pp. 416–432




Akshay Gupta, Ruprit Sikka, Pavithra Balaji

Paper Title:

Low Complexity Partial Transmit Sequence Based Implementation to Reduce Peak to Average Power Ratio in OFDM Systems

Abstract:  Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a extremely useful and one of the most widely used wireless technology. Its high spectral efficiency, low inter symbol interference and very less cross talk makes it highly used in TV broadcasting or wire line systems like ADSL (Asymmetric digital subscriber line). The increasingly useful OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) systems too suffer from one major disadvantage of having a high PAPR, which is due to the superposition of N sub carriers. In this letter we counter the high PAPR (Peak to Average Power ratio) using PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence) algorithm, which is a more efficient technique than some other PAPR reducing techniques like SLM (Selected Mapping), clipping and amplitude filtering. We have lowered the complexity of the algorithm making it highly reliable and much more sharper in terms of lowering the PAPR. Our paper analyzes the PAPR plot in terms of CCDF (complimentary cumulative distributive function) by varying the sub carriers and the sub-blocks in PTS.  We also carry out the phase optimization in PTS algorithm by using exhaustive search algorithm and modified exhaustive search algorithm so as to reduce PAPR to a greater extent in OFDM systems.

CCDF, OFDM, PAPR, Phase optimization, PTS, Sub carriers


1.       Arun Gangwar, Manushree Bhardwaj, “An Overview: Peak to Average Power Ratio in OFDM system & its Effect” International Journal of Communication and Computer Technologies Volume 01 – No.2, Issue: 02 September 2012
2.       Chintha Tellambura, Member , IEEE, “ Improved Phase Factor computation fot the PAR Reduction of an OFDM Signal Using PTS”, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTER, VOL.5, NO.4, APRIL 2001

3.       Nikhil Arora, Prem Singh“Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS)-PAPR Reduction Technique in OFDM Systems with Reduced Complexity”, Conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems 2013

4.       Padmapriya Praveenkumar, Reangarajan Amiritharajan, “OFDM with low PAPR: A Novel approach of Partial Transmit Sequence”,Research Journal of Information Technology 5(1),35:44,2013

5.       Seung Hee Han, Student Member, IEEE, and Jae Hong Lee, Senior Member, IEEE,’’PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals Using a Reduced Complexity PTS Technique”, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2004

6.       S.Haykin, “OFDM SYSTEMS, brain-empowered wireless communications,” IEEE J. Sel Areas Commun., vol. 23, pp. 201–220, Feb. 2005.

7.       Yunfei Chen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Zijian Tang, "Effect of Spectrum Sensing Errors on the Performance of OFDM-Based Cognitive Radio Transmission", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 11, NO. 6, JUNE 2012




Aziz Oriche, Abderrahman Chekry, Md. Khaldi

Paper Title:

A Multi-Agents System for Extraction and Annotation of Learning Objects

Abstract: in this paper, we propose an extraction approach of learning objects (LO) (Definition, Example, Exercise, etc...) of documents defined by HTML / XML whose structure is a tree DOM (Document Object Model). Our approach is based on two intelligent agents. An agent of extraction to extract the learning objects independently of the domain and to align them with the concepts of the ontology. An agent of annotation defined by a set of declarative rules for annotates the nodes and their relationships. We defined in the extraction agent a module includes a set of declarative rules of contextual exploration to extract the learning objects contained in the nodes of DOM documents. The result of this extraction is a set of RDF triples generated for alignment the learning objects extracts with concepts of ontology. The agent of annotation is based on a set of annotations metadata representing the results of extraction and annotation. They allow also annotating the neighbor relationship between the nodes. We assume to have a domain ontology defined by concepts, relations between these concepts and properties.

Semantic Annotation, Multi-agent systems, Ontology, learning object (LO), contextual exploration method.


1.       Aziz O., Abderrahman C., Mohamed K., “Intelligent Agents for the Semantic Annotation of Educational Resources”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), Volume-3, Issue-5, November 2013.
2.       Descles J.-P., Jouis C., "L’exploration contextuelle : une méthode linguistique et informatique pour l’analyse informatique de textes", in Proceedings of the International Langage Natural (ILN’93), Nantes, 1993.

3.       Boutheina S., Rim F., Descles J.-P., "Relevant learning objects extraction based on semantic annotation", Int. J. Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2013.

4.       Jean-Philippe Pernin, “Objets pédagogiques : unités d’apprentissage, activités ou ressources ?”, Sciences et Techniques Educatives, 2003.

5.       Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) P1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata Working Group, "Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata", Available:, 2002.

6.       Bourda Y., Hélier M., "Métadonnées et XML : application aux objets pédagogiques", In Colloque International Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication dans les Enseignement d’Ingénieurs et dans l’industrie, Troyes, 18-20 octobre 2000.

7.       Sabine G., K. Ramesh R., "Concept Guide on Reusable Learning Objects with Application to Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences", Dec. 2007.

8.       Gruber T. "A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications", Knowledge Acquisition, pp. 199-220, 1993.

9.       Aziz O, Abderrahman C, Mohamed K., “Agent of semantic annotation of educational resources based on ontology”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Volume-3, Issue-7, December 2013.

10.    Gustavo C., "Une plate-forme informatique de l’Exploration Contextuelle : modélisation, architecture et réalisation (ContextO)", université de paris IV – Sorbonne, Ecole Doctorale Concepts et Langages, Laboratoire LaLICC, thèse de doctorat, 2003.

11.    Mouhamadou T., « Annotation Sémantique de Documents Semi-structurés pour la Recherche d’Information », thèse en cotutelle, Universités de Paris-Sud et Gaston Berger, 2010.




Sonia Rathi, Nisha Malik, Nidhi Chahal, Sukhvinder Malik

Paper Title:

Throughput for TDD and FDD 4 G LTE Systems

Abstract:  Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been designed to support only packet-switched services. It aims to provide seamless Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity between User Equipment (UE) and the packet data network (PDN), without any disruption to the end user’s applications during mobility. The term LTE “Long Term Evolution” encompasses the evolution of UMTS which is famous for high data rate because the use of OFDMA. Many of us might have heard about LTE’s peak throughput i.e. 300Mbps, but how many of us know how we calculate that? This paper provides the information, how this number is calculated? And assumptions behind? In this paper, authors have explained the calculations of theoretical throughput for both the LTE FDD and TDD systems.

 LTE, Throughput, Frequency Division Duplexing, Time Division Duplexing.


1.    Lte - The Umts Long Term Evolution from Theory To Practice 2nd Edition by  Stefania Sesia , Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker
2.    3GPP TS 36.213 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures”.

3.    3GPP TS 36.221  “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification”

4.    3GPP TS 36.300 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA), Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN).

5.    3GPP TS 24.302: “Access to the 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (EPC) via Non-3GPP Access Networks”.

6.    3GPP TS 36.331: “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRAN); Radio Resource Control (RRC) Protocol Specification”

7.    3GPP TS 36.401: “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Architecture Description”

8.    3GPP TS 36.413: “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); S1 Application Protocol (S1AP).




Pranita C. Bawankar, U. A. Rane

Paper Title:

eNotebook Based on ARM Architecture

Abstract:   In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing eNotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of eNotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution.  The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  ARM7, Graphical LCD, LPC 2148, SD Cards, Touch Screen.


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Priyankaran Tanck, Bipan Kaushal

Paper Title:

A New Technique of Quality Analysis for Rice Grading for Agmark Standards

Abstract:    The quality inspection method of rice grain which is followed by Agmark is based on manual inspection by the assigned inspectors which proves to be an improper way and outcomes that results are inaccurate. A digital inspection method for Agmark Standards for quality assessment of rice is required. So this paper proposes a digital method which can be used to evaluate the quality of rice for the present Agmark Standards. The proposed method is formulated with the help of digital image processing technique on MATLAB. In this paper three parameters; Broken Grain , Foreign Particle and Admixture of Agmark Standards are converted to digital form for digital quality inspection of rice. The outcomes of inspection of the samples studied, showed that our model was an effective way for digital inspection of Agmark Standards. 

  AGMARK, Binarization, Grayscale ,MATLAB, Region Props.


1.       R.Kiruthika, S.Muruganand , Azha Periasamy “MATCHING OF DIFFERENT RICE GRAINS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING” International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering  Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2013
2.       B.K. Yadav, V.K. Jindal “Monitoring milling quality of rice by image analysis” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 33 (2001) 19–33

3.       XuLizhang , Li Yaoming, Multi-Scale Edge Detection of Rice Internal Damage Based on Computer Vision, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Automation and LogisticsQingdao, China September 2008

4.       YangYiShan ChenLiYun, XuYaoWu. From rice quality evaluation criteria of change to see our rice breeding for quality development [J].Journal of hybrid rice, finance (cicf 3) : 5-10.

5.       Bhavesh B. Prajapati1, Sachin Patel2 “Algorithmic Approach to Quality Analysis of Indian Basmati Rice Using Digital Image Processing” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013)

6.       Yao, Chen, Guan, “Inspection of rice appearance quality using machine vision”, Global Congress on Intelligent system, 2009 IEEE

7.       R. M. Carter, PhD Thesis: On-Line measurement of size distribution and volumetric concentration of pneumatically conveyed solids using digital imaging techniques. 2005, University of Kent, UK.

8.       R M Carter, Y. Yan., Measurement of particle shape using digital imaging techniques. Journal of Physics Conference Series, V. 15, pp. 177-182, 2005.

9.       Rohit R. Parmar, Kavindra R.Jain, Dr.Chintan K.Modi, “Image Morphological operation based quality analysis of coriander seed (Coriandrumsatavum L.),” ETNCC (International Conference on Emerging Trends in Network and Computer Communications), 2011.

10.    Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., 2008. Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.

11.    Zhang, G., Jayas D. S., White N. D.G.., 2005.Separation of touching grain kernels in an image by ellipse fitting al-gorithm. Biosyst. Eng., 92(2):135-142.




Abderrahman CHEKRY, Aziz ORICHE, Mohamed KHALDI

Paper Title:

Indexing and Adaptation of Learning Objects to the Personality of the Learner

Abstract:     The main goal of this paper is to create adaptable learning object to different types of personality of learners. For that, we present the personality factor that we deem useful to know the psyche of learner and to create adaptable content. We lay bare two different approaches of learning profile and we propose an enrichment of Learning Object Metadata standard to support adaptation. Finally, we suggest our approach to creating learning profile and the process of adaptation of learning object.

   Personality, Learning Object Metadata, learner profile, Ontology.


1.       Abderrahman CHEKRY., Aziz ORICHE., Mohamed KHALDI.,  « Sharing and Adaptation of Educational Documents in E-Learning» International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. ISSN: 1863-0383, iJET, Volume 7, No 1, 2012.
2.       Catherine VOYNNET FOURBOUL.,.« La personnalité ». December 2011 Available: .

3.       Stéphanie Brouard.,Fabrice Daverio.,. « Les outils du développement personnel pour manager ». Groupe Eyrolles, 2010 ISBN:978-2-212-54713-9.

4.       Sampson Demetrios., Karagiannidis Charalampos., Cardinali Fabrizio.,. « An Architecture for Web-based e-Learning Promoting Re-usable Adaptive Educational e-Content » Educational Technology & Society 5 (4) , ISSN 1436-4522, 2002.

5.       Carchiolo Vincenza., Longheu Alessandro., Malgeri Michele., Mangioni Giuseppe., . « An Architecture to Support Adaptive E-Learning ».  International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol.7, No.1, 2007

6.       IMS-LIP.,. . Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Learner Information Profile Specification. Version 1.0.0 (March 2001).

7.       Webster's dictionary. Available: .

8.       Gwenaël GAVRAY.,. « Personnalisation des sites Web : élaboration d'une méthodologie de mise en œuvre et application au cas DGTRE ». Memory for obtaining the title of Engineer From Management of the Catholic University of Louvain. Available:




Ijemaru Gerald Kelechi, Udunwa Augustine Ikenna, Ngharamike Ericmoore Tochukwu, Oleka Emmanuel Uchendu

Paper Title:

Evaluating the Challenging Issues in the Security of Wireless Communication Networks in Nigeria

Abstract: Despite the gains offered by wireless communication systems, developing nations like Nigeria have been facing some stringent challenges in the security of wireless communication systems. Although Nigeria’s Telecom industry has experienced continuous growth and rapid progress in policy and technological development, thus resulting in an increasingly competitive and networked world, it has however been encumbered with many security challenges. At present, wireless communications weaknesses are on the increase due to the higher demand for wireless access, demand for higher data rates, the emergence of advanced services, the need for roaming, and the large deployment of services across the globe. Consequently, this has created challenging issues in the security of wireless systems and applications operating in wireless environments. Nigeria witnessed stages of technological advancements in her information-dissemination techniques. Most of the techniques, such as post office, public switch telephone network, telegram and so on, are now becoming obsolete and therefore necessitate the use of other communication mediums which are not only faster, cheaper, portable, contemporary, more efficient and reliable but also have the gains and potentials of accelerating economic development as well as enhancing the lives of individuals. Consequently, the wireless communication systems such as the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) and the internet, which are operative in Nigeria at present, have brought convenience, mobility and portability in the information and communication process. And with these, people can now transact a wide range of services formally. It is true that security of wireless networks is a global issue that needs to be addressed; the Nigerian case has more to it owing to the diverse nature of the country vis-à-vis its ethnic and religious diversities and therefore requires a critical evaluation, especially now that deregulation of the sector has taken its success.



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3.       Du, K., and Swamy, M.N.S. (2009) Wireless Communication Systems: From RF Subsystems to 4G Enabling Technologies. London: Cambridge University press

4.       Finkle II, L.G. (2000) ‘Wireless Communications: A Modern Necessity.’ Journal of Information Technology 63, (5)

5.       Hamid, R.A. (2003) ‘Wireless LAN: Security Issues and Solutions’

6.       Homeland Security (2006) ‘Wireless Communications Security.’ [online] available from [6th May 2010]

7.       ISO (2005) ‘Information Technology-Security Techniques-Code of Practice for Information Security  Management.’ [online] available from [10th May 2014]

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Rubayyat Mahbub, Md. Fakhrul Islam

Paper Title:

Sintering Behavior and Microstructure Development of Ba Doped BiFeO3

Abstract:  The main focus of this research was to investigate the role of  Ba doping on the sintering behavior and microstructure development of BiFeO3 (BFO) ceramic. Single phase Bi1-xBa.xFeO3 samples (x= 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The doped samples were then sintered at temperatures in the range of 850-900oC for both 1 and 2 hours of holding time. Thereafter field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to examine the phase and structure of the samples. Phase analysis by X–ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that single phase perovskite structure was formed with possible increment in lattice parameter with increasing Ba doping. Moreover, microstructural investigation using the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that an increase in Ba concentration in Bi1-xBa.xFeO3 controls excessive grain growth and reduces the average  grain size from 10 µm in Bi0.9Ba0.1FeO3 to 0.58 µm in Bi0.7Ba0.3FeO3 when sintered at 900oC for 2h. However, percent theoretical density (%TD) above 95% was attained in this research for all compositions.

Bismuth Ferrite, Barium, Doping, Sintering, Densification, Microstructure.


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K. Phaninder Vinay, Basheer Ali Sheik, A. Trinadha Rao

Paper Title:

Design and Analysis of Slot Antenna Parameters Using HFSS

Abstract:   Micro strip slot antenna becomes very popular day by day because of its ease of analysis and fabrication, low cost, light weight, easy to feed and their attractive radiation characteristics. Although slot antenna has numerous advantages, it has also some drawbacks such as restricted bandwidth, and a potential decrease in radiation pattern. Different techniques for bandwidth enhancement of conventional rectangular micro strip antenna are proposed in this report. By increasing the height of slot, increasing the substrate thickness and decreasing the permittivity of substrate the %bandwidth is increased. HFSS Software is used for the simulation and design calculation of micro strip slot antenna. The return loss, VSWR curve, directivity and gain are to be analyzed and evaluated.

Probe, Feed, Patch, Antenna, HFSS, Substrate, Coax, Bandwidth.


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Thayapraba M

Paper Title:

Cost Effectiveness of Post - Tensioned and Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Systems

Abstract:    In a developing country like India the benefits of prestressing and particularly of Post-Tensioning are yet to be recognized. The inherent hurdle is undoubtedly the higher initial investment that is required from the clients. This has to be overlooked considering the significant benefits  of  Post-Tensioning and  the  high  benefit-aspect ratio that can be advantageously procured. In the present study an attempt is made to compare the cost effectiveness of Post-Tensioned flat slab systems with respect to reinforced concrete flat slab system. Both the systems were analysed using SAP and MS Excel program was developed based on the design methodology. The results indicate that Post Tensioned flat slabs are cheaper than the RCC slab systems for all the spans considered in the present study.

Post Tensioning (PT), Post Tensioned Flat Slab, RCC Flat Slab.


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3.    Gilbert, S. G., Murray, T. K., Scott, R. H. and Cleland, D.  J.  2000.  “Equivalent frame  analysis methods for gravity loads in flat slab structures”. Journal of the American   Conctitute,   Structures   Journal, 97(2),316-321.

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9.    Purushothaman, P., 1984. “Reinforced concret Structural elements”, Tata Mcgraw- hill, New Delhi.