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Volume-3 Issue-7: Published on December 10, 2013
Volume-3 Issue-7: Published on December 10, 2013

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Volume-3 Issue-7, December 2013, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Naveen Kumar Sarva, U. Nageswara Rao, D. Ramesh, D. Harihara Santosh

Paper Title:

Design of Low Power SRAM Architecture with Isolated Read and Write Operations at Deep Submicron CMOS Technology

Abstract:   Low power VLSI design has become the major challenge of chip designs as leakage power has been rising with scaling of technologies. In deep submicron technologies, leakage power becomes a key for a low power design due to its ever increasing proportion in chip’s total power consumption. Motivated by emerging battery-operated application on one hand and shrinking technology of deep sub micron on the other hand, leakage power dissipation is playing a significant role in the total power dissipation as threshold voltage becomes low. Here we proposed Novel SRAM architecture called IP-SRAM with separate write sub-cell and read sub-cell. In this paper we designed the total 8 bit SRAM architecture with newly proposed techniques and compare this one with conventional SRAM architecture and we observed that the total power consumption is reduced. Here the total architecture was designed with 180nm technology.

  IP-SRAM, Deep Submicron Technology, Sub Threshold Leakage Power.


1.          International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2003.
2.          C.-H. Lo and S.-Y. Huang, “P-P-N Based 10T SRAM Cell for Low-Leakage and Resilient Subthreshold Opera-tion,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2011, pp. 695-704.

3.          N. Kr. Shukla, R. K. Singh and M. Pattanaik, “A Novel Approach to Reduce the Gate and Sub-threshold Leakage in a Conventional SRAM Bit-Cell Structure at Deep-Sub Micron CMOS Technology,” International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Vol. 23, No. 7, 2011, pp. 23-28.

4.          L.-J. Zhang, C. Wu, Y.-Q. Ma, J.-B. Zheng and L.-F. Mao, “Leakage Power Reduction Techniques of 55 nm SRAM Cells,” IETE Technical Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2011, pp. 135-145

5.          K. Zhang (Ed.), “Embedded Memories for Nano-Scale VLSIs,” Integrated Circuits and Systems Series, Springer.

6.          Designing an SRAM array at the 90nm CMOS tech node Shrivathsa Bhargav and Jaime Peretzman ELEN 4321 – Digital VLSI circuits Columbia University, Fall 2007.

7.          B.S. Deepaksubramanyan and Adrian Nu˜nez EECS Department,Syracuse University , Analysis of Subthreshold Leakage Reduction inCMOS Digital Circuits, Proceeding of the 13TH NASA VLSISymposium Post Fall, IDAHO, USA, June 2007.

8.          Park, J. C., and Mooney III, V. J. “Sleepy Stack Leakage Reduction.Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems,” IEEE Transactions ,vol.14,no.11, pp.1250-1263, November 2006.

9.          Kao, J. T., and Chandrakasan, A. P. “Dual-Threshold Voltage Techniques for Low-power Digital Circuits,” IEEE Journal of Solid- State Circuits, vol.35, no.7, pp.1009-1018.




Vijay Kumar Verma, Kanak  Saxena

Paper Title:

Mining Regular Pattern Over Dynamic Data Stream Using Bit Stream Sequence

Abstract:  In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and data mining communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically nonstationary generation process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining[1]. Recently, temporal regularity in occurrence behavior of a pattern was treated as an emerging area in several applications A pattern is said to be regular in a data stream, if its occurrence behavior is not more than the user given regularity threshold. Although there has been some efforts done in finding regular   patterns over stream data. In this paper we develop a new method called Mining regular Pattern using Bit Stream Sequence with sliding window to generate the complete set of regular pattern  over a data stream at a user given regularity threshold. Experimental results show that highly efficiency in terms of execution and memory consumption and also in number of candidate scan

   Data mining, Data stream, pattern mining, regular pattern, temporal regularity. Sliding window


1.          S.K. Tanbeer, C.F. Ahmed, B.-S. Jeong, Y.-K. Lee “Sliding Window-based Frequent Pattern Mining over Data Streams. Information Sciences”, 179, 2006, pp. 3843-3865
2.          C.K.-S. Leung, , Q.I. Khan “DSTree: A Tree Structure for the mining of Frequent Sets from Data Streams.” In: ICDM, 2006, pp. 928-932.

3.          H.-F. Li, S.-Y. Lee “Mining Frequent Itemsets over Data Streams Using Efficient Window Sliding Techniques.” Expert Systems with Applications 36, 2009, pp. 1466-1477

4.          J. Han, J. Pie, Y. Yin “Mining Frequent Patterns without candidate generation”, In Proc. ACM SIGMOD international Conference on management of Data, 2000, pp. 1-12.

5.          R. Agarwal, and R. Srikanth, “Fast algorithms for mining association rules in Large databases”, In Proc. 1994 Int. Conf. Very Large Databases VLDBA’94, Santiago, Chile, Sept. 1994, pp. 487- 499.

6.          S. K. Tanbeer, C. F. Ahmed, B.S. Jeong, and Y.K. Lee, “Mining Regular Patterns in Transactional Databases”, IEICE Trans. On Information Systems, E91-D, 11, 2008, pp. 2568- 2577.

7.          S.K. Tanbeer, C.F. Ahmed, B.S. Jeong. “Mining regular patterns in data streams.” In: DASFAA. Volume 5981 of LNCS., Springer 2010, pp. 399-413

8.          J. Han, M. Kamber, “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques”, 2nd ed. An Imprint of Elsevier, Morgan Kaufmann publishers, 2006, pp. 468-489.
9.          G. Yi-ming, W. Zhi-jun, “A Vertical format algorithm for mining frequent item sets”, IEEE Transactions, pp. 11-13, 2010
10.       M. J. Zaki, K. Gouda. “Fast Vertical Mining using Diffsets”, SIGKDD ’03, Copyright 2003 ACM 1-58113-737-0/03/0008, August’ 24 – 27, 2003

11.       G. Vijay Kumar, M. Sreedevi, NVS. Pavan Kumar. “Mining Regular Patterns in Transactional Databases using vertical Format”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, vol. 2, pp. 581-583, Sep-Oct 2011.

12.       M.G. Elfeky, W.G. Aref, A.K. Elmagarmid “Periodicity detection in time series databases.” IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 17(7), pp. 875-887 2005

13.       G. Lee, W. Yang, J-M Lee. “A Parallel algorithm for mining partial periodic patterns.” Information Society 176, pp. 2006, pp.3591-3609

14.       B. Ozden, S. Ramaswamy, A. Silberschatz. “Cyclic Association Rules.” In.: 14th International conference on Data Engineering, 1998, pp. 412-421.

15.       Frequent Itemset Mining Dataset Repository and UCI machine learning repository (University or California).

16.       Agrawal, R., Srikant, R.: Fast algorithms for Mining Association Rules in Large Databases. In: VLDB, pp. 487–499 (1994)




Prachi Yadav, Nisheet Soni

Paper Title:

Distribution Automation – A Modern Perspective

Abstract:  Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) is a term coined by the IntelliGrid project in North America to describe the extension of intelligent control over electrical power grid functions to the distribution level and beyond. It is related to distribution automation that can be enabled via the smart grid. The electrical power grid is typically separated logically into transmission systems and distribution systems. Electric power transmission systems typically operate above 110kV, whereas Electricity distribution systems operate at lower voltages. Normally, electric utilities with SCADA systems have extensive control over transmission-level equipment, and increasing control over distribution-level equipment via distribution automation. However, they often are unable to control smaller entities such as Distributed energy resources (DERs), buildings, and homes.

CAN (Control Area Network), GUI (Graphical User Interface), DAS (Distribution Automation System), MATLAB, Vehicular Network Toolbox (VNT)


1.          M. G. Golzar, and H. Tajozzakerin, “A New Intelligent Remote Control System for Home Automation and Reduce Energy Consumption,” Fourth Asia International Conference on Mathematical/Analytical Modelling and Computer Simulation (AMS 2010), pp. 174 - 180, 26 –  28 May 2010.
2.          D. D. Clark, K. T. Pogran, and D. P. Reed, “An Introduction to Local Area Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1497 – 1517, 1978.

3.          K. S. Surendran, and H. Leung, “An Analog Spread-Spectrum Interface for Power-Line Data Communication in Home Networking,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 80 - 89, Jan. 2005.

4.          S. Dagtas, G. Pekhteryev, and Z. Sahinoglu, “Multi-Stage Real Time Health Monitoring via ZigBee in Smart Homes,” 21st International  Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (AINAW 2007), vol. 2, pp. 782 - 786, 21 - 23 May 2007.

5.          X. H. Li, K. L. Fang, J. G Gu, and L. Zhang, “An Improved ZigBee Routing Strategy for Monitoring System (ICINIS 2008),” First International Conference on Intelligent Networks and Intelligent Systems, pp. 255 - 258, 1 - 3 Nov. 2008.

6.          R. B. GmbH, “CAN Specification,” version 2.0, 1991.

7.          K. Pazul, “Controller Area Network (CAN) Basics,” Microchip Technology Inc, 1999.

8.          S. Corrigan, "Introduction to the Controller Area Network (CAN)," Texas Instrument, Application Report, July 2008.

9.          M. Farsi, K. Ratcliff, and M. Barbosa, “An Overview of ControllerArea  Network”, Computing & Control Engineering Journal, vol.10, no. 3, pp. 113 - 120, August 1999.

10.       J. Liu, G. Y. Hu, and X. H. Wen, “DSP and CAN Bus Based Induction Motor Control in Electrical Vehicle Application,” Sixth International Conference on Electrical
Machines and Systems (ICEMS 2003), vol. 2, pp. 585 - 587, 2003.

11.       MATLAB Software itself Version (R2011a) 32 bit (WIN 32) March 18, 2011

12.       Robert Bosch GmbH, “CAN Specification”, Version 2.0, 1991

13.       Ronnback, S.; Hyyppa, K.; Wernersson, A. Remote CAN Operations in MATLAB over the Internet, 2nd International IEEE Conference Intelligent Systems, 2004, vol. 3, pp. 123 - 128.

14.       Ekiz, H.; Kutlu, A.; Powner, E.T. Implementation of Can / Can Bridges In Distributed Environments And Performance Analysis Of Bridged Can Systems Using Sae Benchmark, Proceedings of IEEE Southeastcon '97, 1997, pp. 185 – 187.

15.       Navet, N.; Controller area network [automotive applications], IEEE Potentials, 1998, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 12 - 14.

16.       Alheraish, A. Design and Implementation of Home Automation  System, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 2004, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1087 - 1092.

17.       Chen, H.; Tian, J. Research on the Controller Area Network, International Conference on Networking and Digital Society, 2009,vol. 2, pp. 251 - 254.

18.       Steve Corrigan, Introduction to the Controller Area Network (CAN),  Texas Instrument, Application Report.




Gajendra Singh Solanki, Rekha Agarwal, Sandhya Sharma

Paper Title:

Power Optimization of High Speed Pipelined 8B/10B Encoder

Abstract:   In this paper a modified 8B/10B Encoder is designed. Power consumption of 8B/10B encoder is reduced by deactivating unwanted switching of the clock. The clock signals are great source of power dissipation. Clock signal is not use to perform any digital computation. it is mainly used for synchronization of sequential circuits. Hence clock signal don’t carry any information. So, clock-gating techniques can be used to save power by reducing unnecessary clock activities inside the gate module.

    Clock gating, Pipelining, 8B/10B Encoder


1.           IBM Research and Development Journal 1983 27(5)
2.           Widmer A X, Franaszek P A. A DC Balance, Partitioned Block 8B/10B Transmission Code [J] IBM Journal of research and development, 1983, 23(5): 441-443.

3.           CAI Z, HAO J, TAN P H, Efficient encoding of 1EEE 802.1ln LDPC codes [J] Electronics Letters 2006 42 (25) 1471-1472

4.           "8B/IOB Encoder/Decoder" Lattice Semiconductor Corporation, Reference Design RDIOI2, Nov. 2002.

5.           Mitch Dale, .Utilizing Clock-Gating Efficiency To Reduce Power., EE Times India, January 2008

6.           Jagrit Kathuria , M Ayoub khan , Arti Noor, A Review of Clock Gating Aug 2011 pp 106-114 ISSN 2230-7672




Tapas Ranjan Baitharu, Subhendu Kumar Pani

Paper Title:

A Survey on Application of Machine Learning Algorithms on Data Mining

Abstract:  In the context of data mining the feature size is very large and it is believed that it needs a bigger population. Hence, this translates directly into higher computational load.Data and information have become major assets for most of the organizations. The success of any organisation depends largely on the extent to which the data acquired from business operations is utilized. classification is an important task in KDD (knowledge discovery in databases) process. It has several potential applications. The primary objective of this paper is to review the data mining and study  of machine learning algorithm .The performance of classifiers is strongly dependent on the data set used for learning

    Data Mining,Machine learning Algorithm, Knowledge Discovery Databases.


1.          Klosgen W and Zytkow J M (eds.), Handbook of data mining and knowledge discovery, OUP, Oxford, 2002.
2.          Provost, F., & Fawcett, T., Robust Classification for Imprecise Environments. Machine Learning, Vol. 42, No.3, pp.203-231, 2001.
3.          Larose D T, Discovering knowledge in data: an introduction to data mining, John Wiley, New York, 2005.

4.          Kantardzic M, Data mining: concepts, models, methods, and algorithms, John Wiley, New Jersey, 2003.

5.          Goldschmidt P S, Compliance monitoring for anomaly detection, Patent no. US 6983266 B1, issue date January 3, 2006, Available at:

6.          Bace R, Intrusion Detection, Macmillan Technical Publishing, 2000.

7.          J. Kennedy, R. C. Eberhart, and Y. Shi, Swarm Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2001.

8.          J. Kennedy, Small worlds and mega-minds: Effects of neighborhood topology on particle swarm performance, In Proceeding of the 1999 Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 1931-1938, 1999.

9.          J. Kennedy and R. Mendes, Population structure and particle swarm performance, Proceeding of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2002.

10.       J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, A discrete binary version of the particle swarm algorithm, in Proceeding of the 1997 Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 4104-4109, 1997.

11.       C. K. Mohan and B. Al-kazemi, Discrete particle swarm optimization, Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization, Indianapolis, IN, 2001.

12.       D. K. Agrafiotis and W. Cedeño, Feature selection for structure-activity correlation using binary particle swarms, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 45, pp. 1098-1107, 2002

13.       Smyth P, Breaking out of the Black­Box: research challenges in data mining, Paper presented at the Sixth Workshop on Research Issues in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (DMKD­2001), held on May 20 (2001), Santra Barbara, California, USA.

14.       SAS Institute Inc., Lie detector software: SAS Text Miner  (product announcement), Information Age Magazine, [London, UK], February 10 (2002), Available at:

15.       Berry M J A and Linoff G S, Data mining techniques: for marketing, sales, and relationship management, 2 nd edn (John Wiley; New York), 2004.

16.       Delmater R and Hancock M, Data mining explained: a manager's guide to customer­centric business intelligence, (Digital Press, Boston), 2002.

17.       Fuchs G, Data Mining: if only it really were about Beer and Diapers, Information Management Online, July 1, (2004), Available at: http://www.information­ news/1006133­1.html.

18.       Langdell S, Use of data mining in financial applications, (Data Analysis and Visualization Group at NAG Ltd.), Available at: DMinFinancialApps.pdf




Nitin Singh, Raghuvir S. Tomar

Paper Title:

Design of a Low-Cost Contact-Less Digital Tachometer with Added Wireless Feature

Abstract:    This paper proposes a hardware design of an “Digital Contact-less Tachometer” based on IR sensor for measuring the Revolutions Per Minute (RPM) of a rotating object. Conventional tachometers require direct contact with the rotating object which may affect its RPM and thus affecting the accuracy of the tachometer. This Tachometer design allows the measurement of the RPM without any direct contact with the rotating object. For more stable and accurate   results a new algorithm is also proposed in this paper which allows the results to be displayed within a second. The design is also capable of sending RF signals which allows one to send the measured values to a distant place for its further processing. The RF feature also facilitates the data logging for monitoring and controlling the varying values of the RPM. The circuit design is simple, cheap and provide reliable results. Its stability and reliability has been verified through experiments.

   IR sensors; Opto-coupler; RPM; Tachometer; Rotating object.


1.          Bonert, Richard, "Design of a high performance digital tachometer with a microcontroller," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on , vol.38, no.6, pp.1104,1108, Dec 1989
2.          TCND-5000 Optical sensor Datasheet, Semiconductors, United States                           

3.          Robert L. Boylested, Louis Nashelsky: Electronic devices and circuit theory, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

4.          AT89C2051 Microcontroller Datasheet, Atmel Corporation, United States.

5.          Ajay V Deshmukh, Microcontrollers: Theory and Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.




Anuradha S. Kherde, Pritesh R. Gumble

Paper Title:

An Efficient Design of R-2R Digital to Analog Converter with Better Performance Parameter in (90nm) 0.09-µm CMOS Process

Abstract:    CMOS technology favors digital circuitry but imposes a challenge to the analog designer faced with limitations such as process gradients and random device variations. With increasing complexity comes an increase in the number of devices in a system, and hence, an increase in the die size required for that system. As the die space available becomes more and more critical, the need to optimize each function in the system for area consumption. The DAC is optimized for large integrated circuit systems where possibly dozens of such DAC would be employed for the purpose of digitally controlled analog circuit calibration. An R-2R Ladder is a simple and inexpensive way to perform digital – to – analog conversion by using repetitive arrangements of precision resistor networks in a ladder-like configuration. The application of Microwind 3.1 for realizing R2R DAC bridges the gap between theory and the real circuit. This paper provides a detailed view of a 4 bit R2R ladder with optimum accuracy by using Microwind 3.1.This paper describes the design of a DAC which is of contemporary nature with reasonable speed, resolution and linearity with lower power, low area. This paper provides a detailed view of a 4 bit DAC with optimum accuracy by using Microwind 3.1. For all about Pre Layout simulation has been realized using  90 nm (0.09um) CMOS process Technology.

     Digital-to-analog converters (DAC),R-2R, DNL, INL, etc.


1.          Brandon Greenley, Raymond Veith, Dong-Young Chang, and Un-Ku Moon, A Low- Voltage 10-Bit CMOS DAC in 0.01-mm2 Die Area, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUIT AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 52, NO. 5, MAY 2005
2.          Ankit Upadhyay, Rajanikant M. Soni, 3-bit R-2R Digital to Analog Converter with Better INL&DNL, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN:2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-3, February 2013




HawrazKarim M. Amin, V.C. Agarwal, Omar Q. Aziz

Paper Title:

Effect of Opening Size and Location on the Shear Strength Behavior of R.C Deep Beams without Web Reinforcement

Abstract:   This paper is carried out to study the effect of opening Sizes and Locations on the Shear strength behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams without web reinforcement, the opening size and location were main factors included in the present work, Variation of Parameters (l/d, a/d, fc and maximum size of aggregate) which affect the behavior of R.C deep beams are taken into account, a nonlinear analysis using the finite element method with (Ansys+CivilFEM) release 12.0 program was used to predict the ultimate Shear and mode of failure for reinforced concrete deep beams with openings, Materials nonlinearities due to cracking, crushing of concrete and yield conditions of the reinforcing steel are considered. The capabilities of the proposed model have been examined and demonstrated by analyzing available experimental eleven reinforced concrete deep beams without openings which showed a good agreement with difference for ultimate Shear a bout (6.4%), then after validation the program 99 models were created with square web openings having 3 sizes at 3 locations in each model to study their effect on the shear stress, (Ansys+CivilFEM) software was found completely efficient in handling such analysis and the proposed simulation of the material in the present study are capable of Predicting the behavior of reinforced concrete Deep Beams with Openings of Different Sizes and Locations, the results showed that location of openings has a large effect, where this effect is the largest when openings is provided at shear zone where sharp decrease in the ultimate Shear was observed and Mid-span location showed small effect and the ultimate Shear increases with decrease for the size of openings. The effect of parameters (l/d, a/d, fc, and maximum size of aggregate) are observed where changing l/d from 2.42 to 8.4 and (a/d) from 1 to 2.5 has high significant effect in decreasing the shear strength but increasing (a/d) from 1.5 to 2.25 for (l/d) of 4.61 and maximum size of aggregate from 9.5mm to 19mm has a very little effect while increasing the compressive strength of concrete increases the ultimate Shear Strength in different rates for varied opening locations and sizes.

 deep beams, web opening effect, Shear strength behavior, (Ansys+CivilFEM)


1.          ACI committee 318 (2008). "Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary", American Concrete Institute, Detroit, U.S.A.
2.          Amer M. Ibrahim, Mohammed Sh. Mahmood (2009). "Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with FRP Laminates", College of engineering, Diyala University, Iraq.

3.          ANSYS (2004). "ANSYS Help", Release 9.0.

4.          ANSYS (2005). “ANSYS Help” Release 11.

5.          CivilFEM Theory Manual (2009). Release 12.0, Ingeciber, S.A.

6.          Giuseppe Campione and Giovanni Minafo (2012). "Behaviour of concrete deep beams with openings and low shear span-to-depth ratio", Engineering Structures 41, pp. 294–306.

7.          Guganeswaran N (2011). Curriculum and product development team, "ANSYS Civil Reference Guide", CADD Center Training Services Private Limited

8.          Haider M. Alsaeq (2013). "Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 78.

9.          Huang, H. C. (1987). "Implementation of Assumed Strain Degenerated Shell Elements", International Journal of Computer and Structures, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 147-155.

10.       J.K Lee, C.G. Li and Y.T. Lee (2008). "Experimental Study on Shear Strength os Reinforced Concrete Continuous Deep Beams with Web Opening", The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering.

11.       Kachlakev, D., Miller, T. and Yim, S. (2001). "Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP Laminates", Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 and Oregon Department of Transportation, Final Report, SPR 316.

12.       Lawrance KL (2002). "ANSYS Tutorial", Release 7.0 and 6.1, SDC Publications, Canonsburg, 1.1- 2.25.

13.       Madana, S.K., Kumar, G. R. and Singh, S.P. (2007). "Steel Fibers as Replacement of Web Reinforcement for RCC Deep Beams in Shear", Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing) Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 479-489.

14.       Mohammad Abdur Rashid and AhsanulKabir (1996). "Behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam under uniform loading", The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh.

15.       Omar Qarani Aziz, Ramzi B. Abdul-Ahad (2012). "Shear Strength Prediction of Crushed Stone Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams without Stirrups", Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 1(4), pp. 7-26.

16.       Sultan, A.A. (2003). “Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams”, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq, pp. 110.




Kondra Mohan Raju, E. Madhukar

Paper Title:

Classification of Users in Online Video Social Networks

Abstract:    There are many online video social networks, in which Youtube is the most popular. These networks provide users to upload their own videos respect to a particular discussion. The feature provided by the networks gives the user to upload any kind of content. This creates polluted content into the system. For Example, Spammers may upload unrelated content as response to popular which increases the count of view. There is another kind of users called promoters, will gain visibility to a particular content by uploading many number of responses to increase the rank of the video. By promoting this, video will appear top in the list. This kind of activities may jeopardize the trust of the users, and social network may fail to provide genuine content. To avoid such kind of activities, we are coming up to detect the spammers and promoters. In our system we built a system same as youtube functionality having users with classification as legitimate, promoters and spammers. To distinguish between the users we allow for content and characterization attributes. These attributes can help in classifying user class. To classify the users we may use supervised classification theory. The theory is implemented on test collection. This approach successfully classified the majority of the prompters and some of the legitimate users misclassified. And most of the spammers detected form legitimate users as distinguishing is hard difficult.

     social network, promoters, spammers, video sharing, classification.


1.          Comscore: Americans viewed 12 billion videos online in   may2008.
2.          L. Gomes, J. Almeida, V. Almeida, and W. Meira. Workload models of spam and legitimate e-mails. Performance Evaluation, 64, 2007.

3.          Thomason. Blog spam: A review. In Conference on Email and Anti-Spam (CEAS), 2007.

4.          Castillo, D. Donato, A. Gionis, V. Murdock, and F. Silvestri. Know your neighbors: Web spam detection using the web topology. In Int’l ACM SIGIR, 2007.

5.          Z. Gyöngyi, H. Garcia-Molina, and J. Pedersen. Combating web spam with trustrank. In Int’l. Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 2004.

6.          Y. Lin, H. Sundaram, Y. Chi, J. Tatemura, and B. Tseng. Detecting splogs via temporal dynamics using self-similarity analysis. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWeb), 2, 2008.

7.          Y. Xie, F. Yu, K. Achan, R. Panigrahy, G. Hulten, and I. Osipkov. Spamming botnets: Signatures and characteristics. In ACM SIGCOMM, 2008.

8.          P. Heymann, G. Koutrika, and H. Garcia-Molina. Fighting spam on social web sites: A survey of approaches and future challenges. IEEE Internet Computing, 11, 2007.

9.          C. Wu, K. Cheng, Q. Zhu, and Y. Wu. Using visual features for anti-spam filtering. In IEEE Int’l Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), 2005.

10.       Y. Ahn, S. Han, H. Kwak, S. Moon, and H. Jeong. Analysis of topological characteristics of huge online social networking services. In Int’l World Wide Web Conference (WWW), 2007.




Harish P, V.Venkateswarlu

Paper Title:

Design and Motion Planning of Indoor Pipeline Inspection Robot

Abstract:    This project deals with a design and motion planning algorithm of a caterpillar-based pipeline robot that can be used for inspection of 80–100-mm pipelines in an indoor pipeline environment. The robot system consists of a Robot body, a control system, a CMOS camera, an accelerometer, a temperature sensor, a ZigBee module. The robot module will be designed with the help of CAD tool. The control system consists of Atmega16 micro controller and Atmel studio IDE. The robot system uses a differential drive to steer the robot and spring loaded four-bar mechanisms to assure that the robot expands to have grip of the pipe walls. Unique features of this robot are the caterpillar wheel, the four-bar mechanism supports the well grip of wall, a simple and easy user interface.

   Caterpillar wheel, Inspection robot, ZigBee, Atmega.


1.           Young-Sik Kwon, and Byung-Ju Yi, “Design and Motion Planning of a Two-module collaborative Indore pipeline Inspection Robot”, IEEE Transaction on Robotics, VOL 28, NO 3, JUNE 2012.
2.           A. A. Transeth and K. Y. Pettersen, “Snake robot  obstacle-aided loco-motion: modeling, simulations, and experiments,”  IEEE Trans. Robot., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 88–104, Feb. 2008.

3.           S. Hirose and H. Yamada, “Snake-like robots [Tutorial],”   IEEE Robot.Autom., Mag., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 88–98, Mar. 2009.

4.           J. H. Lee, B.-J. Yi, S. R. Oh, and I. H. Suh, “Optimal  design and de- velopment of a five-bar finger with redundant actuation,” Mechatronics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 27–42, 2001.

5.           T. Oya and T. Okada, “Development of a steerable, wheel-type, in-pipe robot and its path planning,”  Adv. Robot., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 635–650,2005.

6.           S. Hirose, H. Ohno, T. Mitsui, and K. Suyama, “Design of in-pipe inspec- tion vehicles for _25, _50, _150 pipes,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., 1999, pp. 2309–2314.

7.           C. Jun, Z. Deng, and S. Y. Jiang, “Study of locomotion control character- istics for six wheels driven in-pipe robot,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot., Biomimetics, 2004, pp. 119–124.

8.           S. G. Roh and H. Choi, “Differential-drive in-pipe robot for moving inside urban gas pipelines,”  IEEE Trans. Robot., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–17, Feb.2005.

9.           T. Fukuda, H. Hosokai, and M. Uemura, “Rubber gas actuator driven by hydrogen storage alloy for in-pipe inspection mobile robot with flexible structure,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., 1989, pp. 1847–1852.

10.          M. Bertetto and M. Ruggiu, “In-pipe inch-worm pneumatic flexible robot,” in Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Adv. Intell. Mechatronics, 2001, vol. 2, pp. 1226–1231.

11.        H. Lim, J. Y. Choi, Y. S. Kwon, E. J. Jung, and B.-J. YI, “SLAM in indoor pipelines with 15mm diameter,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., 2008, pp. 2616–1619.




Chetan Patil, Channabasappa Baligar

Paper Title:

Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Safety and Fault Management

Abstract:   In mobile communication the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) site and the tower maintenance play an important role. In the present day scenario some problems are being faced in its maintenance. The major problems faced include the theft of wires, the fluctuation of temperatures, unauthenticated entry, fuel amount being unnoticed and the vendor and the technician’s time management in case of any of the stated problems. In the project work BTS safety and fault management system the measures are taken to rectify these problems. The method makes use of GSM modem which gives the instant message about the each activity happening in the site. The temperature sensors will sense the temperature of the room and if it rises above the threshold value the GSM module will send the message to the master mobile which is already set in the system. The cell site Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which are operated by Diesel generator can be controlled manually or can be put in automatic mode. In addition the site is under the surveillance of CCTV camera which turns ON automatically whenever the site door is opened as a safety measure. Door open/close controller is used for the automatic door opening and closing. The site door can be accessed only through the RFID authentication system. The situation in the site is updated to the technician through messages. The   method   can   greatly   improve   the   BTS site operating efficiency, reduces the delay and fuel consumption. The project has better performance and involves less hardware complexity. The project gives a single comprehensive solution that remotely controls and monitors the subsystems inside each base station site and enables network   operators to coordinate and manage the conditions at all base station sites across their network. This system does not demand any changes in the existing infrastructure but just adds more features to it.

 Automation, ARM, BTS, Mobile tower, Authentification.  


1.          Pizzuti, Grossoni, Antonetti, "Power and Conditioning Telemanagement Integrated System," Twenty-Seventh International Telecommunications Conference, 2005. pp.83-88, Sept. 2005
2.          Ajosh, K, Sujit P, Rajan A,  Aravind V, Raveendranathan  K.C., "A Smart BTS Power Management System," Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), International Conference on 2010, pp.488-492, 26-28 Nov. 2010.

3.          Satoshi Maruyama, Katsuhiko Tanahashi, Takehiko Higuchi (2002). Base Transceiver Station for W-CDMA System. August 8, 2002.

4.          Yi xianjun and Liu luimei “Development of high precision temperature measurement system based on ARM” 9TH International conference an electronic measurement and instrument, pp 795-800, May 2009.

5.          FANG Bo, QING Dawei (2007). The Burglar AlARM System of Power Table. Technology of Electrician. (4) 30-31.

6.          ZHOU Binfa, LI Tao, LIN Tao (2005). Study on Anti-theft alARM system of Street lighting cable. Lighting monitoring . (4).23-24.

7.          LIN Lisheng (2007), The circuit design of anti-theft alARM system for general power cable. Hydraulic engineering. (3).59.

8.          WANG Jun (2003). The line laying of buried cable and an ideal anti-theft device. Engineering technology. (23).275-279.




Ankush A.Mohod, Nilesh N.Kasat

Paper Title:

Optical Character Recognition of Printed Text in Devanagari Using Neuro - Fuzzy Integrated System

Abstract:  In this paper, we deal with the recognition of printed Devanagari characters using Neuro-fuzzy integrated system. The paper shows measurement of the effectiveness of classifier in terms of precision in recognition. An attempt is made to adopt Neuro-fuzzy integrated system for classification purpose. In this paper, we have considered sample test image and the characters in the test image are recognized relative to the database created by the user using Neuro-fuzzy integrated system.

 Character Recognition, Printed Devanagari text, Histogram, GLCM


1.          Jang J S. R.,C.-T. Sun, E. Mizutani, (1997) Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing A Computation Approach to Learning and Machine Intelligence, Matlab Curriculum Series, Prentice Hall.
2.          Zadeh, Lotfi A., "Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks, and Soft Computing," Communication of the ACM, March 1994, Vol. 37 No. 3, pages 77-84.

3.          U. Pal and B. B. Chaudhuri, “Indian script character recognition: A Survey”, Pattern Recognition, Vol. 37, pp. 1887-1899, 2004.

4.          José antónio barros vieira1, fernando morgado dias2, alexandre manuel mota comparison between artificial neural networks and neurofuzzy Systems in modeling and control: a case study

5.          D.Trier ,A.K.Jain ,T.Taxt , “Feature Extraction Method for Character Recognition-A Survey” ,Pattern Recognition,pp.641-662, Vol.29,No.4,1996.

6.          Neural Networks, A Comprehensive Foundation by Simon Haykin

7.          Introduction to Artificial Intelligence And Expert Systems by Dan W. Patterson.




Irshad C.K., Gymmy Joseph Kattoor, Abdul Malik K.V.

Paper Title:

Impact of the Proposed Cargo Port on the Traffic Characteristics of Ponnani Town and Abatement Measures

Abstract:    Traffic impact assessment is a powerful tool for engineers to determine the possible impacts of a project on the traffic and transportation infrastructure and to identify the road way improvements required to ensure that the road network will operate safely and efficiently for upcoming years. This study examines the impact that a cargo port at Ponnani would have on roadway travel and transportation infrastructure, both today and in the future, throughout the region and recommend abatement measures. The study will use a spread sheet based model to determine the number of road vehicles especially cargo trucks that would be added to the existing traffic flows as a result of the proposed cargo port.  The assessment will be focused on the daily and peak hour traffic associated with the project after it will be commissioned on 2017. Specific travel demand forecasts for the Ponnani town would be assessed both for the existing traffic situation and for the traffic attracted due to the initiation of the cargo port.

 Traffic impact assessment, Cargo port, Cargo traffic.


1.           T. Guha and C. M. Walton, “Traffic impact of container port operations in the southwest Region: A case Study” Report SWUTC/94/60017/71249-1, University of Texas, Austin, November 1994.
2.           Jugovic, S. Hess and T. P. Jugovic “Traffic demand forecasting for port services.” Promet-Traffic &Transportation, vol. 23, no. 1, 2011, pp. 59-69.

3.           L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engineers Limited, “Comprehensive EIA/EMP for Ponnani Port.” RP003, Malabar port private limited, Chennai, October 2012.

4.           K. M. Nicols, and S. L. Shealay, “Traffic Impacts of an Inland Port in Hampton Road”, Hampton Roads Transportation Planning Organization, Virginia. September 2011.

5.           J. F. Regin, and R. R. Val, “Traffic impact assessment for sustainable traffic management and transportation planning in urban areas”, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation studies, Vol. 5, 2005, pp. 2342-2351.

6.           E. Womelorff, and T. Henry, “Transportation impact analysis for the proposed port priority amendment to the San Francisco bay plan”, July 2011.

7.           “Impact on Traffic and transportation - Proposed extension to the container berth and construction of administration craft basin at the port of Ngqura”. CSIR, January 2007, pp. 7.1–7.18.

8.           AECOM, Virginia, “Traffic impact study - Relocation of Navy Systems Management Activity (NSMA) to Naval support facility anacostia district of Columbia” NAVFAC Washington, DC. June 2009.

9.           Caltrans, “Guide for the preparation of traffic impact studies”, State of California department of transportation, December 2002.

10.        SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants (Pty Ltd)., “Traffic and roads impact study for proposed extension of the Walvis bay container terminal,” CSIR, Stellenbosch. November 2009.

11.        Wilbur smith associates, “Container movement & Traffic mitigation measures”, The south Carolina department of commerce, March 2002.

12.        Traffic impact study guidelines, City of Mississauga.




Rashwinder Singh, Danvir Mandal

Paper Title:

Comparison of Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization for Pattern Recovery in Failed Antenna Arrays

Abstract:    In an active antenna array, when a few radiating elements doesn’t work due to some problem. Then the entire radiation pattern gets distorted, mostly due to increased SLL. In this paper, Genetic Algorithm is implemented and compared with Particle Swarm Optimization for linear array synthesis for far field side lobe notch using amplitude only to get the desired radiation pattern with specified SLL. Genetic Algorithm gives optimal solution of the problem than PSO. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of both optimization techniques.

Array Antenna, beam pattern resynthesis,Transmitter/Receiver Module (TRM), failure compensation, Genetic Algorithm(GA),Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Beam Width First Null (BWFN) and Side Lobe Level (SLL).


1.          Jung-Hoon Han ; Sang-Ho Lim ; Noh-Hoon  Myung,”  Array Antenna TRM Failure Compensation Using Adaptively Weighted Beam Pattern Mask Based on Genetic Algorithm “ Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE Volume: 11
2.          T. J. Peters, “A conjugate gradient based algorithm to minimize the sidelobe level of planar arrays with element failures,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1497–1504, Oct. 1991.

3.          Er. M. H. Hui et al.gave a numerical technique based algorithm to regain the directional pattern of linear antenna array with single element  failure conditions

4.          L. L. Wang and D. G. Fang, “Combination of genetic algorithm and fast fourier transform for array failure correction,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, Beijing, China, November 2003.

5.          AydinerTankin and Cigdem Seckin Gurel,”Antenna Array Pattern Optimization in the case of array element failure”33rd European Microwave ConferenceMunich,pp.1083-1086,2003.

6.          J.A.Rodriguez, F. Ares, E.Moreno, "GA Procedure for Linear ArrayFailure Correction", Electronics Letters, 36, pp.196-198, 2000.

7.          M. V. Lozano, J. A. Rodríguez, and F. Ares, “Recalculating linear array antennas  to compensate for failed elements while maintaining fixed nulls,” J.Electromagn. Waves Appl., vol. 13, pp. 397–412, 1999.

8.          Beng-Kiong Yeo and Yilong Lu,” Adaptive Array Digital Beamforming Using Complex-Coded Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm” APMC2005 Proceedings, 0-7803-9433-X/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE.

9.          T. Panigrahi, A. Patnaik*, S. N. Sinha, C. G. Christodoulou, “Amplitude Only Compensation for Failed Antenna Array Using Particle Swarm Optimization” 978-1-4244-2042-1/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE

10.       C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997

11.       J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle Swarm Optimization in Electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat. vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 397-407, 2004.

12.       R. C. Eberhart and Y. Shi, “Comparison between genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization,” in Proc. 7th Annu. Conf. Evol. Program.(EP-98), vol. 1447, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Mar. 1998, pp.611–616.

13.       Mohd.Tarmizi Ali, Azita Laily Yusof  Norsuzila Ya'acob ,”A Reconfigurable Antenna Array (RAA)  Integrated with RF Switches, “Research Management Institute (RMI) University Teknologi Mara 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor  Malaysia ,January 2012.




Nahro Radi Husein, V. C. Agarwal, Anupam Rawat

Paper Title:

An Experimental Study on Using Lightweight Web Sandwich Panel as a Floor and a Wall

Abstract:    This experimental investigation was focused on the strength capability of lightweight web sandwich panel (LWSP). This study deals with the LWSP’s strength under flexural loading (one point load & third point load) by treating these LWSPs as a floor and also, studying LWSP strength under axial load by treating these LWSPs as a wall. Thirteen specimens of LWSP was casted in this study with size of (500 mm*400 mm*100 mm), with core size of (450 mm*105mm*60 mm), three prism core are used in each panel. Ten specimens are LWSP with aerated concrete as a core and three LWSP with thermocol as a core which are encased by ferrocement with difference water cement ratio (w/c) and difference waterproofing admixture. The performance of the LWSP is investigated in terms of first crack load, load-deflection curve for flexural load with (one point loading and third point loading), modules of rupture, ultimate flexural load, axial load-deformation curve and the failure mode. The unit weight of the LWSPs which have aerated concrete as a core is (1850-1950) Kg/m3 and the unit weight of the LWSPs which have thermocol as a core (1250-1300) Kg/m3.

Aerated Concrete, Ferrocement, Lightweight Web Sandwich Panel (LWSP), sandwich, Thermocol.


1.          Serrano, P. J.C, Uday, K.V. and Nasim, U. (2007). Low Velocity Impact Response of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete/CFRP Sandwich Plates. Composite Structures 80(4): 621-630.
2.          Mouli, M. and Khelafi, H. (2006). Strength of Short Composite Rectangular Hollow Section Columns Filled with Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Engineering Structures. Article in Press, Available Online on

3.          Carmichael, J (1986). Pumice Concrete Panels. Concrete International. 8(11): 31–32.

4.          Ergul, Y., Cengiz, D.A., Aleaettin, K. and Hassan, G. (2003). Strength and Properties ofLightweight Concrete Made with Basaltic Pumice and Fly Ash. Materials Letters.57 (15): 2267-2270.

5.          Bottcher, M. and Lange, J. (2006). Sandwich Panels with Openings. CompositeConstruction in Steel and Concrete, 186(14): 137-46.

6.          Villanueva, GR and Cantwell, W.J. (2004). The High Velocity Impact Response ofComposite and FML-Reinforced Sandwich Structures. Composite Science andTechnology 64(1): 35-54.

7.          Naaman, AE. (2000). Ferrocement and Laminated Cementitious Composites. AnnArbor, Michigan, USA: Techno Press.

8.          Abang, A.A.A. (1995). Application of Ferrocement as a Low Cost ConstructionMaterial in Malaysia. Journal of Ferrocement. 25(2):123-128.

9.          Mahfuz, H., Muhammad, S.I., Vijaya,,K.R, Mrinal, C.S. and Shaik J. (2004). Responseof Sandwich Composites with Nanophased Cores under Flexural Loading.Composites: Part B Engineering 35 (6-8): 543–550.

10.       Arreshvhina, N. and Zakaria, F. (2002). Drying Shrinkage and Water Absorption ofSlag Cement Based Aerated Lightweight Concrete Wall Panels. Proceedings
ofthe Research Seminar on Materials and Construction, Johor Bahru.118-134.

11.       Nasim, U., Shelar, V.K. and Fouad, F. (2006). Impact Response of Autoclaved AeratedConcrete/FRP Sandwich Structures. Structures Congress USA. ASCE; 201-214.

12.       27. T.Chandrasekhar Rao, T.D.Gunneswara Rao and N.V.Ramana Rao [2008]”An Experimental Study on Ferro Cement Channel Units under Flexural Loading". International Journal of Mechanics and Solids ISSN 0973-1881 Volume 3 Number 2 (2008) pp. 195–203.

13.       SalihuddinRadinSumadi, MahyuddinRamli [2008] “Development of Lightweight Ferrocement Sandwich Panels for Modular Housing and Industrialized Building System”.  Research Vote No: 73311 University Technology Malaysia.

14.       Ade S. Wahyuni, VanissornVimonsatit and Hamid Nikraz [2012] “Shear Behaviour of Ligthweight Sandwich Reinforced Concrete Slabs ". Advances in Structural Engineering: an International Journal. 15 (10): pp.1705-1715.

15.       T.Chandrasekhar Rao, T.D.Gunneswara Rao and N.V.Ramana Rao [2008]”An Experimental Study on Ferro Cement Channel Units under Flexural Loading". International Journal of Mechanics and Solids ISSN 0973-1881 Volume 3 Number 2 (2008) pp. 195–203.

16.       Jalal A. Saeed, Payman H. Mohammad and lbrahim H. Aziz [1997] “Behavior and Flexural Strength of Ferrocement One Way Slabs with Square Openings". Journal of ZankoySulaimoni, No.1, Vol.1.




Ali Hussein Qader,V.C. Agarwal, Amer M. Ibrahim

Paper Title:

Nonlinear Behavior of Continuous Composite Steel Concrete Beam with External Prestress

Abstract:    This paper presentsa nonlinear finite-element analyses have been carried out to investigate the behavior up to failure of continuous composite steel-concrete beam with external Prestressing tendon, in which a concrete slab is connected together with steel I-beam by means of headed stud shear connectors,  subjected to symmetrically static loading. ANSYS computer program (version 12.1) has been used to analyze  the  three dimensional model. This covers: load deflection  behavior, strain  in  concrete, strain  in steel beam and failure modes. The nonlinear material and geometrical analysis based on Incremental-Iterative  load method, is adopted. One model had been analyzed to verify its capability and efficiency. The results obtained by finite element solutions have shown good agreement with experimental result.

     ANSYS. 12.1, externally Prestressing, Composite steel-concrete beam, Finite element.


1.          Safan M., and Kohoutkova A., (2001). ''Experiments with Externally Prestressed Continuous Composite Girders''. ActaPolytechnica, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp.65-73.
2.          Saadatmanesh H., Albrecht P., and Ayyub B., (1989). " Guidelines for Flexural Design of Prestressed Composite Beams " Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE , Vol. 115, No. 11, pp.2944-2961.

3.          Ayyub B., Sohn Y., and Saadatmanesh H., (1990). ''Prestressed Composite Girders under Positive Moment''.ASCE,Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.116, No.11, pp. 2931-2951.

4.          Saadatmanesh  H.,  Albrecht  P.,  and  Ayyub  B.,  (1989),  Experimental  study  of prestressed  composite  beams,  ASCE,  Journal  of  structural  engineering,  115(9),  pp 2348-2363.

5.          Daly  F.,  Witarnawan  W.,  (1997),  Strengthening  of  bridges  using  external  posttensioning, Conference of eastern Asia society for transportation studies, Seoul, Korea.

6.          European Committee for Standardisation (CEB), Eurocode 3, (1993), Design of steel structures, Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings, DD ENV, 1993-1-1, EC3.

7.          Nie J., Cai C., Zhou T., and Li Y., (2007). ''Experimental and Analytical Study of Prestressed Steel-Concrete Composite Beams Considering Slip Effect  '' ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 4, pp. 530-540.

8.          Desayi P., and Krishnan, S., (1964), Equation for  the stress-strain curve of concrete, Journal of the American concrete institute, 61, pp 345- 350 

9.          European Committee for Standardisation (CEB), Eurocode 3, (1993), Design of steel structures, Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings, DD ENV, 1993-1-1, EC3.

10.       Millard  S.,  and  Johnson  R.,  (1984),  Shear  Transfer  across  cracks  in  reinforcedconcrete  due  to  aggregate  interlock  and  to  dowel  action,  Magazine  of  concrete research, 36(126), pp 9-21.

11.       Zona A., Ragni L., and Dall'Asta A., (2009). ''ASimplified Method for the Analysis of Externally Prestressed Steel-Concrete Composite Beams'', Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65, pp. 308-313.

12.       Chen Sh., Wang X., and Jia Y., (2009). ''A Comparative Study of Continuous Steel-Concrete Composite Beams Prestressed with External Tendons: Experimental Investigation'', Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65, pp.1480-1489.

13.       Dall'Asta A. and Dezi L., (1998). ''Nonlinear Behavior of Externally Prestressed Composite Beams: Analytical Model'' ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 124, No.5, pp.588-597.

14.       Dall’Asta A. and Zona A., (2005). ''Finite Element Model for Externally Prestressed Composite Beams with Deformable Connection''. ASCE, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 5, pp.706-714.




Jan Haase

Paper Title:

Wireless Sensor Networks – An Important Part of Current Automotive and Building Automation Tasks

Abstract:    In the areas of building automation and automotive applications the use of systems of (embedded) systems is very common. However, until recently, in many cases the communication between the participating systems was cable-based. Due to developments in the area of wireless sensor networks, the communication can be converted  step-by-step to be wireless. This leads to many advantages, like reduced space requirements, less weight, etc. On the other hand it introduces new problems like possible occasional connection problems, vulnerability in terms of data security, etc. This survey paper gives an overview on current activities and works in the area of wireless sensor networks for automotive and building automation applications.

 Wireless sensor networks, WSN, Building Automation, Automotive  


1.          M. Flatscher, M. Dielacher, T. Herndl, T. Lentsch, R. Matischek, J. Prainsack, W. Pribyl, H. Theuss, and W. Weber, “A bulk acoustic wave (BAW) based transceiver for an in-tire-pressure monitoring sensor node,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 167–177, 2010.
2.          J. Haase, M. Lang, and C. Grimm, “Mixed-level simulation of wireless sensor networks,” in Specification & Design Languages (FDL 2010), 2010 Forum on. IET, 2010, pp. 1–6.

3.          Rauch, F. Klanner, R. Rasshofer, and K. Dietmayer, “Car2x-based perception in a high-level fusion architecture for cooperative perception systems,” in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2012 IEEE. IEEE, 2012, pp. 270–275.

4.          L. Hoehmann and A. Kummert, “Car2x-communication for visionbased object detection,” in Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM), 2010 International Conference on. IEEE, 2010, pp. 290–294.

5.          Kwoczek, Z. Raida, J. Lacik, M. Pokorny, J. Puskely, and P. Vagner, “Influence of car panorama glass roofs on car2car communication (poster),” in Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2011 IEEE. IEEE, 2011, pp. 246–251.

6.          P. Palensky, “Requirements for the next generation of building networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Systems and Applications (ISAS CITSA 2004), Orlando, Florida, USA, 2004.

7.          R. Matischek, T. Herndl, C. Grimm, and J. Haase, “Real-time wireless communication in automotive applications,” in Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), 2011, 2011, pp. 1–6.

8.          J. Wenninger, J. Moreno, J. Haase, "Power optimization of wireless sensor networks at design time," AFRICON, 2011 , vol., no., pp.1,6, 13-15 Sept. 2011

9.          F. Gil-Castineira, F. J. Gonzalez-Castano, and L. Franck, “Extending vehicular CAN fieldbuses with delay-tolerant networks,” Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3307–3314, 2008.

10.       J. Glaser, J. Haase, M. Damm, and C. Grimm, “Investigating powerreduction for a reconfigurable sensor interface,” in Proceedings of the Austrian National Conference on the Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (Austrochip), Graz, Austria.

11.       C. Caione, D. Brunelli, and L. Benini, “Distributed compressive sampling for lifetime optimization in dense wireless sensor networks,” Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–40, 2012.

12.       G. Bumiller, L. Lampe, and H. Hrasnica, “Power line communication networks for large-scale control and automation systems,” Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 106–113, 2010.

13.       J. Haase, F. Eschmann, B. Klauer, and K. Waldschmidt, “The SDVM: A Self Distributing Virtual Machine for computer clusters,” In Organic and Pervasive Computing -- ARCS 2004, International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems, volume 2981 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer Verlag, 2004

14.       Y. K. Tan and S. Panda, “Energy harvesting from hybrid indoor ambient light and thermal energy sources for enhanced performance of wireless sensor nodes,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, pp. 4424–4435, 2011.

15.       J. Wenninger and J. Haase, “Efficient building automation simulation using system on chip simulation techniques,” in Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Proceedings of 26th International Conference on, 2013, pp. 1–4.

16.       Y.-S. Son, T. Pulkkinen, K.-D. Moon, and C. Kim, “Home energy management system based on power line communication,” Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1380–1386, 2010.

17.       Papaioannou and F.-N. Pavlidou, “Evaluation of power line communication equipment in home networks,” Systems Journal, IEEE, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 288–294, 2009.

18.       R. C. Luo and O. Chen, “Mobile sensor node deployment and asynchronous power management for wireless sensor networks,” Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 2377–2385, 2012.

19.       J. M. Molina, J. Haase, and C. Grimm, “Energy consumption estimation and profiling in wireless sensor networks,” in Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), 2010 23rd International Conference on, 2010, pp. 1–6.

20.       K. Gravogl, J. Haase, and C. Grimm, “Choosing the best wireless protocol for typical applications,” in Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), 2011 24rd International Conference on, 2011.

21.       T. M. Chiwewe and G. P. Hancke, “A distributed topology control technique for low interference and energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks,” Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2012.

22.       J. Haase, “Wireless Network Standards for Building Automation,” in Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management, pp.53-65, Springer, 2013

23.       R. Elfrink, S. Matova, C. de Nooijer, M. Jambunathan, M. Goedbloed, J. van de Molengraft, V. Pop, R. Vullers, M. Renaud, and R. van Schaijk, “Shock induced energy harvesting with a MEMS harvester for automotive applications,” in Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2011 IEEE International. IEEE, 2011, pp. 29–5.

24.       W. Shen, T. Zhang, and M. Gidlund, “Joint routing and mac for critical traffic in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks,” in Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2013.

25.       M. Rathmair and J. Haase, “Android based home appliances simulator,” in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2012 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 1–8.

26.       M. Damm, M. Lukic, S. Mahlknecht, J. Haase, C. Grimm, and V. Malbasa, “Shifting of thermal and schedulable loads based on abstract cost profiles,” in Forum for specification & Design Languages (FDL 2012), 2012.

27.       M. Damm, J. Haase, C. Grimm, F. Herrera, E. Villar, “Bridging MoCs in SystemC specifications of heterogeneous systems,” EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, Hindawi, 2008

28.       J. Haase, J. Moreno, D. Dietrich, “Power-aware system design of wireless sensor networks: Power estimation and power profiling strategies,” Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on 7 (4), 601-613, 2011




Nageswara Rao Eluri, K. Venkata Rao, M. SomaSundara Rao, Mohammed Abazeed Bazeed

Paper Title:

A New Approach to Communicate Secret Message (Key) Among a Group Using Chain Matrix Multiplication Based on Public Key Crypto System

Abstract:    Group key management is a fundamental building block for secure group communication systems. It is required for many applications such as teleconference, group meeting etc. Proposed System, Secure Group Communication in public key cryptography systems is proposed for dynamic groups which are secure. In this scheme a group is established and a master key is generated using the dynamic approach chain matrix multiplication and text messages are transmitted between users of group with help of Master key and also between sub groups. In our approach, group key will be updated when a user joins or leaves the group. Confidentiality can be achieved through changing re-keying when user joins or leaves the group.

     Key Distribution, Chain matrix Multiplication, Server/Client communication, RSA, Encryption and Decryption.




4.          S Rafaeli- ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 2003

5.          L Dondeti - US Patent App. 12/804,216, 2010 – Google Patents

6.          “NETWORK SECURITY ESSENTIALS" by William Stallings

7.          Computer Networks by Fourazen

8.          Network Programming by William Stallings

9. Programming/Client-server


12. DP.pdf.


15. Programming Version7






J. Reddaiah, Dr. G. Harinath Gowd, S. Praveen Kumar, V. Vishnuvardhan

Paper Title:

Design & Analysis of Master Cylinder of Hydraulic Braking System Using ANSYS

Abstract:   Master cylinder is a component of hydraulic braking system and it is just a simple piston inside a cylinder. Master cylinder is the key element of braking system which initiates and controls the braking action. A reservoir is attached to the master cylinder to store brake fluid. A master cylinder having a reservoir and a cylinder formed from a single piece of molded material. The objective of the present work is to minimize the weight to increase mileage in case of general road cars and to increase the speed of the vehicle in case of sports cars. Saving grams at different parts in a car helps us in saving some kilograms at the end of the design. The plastics have good elastic properties and are strong enough to use for master cylinder. The use of plastics in the manufacturing of master cylinder reduces the weight of the master cylinder. The master cylinder is modeled in PRO-E and the analysis is carried using ANSYS work bench. The automobile components like master cylinder can be easily modeled in PRO-E and can be easily analyzed using ANSYS.   

 Hydraulic braking system, Master cylinder, Pro-E, ANSYS.  


1.          Richard F. Waughtal, Automobile weight reduction using High performance plastics.

3.          George Fontes, H31 Booster rebuild & master cylinder, 1991 BMW 750iL, 2010

4.          Jeri S. Culp, Light weight brake system.

5.          C.J.Buynacek and W.L.Winterbottom, Aluminium master cylinders.


7.          Melior, Inc., Introduction to Brake Systems – Study guide.

8.          LEXUS Technical training, Master cylinder.




Chao-Tsung Kuo, Tso-Bing Juang

Paper Title:

Lower-Error Antilogarithmic Converters Using Binary Error Searching Schemes

Abstract:    In this paper, lower-error and ROM-free antilogarithmic converters with multiple regions of piecewise-linear approximation are proposed. By employing Binary Error Searching schemes, the error percent ranges of our proposed antilogarithmic converters could achieve 1.6808%, 0.5681%, 0.137% and 0.098% for 2-region, 4-region, 8-region and 16-region approximations respectively, which can outperform previously proposed methods in the literature. Area comparisons with previously well-known antilogarithmic converter using six-region approximation methods in the literature, our proposed antilogarithmic converter with four-region approximation can provide 1.7x error reduction with only 30% extra hardware overhead under the same delay constraints. These antilogarithmic converters are all designed and synthesized using TSMC 0.18 m process. Our proposed converters can be applied in the real-time 3-D graphics and DSP computations to ease the tremendous computation efforts.

   Antilogarithm, Logarithm, Computer arithmetic, very large scale integration (VLSI) design.


1.          T. A. Brubaker and J. C. Becker, “Multiplication using logarithms implemented with read-only memory,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol.C-24, no..8, pp.761-766, Aug. 1975.
2.          M. J. Shulte and AJ. E. E. Swartzlander, “Hardware Designs for exactly rounded elementary functions,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol.43, no..8, pp.964-973, Aug. 1994

3.          J. N. Mitchell, Jr., “Computer Multiplication and Division Using Binary Logarithms,” IRE Trans. on Electronic Computers, vol. EC-11, pp. 512-517, August 1962.

4.          E.L. Hall, D.D. Lynch, and S.J.Dwyer III, “Generation of Products and Quotients Using Approximate Binary Logarithms for Digital Filtering Applications,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol.19, pp.97-105, Feb. 1970

5.          K. H. Abed and R. E. Siferd, “CMOS VLSI Implementation of a Low-Power Antilogarithmic Converter,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. 52, No. 11, pp. 1421–1433, Nov. 2003.

6.          Hyejung Kim, Byeong-Gyu Nam, Ju-Ho Sohn, Jeong-Ho Woo and Hoi-Jun Yoo, “A 231-MHz, 2.18-mW 32-bit Logarithmic Arithmetic Unit for Fixed-Point 3-D Graphics System,” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 41, no. 11, pp.2 373-2381, Nov. 2006

7.          Suganth Paul, Nikhil Jayalumar, and Sunil P. Khatr, “A Fast Hardware Approach for Approximate, Efficient Logarithm and Antilogarithm Computations,” IEEE Trans. On Very Large Scale Integration, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 269-277, Feb. 2009

8.          Dongdong Chen, Yu Zhang, Daniel Teng, Khan Wahid, Moon Ho Lee and Seok-Bum Ko, “A New Decimal Antilogarithmic Converter,” Proc. of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 445-448, May 2009.

9.          Tso-Bing Juang, Sheng-Hung Chen and Huang-Jia Cheng, “A Lower-Error and ROM-Free Logarithmic Converter for Digital Signal Processing Applications” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs,  vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 931-935, Dec. 2009.

10.       R. Gutierrez and J. Valls, “Low Cost Hardware Implementation of Logarithm Approximation,” IEEE Trans. On Very Large Scale Integration, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2326-2330, Dec. 2011

11.       J.-A. Pineiro, “Algorithm and architecture for logarithm, exponential, and powering computation,” IEEE Transaction on Computers, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1085–1096, Sep. 2004.

12.       P. T. P. Tang, “Table-lookup algorithms for elementary functions and their error analysis,” Proc. 10th Symp. Comput. Arithmetic, pp. 232–236. Jun. 1991.

13.       M. J. Schulte and J. E. Stine, “Approximating elementary functions with symmetric bipartite tables,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 842–847, Aug. 1999.

14.       J. E. Stine and M. J. Schulte, “The symmetric table addition method for accurate function approximation,” Journal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems, vol. 21, pp. 167–177, Jun. 1999.

15.       M. Combet, H. V. Zonneveld and L. Verbeek, “Computation of the base two logarithm of binary numbers, IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 863–867, June 1965.

16.       Tso-Bing Juang, Pramod Kumar Meher and Kai-Shiang Jan, “High-Performance Logarithmic Converters Using Novel Two-Region Bit-Level Manipulation Schemes,” Proc. of 2011 VLSI-DAT (VLSI Symposium on Design, Automation, and Testing), pp.390-393, April 2011.

17.       V. Paliouras and T. Stouraitis, “Low-Power Properties of the Logarithmic Number System,” Proc. 15th IEEE Symp. Computer Arithmetic, pp. 229-236, June 2001




R. Sharadha, CH. Bhanu Prakash, M. J. C. Prasad

Paper Title:

FPGA Implementation of AES Algorithm

Abstract:    This paper presents the FPGA implementation of AES algorithm Cryptography is the science of secret codes, enabling the confidentiality of communication through an insecure channel. It protects against unauthorized parties by preventing unauthorized alteration of use. Generally speaking, it uses a cryptographic system to transform a plaintext into a cipher text, using most of the time a key. To increase the computational speed parallelism and pipelining architecture have been implemented. The simulation is done using Xilinx 13.2 version.

     AES, FPGA, encryption, decryption, Rijndael, block cipher.


1.          WANG Wei, CHEN Jie, XU Fei3 “An Implementation of AES Algorithm Based on FPGA”, 9th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD 2012)
2.          Deshpande, A.M.  Deshpande, M.S.  Kayatanavar, D.N.   “FPGA implementation of AES encryption and decryption”, IEEE Transactions, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-4789-3, Jun 2009.

3.          Muhammad H. Rais and Syed M. Qasim “Efficient Hardware Realization of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm using FPGA”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.9 No.9, September 2009

4.          Marko Mali, Franc Novak and Anton Biasizzo “Hardware Implementation Of AES Algorithm”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, VOL. 56, NO. 9-10, 2005, 265–269

5.          Rajender Manteena, “A VHDL Implemetation of the Advanced Encryption Standard-Rijndael Algorithm”, College of Engineering University of South Florida, 2004.

6.          S. Morioka and A. Satoh “A 10-Gbps Full AES-CryptoDesign with a Twisted BDD S-Box Architecture”, IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems, Vol. 12, No. 7, July 2004, pp.686-691.




Debaswapna Mishra, Narendra.Kumar Kamila

Paper Title:

AGILE Software Development Using Scrum Methodology

Abstract:    This paper examines software developers with an understanding of the SCRUM development practices and methods in the increasingly complex and customer demanding faster time to market scenarios. Scrum has risen from being a method used by a number of enthusiasts at the Easel Corporation in 1993, to one of the world’s most popular and well-known frameworks for development of software. The continued expansion of the global rollout of Scrum is testimony to the fact that Scrum delivers on its promise. While it is often said that Scrum is not a silver bullet, Scrum can be like a heat-seeking missile when pointed in the right direction. It’s inspect and adapt approach to continuous quality improvement can do serious damage to outmoded business practices. By focusing on building communities of stakeholders, encouraging a better life for developers, and delivering extreme business value to customers Scrum can release creativity and team spirit in practitioners and make the world a better place to live and work. Scrum has emerged from a rough structure for iterative, incremental development to a refined, well-structured, straightforward framework for complex product development. We see from a deep research that it leads folks to adjust, test, and adjust it again until it is solid. This framework is fully defined in last decade and is of immense value to organizational success. This study is aimed at bringing a through and detailed understanding of SCRUM, its advantages over other development methodologies and the execution from a practitioner's standpoint. The study is presented in two main stages. The first stage describes the evolution of software development techniques and how they have been applied throughout the software development lifecycle, progressing up to Agile Software Development practices and SCRUM based Development. The second stage of the study presents a detailed set of tools, artifacts and practices used in real world scenarios.

 Agile, Scrum, Product development  


1.          Barry Boehm, “Software Engineering Economics”, Prentice Hall PTR, 1981.
2.          Beck, K., 1999, Extreme Programming Explained (Addison-Wesley) , p 30, 46

3.          Boehm, B., Turner, R., 2003, Balancing Agility and Discipline – A Guide for the Perplexed (Addison-Wesley)

4.          Cockburn, A., 2002, Agile Software Development (Addison-Wesley) , p 44

5.          Cohn, Mike, 2010, Adapting to Agile ,

6.          Cohn, Mike, 2010, Introduction to Agile Estimating and Planning,

7.          English, Ross, Speech on Agile-Scrum vs. Waterfall-Cycle Methodology

8.          Craig Larman, Victor R. Basili, “Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History”, Computer, IEEE CS

9.          Press, June 2004, p. 48.

10.       Highsmith, J., Cockburn A., 2001, Agile Software Development: The Business Of Innovation, IEEE Computer, Sept.

11.       Highsmith, J., Cockburn A., 2002, What is Agile Software Development: The Business Of Innovation, IEEE Computer, Oct.

12.       Nonaka, H. Takeuchi, “The New New Product Development Game”, Harvard Business Review, January 1986, pp. 137-146.

13.       Jim Johnson, “ROI, It’s Your Job!”, Published Keynote Third International Conference on Extreme Programming, 2002.

14.       Ken, Orr., 2002, CMM Versus Agile Development Religious Wars and Software Development. Agile Project Management, 3(7)

15.       Kent Beck, “Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change”, Addison-Wesley, 2000, pp. 18-19.

16.       Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle, “Agile Software Development with Scrum”, Prentice Hall, 2001, pp. 89-94

17.       Martin Fowler, “Is Design Dead”, , 2004.

18.       Mary Poppendieck, Tom Poppendieck, “Lean Software Development An Agile Toolkit”, Addison-Wesley, 2003,p 28-32

19.       Paulk, M.C., Weber, C.V., Curtis, B., 1995, The Capability Maturity Model, Guidelines for Improving the Software Process (Addison-Wesley).

20.       Sommerville, I., 1996, Software Engineering (Addison-Wesley) , p 446, 466, 471

21.       Standish Group International, Inc., “Chaos Chronicles”, 1994.




Aziz Oriche, Abderrahman Chekry, Md. Khaldi

Paper Title:

Agent of Semantic Annotation of Educational Resources Based On Ontology

Abstract:   Our goal is to describe the content of learning objects (LO) by semantically annotating with unambiguous information to facilitate the exploitation of these resources by software agents, these resources are defined by XML tags that structure is a tree DOM (Document Object Model) and on the same domain. We assume to have a domain ontology defined concepts, relations between these concepts and properties. We defined the intelligent agent AGSA featuring an annotation module representing a set of declarative rules to annotate nodes and their relationships. Metadata for this module are concepts expressed the father/son relationships type concepts/sub concepts between LO.

 Semantic Annotation, Metadata, Multi-agent systems, Ontology, learning object (LO).


1.          Aziz O, Abderrahman C, Mohamed K. “Intelligent Agents for the Semantic Annotation of Educational Resources”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), Volume-3, Issue-5, November 2013.
2.          Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC) P1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object Metadata Working Group, "Draft Standard for Learning Object Metadata", Available:, 2002.

3.          Sabine G., K. Ramesh R., "Concept Guide on Reusable Learning Objects with Application to Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences", Dec. 2007.

4.          Foundation for intelligent physical agents, FIPA ACL message structure specification Available at:

5.          Gruber T. "A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications", Knowledge Acquisition, pp. 199-220, 1993

6.          Mouhamadou T., Nathalie P., Nacéra B., ₺Contextual and Metadata-based Approach for the Semantic Annotation of Heterogeneous Documents₺, SEMMA 2008 CEUR workshop proceedings, Vol 346, ISSN 1613-0073.

7.          Fabio B., Giovanni C., Dominic G., "Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE", Series Editor: Michael Wooldridge, Liverpool University, UK, February 2007.

8.          Rim F., Boutheina S., Jean-Pierre D., “Relevant learning objects extraction based on semantic annotation of documents,” 2nd International conference on web intelligence, Mining and Semantics, No.47, 2012.

9.          Mark J., Danius T., Kevin P., David C., Eloise M., Mary G., “Semantic annotation of ubiquitous learning environments,” IEEE Transaction on learning technologies, vol. 5, No. 2, 2012.

10.       Hong C., “CharaParser for fine-grained semantic annotation of organism morphological descriptions,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 738-754, 2012.

11.       Dehors S., Faron-Zucker C., Kuntz R. "Reusing Learning Resources based on Semantic Web Technologies". In Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kerkrade. 2006.

12.       Jain.S., Pareek.J., “KeyPhrase extraction tool for semantic metadata annotation of learning materials,” International conference on signal processing system, pp. 625-628, 2009.

13.       Cernea D., Moral E., Gayo J. "SOAF: Semantic indexing system based on collaborative tagging". Interdisciplinary Journal of E-learning and Learning Objects, Vol 4. 2008




Sagar Devidas Bole

Paper Title:

Mitigation of Inrush Current in Transformer

Abstract:    Nature of magnetizing inrush current is non-symmetrical. The magnitude of magnetizing inrush current is five to ten times the rated magnetizing current and sometimes it is more than full load current of transformer due to addition of transient component. Control and reduction of inrush currents of energizing transformers and reactors is an important problem in electric power systems where different methods are utilized for this purpose. This paper compares two different methods to minimize the inrush current through the simulation result done with MATLAB simulink.

     switching transient, inrush current, Point-On-Wave.


1.          Alex Reis, Jose C. de olivira, Roberto Apolonio, Herivelto S. Bronzeado, A controlled switching methodology for transformer inrush current elimination theory and experimental validation IEEE 2011.
2.          Abbas Ketabi, Ali reza hadidi zavareh New method for inrush current mitigation using series voltage source PWM convertor for the three phase transformer 2011 2ed power electronics, Drive system and technology conference.

3.          Jone H. Brunk, and Kalus J. Frohlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by controlled switching- Part- 1: theoretical consideration IEEE transactions on power delivery, Vol. 16, No. 2, April 2001.

4.          Jone H. Brunk, and Kalus J. Frohlich, Elimination of transformer inrush currents by controlled switching- Part- 2: Application and performance consideration IEEE transactions on power delivery, Vol. 16, No. 2, April 2001.

5.          Nicola chiesa Power transformer modeling for inrush current calculation Doctoral theses at NTNU 2010:64.

6.          Douglas I. Taylor, Member, IEEE, Joseph D. Law, Member, IEEE, Brian K. Johnson, Senior Member, IEEE, and Normann Fischer, Member, IEEE “Single-Phase Transformer Inrush Current Reduction Using Prefluxing” IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 27, No. 1, January 2012.

7.          M.G.Say “The performance and design of alternating current machine”, CBS publications, Third edition, 2000

8.          Ashfaq Husain, “Electrical Machines”,  Second edition, 2009




Rathod Raju Ambadas, R. P. Chaudhari

Paper Title:

PIC Microcontroller Universal Board

Abstract:    A Microcontroller is a device which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto a single microchip and optimized to interact with the outside world through on-board interfaces; i.e. it is a little gadget that houses a microprocessor, ROM (Read Only Memory), RAM (Random Access Memory), I/O (Input Output functions), and various other specialized circuits all in one package. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.



1.          (2006) The microchip website Online Available:
2.          Aaron Striegel and Dian T. Rover, "Enhancing Student Learning in an Introductory Embedded Systems Laboratory," 32 nd ASEE / IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Boston, MA, November 2002.

3.          Joseph Schneider et al., "A Platform FPGA-based Hardware-Software Undergraduate Laboratory," Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Int'I Conference on Microelectronic Systems Education (MSE'05).

4.          J. Staunstrup and W. Wolf, editors, Hardware/Software Co-design. Principles and Practice, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

5.          F. Vahid and T. Givargis, Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

6.          28/40 pin Enhanced FLASH Microcontrollers (PIC16F87X, A), Microchip Technology, Inc., 2001, Doc. No. DS39582A.

7.          Volume 1: PIC User manualfilm on silicon diaphragms”, Sens. Actuators A 97-98 (2002) 302-307.

8.          Volume 1: PIC User manual

9.          AN10406-Accessing SD/MMC card using SPI on PIC

10.       AN10404-Initialization code/hints for the PIC2000 family

11.       AN10331-Philips PIC16Fxxx family phase lock loop

12.       AN10331-Philips PIC18Fxxx family phase lock loop

13.       Scandisk SD Card Product Manual

14.       Wikipedia link -  PIC Microcontroller

15.       Additional development support is available via the online community/tool folder:










Ullas P, ShashiKiran B N, Darshan A M, Bharath Kumar S

Paper Title:

Threshold Energy Based LEACH Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:   This Paper Presents A New Protocol Called Threshold Energy Based Leach Algorithm (Tela) For Wireless Sensor Networks (Wsn) Which Aims To Reduce Energy Consumption Within The Wireless Network. Efficiency Of A Wireless Network Mainly Depends On Energy Of Nodes. In Cluster Based Protocols, Changing Of Clusters And Cluster Head Also Consumes More Energy But The Procedure Depends On Random Time. So, In This Proposed Protocol, We Are Reducing The Wastage Of Energy While Selecting Or Changing The Clusters/Cluster Heads. We Evaluate Both Leach Andtela Through Simulations Using Ns-2 Simulator Which Shows That Tela Performs Better Than Leach Protocol.

     Clustering, Energy, LEACH protocol, TELA, NS-2.  


1.          Ullas. P, Brunda. J. S, Savitha. B. R, Manjunath. B. S (2012), Energy Aware Threshold based Efficient Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks, Bahubali College of Engineering, Shravanabelagola, Karnataka.
2.          F. L. Lewis (2008), Wireless Sensor Networks, University of Madeira,Portugal

3.          NiveditaRajani (2008), A Thesis on Energy Efficient, Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

4.          PritiNarwal, S.S. Tyagi (2011), Density Based Protocol for Head Selection in  Wireless Sensor Networks, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Volume-1, Issue-3

5.          JamshidShanbehzadeh, SaeedMehrjoo, AbdolhosseinSarrafzadeh (2011). An Intelligent Energy Efficient Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks.International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, Vol 1

6.          KiranMaraiya , Kamal Kant ,Nitin Gupta (2011). Efficient Cluster Head Selection      Scheme for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network, Volume 23– No.9

7.          Shriram Sharma(May 2009),Energy Efficient Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor  Networks,A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Technology in Dept. of CS&E, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Orissa, India

8.          Taran Deep Singh Pawa(2011), A Thesis on Analysis of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela,Orissa, India

9.          OssamaYounis and Sonia Fahmy(1991), A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad-hoc Sensor Networks, Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue University

10.       Nitin Mittal, Davinder Pal Singh, AmanjeetPanghal, R.S. Chauhan (2010), Improved Leach Communication Protocol for WSN, National Conference on Computational Instrumentation, India

11.       NS-2: Network Simulator (Retrived on 02/02/2012 from (

12.       LEACH Patch for NS2 ( Retrived on 08/03/2012 from




Mohammed Aboud Kadhim, Maha M. Mohammad Ali

Paper Title:

Design and Improvement of WiMAX OSTBC– OFDM Transceiver Based Multiwavelet Signals by Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding on SFF SDR Development Platform

Abstract:   In this paper, a new robust transceiver design with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) for fixed (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) WiMAX Transceiver Based on multiwavelet signals is investigated.THP is adopted to mitigate the spatial inter symbol interference. All cases are based on the IEEE 802.16d standard using Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based multiwavelet to further reduce the level of interference and increase spectral efficiency and 16-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) half-values of coding rates, using Small Form Factor (SFF) Software Defined Radio (SDR) Development Platform. The proposed THP design achieves considerably lower bit error rate or bit error ratio (BER) and higher signal-to-noise power ratio than not using THP. The proposed TH pre-coding system was modeled-tested, and its performance is found to comply with International Telecommunications Union channel models (ITU) that have been elected for the wireless channel in the simulation process. Finally, the performance advantage of the proposed robust with THP design over non-robust design is demonstrated by simulation results

     THP, WiMAX, SFF SDR, OFDM, OSTBC, DMWT, Precoding.


1.          H. Heiskala and J. Terry, “OFDM Wireless LANs: A Theoretical and Practical Guide,” SAMS, 2002.
2.          IEEE STD 802.16E & 802.16D, I. S. 2006. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum 1.

3.          D. Gesbert, M. Shafi, D. Shiu, P. J. Smith, and A. Naguib, “From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO    space-time coded wireless systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 281–301, Apr. 2003.

4.          A. J. Paulraj, D. A. Gore, R. U. Nabar, and H. B¨olcskei, “An overview of MIMO communications - a key to Gigabit wireless,” Proc. of IEEE, invited paper, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 198–218, Feb. 2004.

5.          R. T. Derryberry, S. D. Gray, D. M. Ionescu, G. Mandyam, and B. Raghothaman, “Transmit diversity in 3G CDMA systems,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 68–75, Apr.2002.

6.          A. S. Dakdouki, V. L. Banket, N. K. Mykhaylov, and A. A. Skopa, “Downlink processing algorithms for multi-antenna wireless communications,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 122–127, Jan. 2005.

7.          G. L. St¨uber, J. R. Barry, S.W. McLaughlin, Y. G. Li, M. A. Ingram, and T. G. Pratt, “Broadband MIMO- OFDM wireless communications,” Proc. of IEEE, invited paper, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 271–294, Feb. 2004.

8.          H. Yang, “A road to future broadband wireless access: MIMO-OFDM-based air interface,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 53–60, Jan. 2005.

9.          M. Tomlinson, “New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic,” Electron. Lett. vol. 7, pp. 138–139, Mar. 1971.

10.       H. Harashima and H. Miyakawa, “Matched-transmission technique for channels with inter symbol interference,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-20, pp. 774–780, Aug. 1972.

11.       G. D. Forney and M. V. Eyuboˇglu, “Combined equalization and coding using pre-coding,” IEEE Commun. Magazine, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 25–34, Dec. 1991.

12.       C. Windpassinger, R. F. H. Fischer, T. Vencel, and J. B. Huber, “Pre-coding in multi antenna and multiuser communications,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1305– 1315, Jul. 2004.

13.       R. F. H. Fischer, Pre-coding and Signal Shaping for Digital Transmission. New York: Wiley, 2002.

14.       Shuzheng Xu, R.L., Huazhong Yang, Hui Zhang and Hui Wang, Symbol Overlapped Multiwa.

15.       Abbas Hasan Kattoush a, Waleed A. Mahmoudb, S. Nihadc, The performance of multiwavelets based OFDM system under    different channel conditions. Digital Signal Processing, 2009: p. YDSPR:943.

16.       Mohammed Aboud Kadhim ,Widad Ismail, (2011), Implementation Transmitter Diversity Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding (THP) for WiMAX OSTBC-OFDM–FFT Baseband Transceiver on Multi-Core Software Defined Radio Platform, World Applied Science Journal.12(9): 1482-1491, 2011.

17.       Jeffrey G. Andrews, PhD., Arunabha Ghosh, Ph.D,Rias Muhamed., ed, Fundamentals of WiMAXUnderstanding Broadband Wireless Networking. Theodore S. Rappaport, Series Editor, ed. P.H.C.E.a.E.T. Series. 2007.

18.       Yu Fu “Transmitter Precoding for Interference Mitigation in Closed-Loop MIMO OFDM” thesis Doctor of Philosophy University of Alberta 2009.

19.       Mohammed Aboud Kadhim and Widad Ismail (2010) Implementation of WiMAX OSTBC-OFDM (IEEE802.16.d) Baseband Transceiver on a Multi-Core Software-Defined Radio Platform, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(7): 2125-2133, 2010

20.       Mohammed Aboud Kadhim and Widad Ismail (2010) Implementation of WiMAX IEEE802.16d Baseband Transceiver Based Wavelet OFDM on a Multi- Core Software-Defined Radio Platform, European Journal of Scientific Research, 42, 303-31

21.       SFF SDR Development Platform - Quick start guide.

22.       International Telecommunication Union, Recommendation ITU-R M.1225, Guidelines for Evaluation of Radio Transmission Technologies for IMT-2000, Feb. 2007.




S.Mondal, N.Sk, P.K. Karmakar

Paper Title:

Estimation and Comparison of Antenna Temperature and Water Vapor Attenuation at Microwave Frequencies over Northern and Southern Latitude

Abstract:   Radiosonde data available from British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) over Chongging, (29.0 N), China and Porto Alegre(29.0 S), Brazil were analyzed to determine the variation of antenna temperature and water vapor attenuation in the frequency range 5 GHz -40 GHz during two different season namely, winter season and rainy season. Antenna temperatures at 5, 10, 20, 22.235, 23.834, 30, 35 and 40 GHz have been determined for the different value of water vapor content during January-February and July-August over these two places. Antenna temperature and attenuation increases with increase in frequency, thereafter, becoming maximum at the water vapor resonance line of 22.235 GHz. With further increase of frequency beyond 22.235 GHz and up to 31 GHz, the antenna temperature and attenuation decreases. Again after 31 GHz, Antenna temperature and attenuation is increasing in nature.

     Antenna temperature, Attenuation, Water vapor, Water vapor content.


1.          P. K. Karmakar, M.  Maiti, S.  Mondal, and C. F. Angelis, “ Determination of frequency in the millimeter wave band in the range of 58° north through 45° south over globe,” Advances in Space Research., Vol 48,2011,pp. 146–151.
2.          P. K. Karmakar, M.  Maiti, S. Sett, C. F. Angelis, and L. A. T. Machado, “Radiometric estimation of water vapor content over Brazil,” Advances in Space Research, Vol. 48, 2011, pp.  1506–1514.

3.          P. K. Karmakar, M.  Maiti, , A. J. P. Calheiros, C. F. Angelis, and L. A. T. Machado, and S. S. D. Costa, “Ground-based single-frequency microwave radiometric measurement  of water vapor,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 32(23), 2011,pp. 1–11.

4.          J.M. Moran, and B.R.  Rosen, “Estimation of propagation delay through troposphere  and microwave radiometer data,” Radio Science, Vol. 16, (1981). pp. 235–244.

5.          M. K. Raina, “Estimation of water vapor attenuation variations at microwave frequencies,” Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, 17, (1988), pp. 129-131.

6.          A.K. Sen, P.K. Karmakar, T.K.Das, A.K. Devgupta, P.K. Chakraborty, and S. Devbarman, “Significant heights for water vapor content in the atmosphere,” International Journal of Remote Sensing,Vol 10, 1989, pp. 1119–1124.

7.          F.T.Ulaby, , R.K.Moore, and A.K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, vol. 1. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1981, pp. 282–283

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Mansi Manocha, Parminder Kaur

Paper Title:

Palm Vein Recognition for Human Identification Using NN

Abstract:    In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access the same information anytime and anywhere. Because of this risk, personal identification technology, which can distinguish between registered legitimate users and imposters, is now generating interest. Currently, passwords, Personal Identification cards are used for personal identification. However, cards can be stolen, and passwords and numbers can be guessed or forgotten. To solve these problems, biometric authentication technology, which identifies people by their unique biological information, is attracting attention. Palm vein recognition is that it is not affected by dryness or roughness of skin or by physical injury on surface of the hand but sometimes the temperature and humidity can affect the quality of the captured image.

 Feature Extraction, Palm Vein Recognition System,  NN.   


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4.          D. Cunado, M. Nixon, and J. Carter, “Using Gait as a Biometric, via Phase-Weighted Magnitude Spectra,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Audio and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pp. 95-102, 1997.

5.          J. Little and J. Boyd, “Recognizing People by Their Gait: The Shape of Motion,” Videre: J. Computer Vision Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 2- 32, 1998.

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7.          P. Huang, C. Harris, and M. Nixon, “Human Gait Recognition in Canonical Space Using Temporal Templates,” IEE Proc. Vision Image and Signal Processing Conf., vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 93-100, 1999.

8.          A. Johnson and A. Bobick, “A Multi view Method for Gait Recognition Using Static Body Parameters,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Audio and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pp. 301-311, 2001.

9.          Y. Yang and M. Levine, “The Background Primal Sketch: An Approach for Tracking Moving Objects,” Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 5, pp. 17-34, 1992.

10.       Y. Kuno, T. Watanabe, Y. Shimosakoda, and S. Nakagawa, “Automated Detection of Human for Visual Surveillance System,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 865-869, 1996.

11.       C. BenAbdelkader, R. Culter, H. Nanda, and L. Davis, “Eigen Gait: Motion-Based Recognition of People Using Image Self-Similarity,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, pp. 284-294, 2001.

12.       R. Tanawongsuwan and A. Bobick, “Gait Recognition from Time- Normalized Joint-Angle Trajectories in the Walking Plane,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2001.




Sakshi Batra, Harpinder Kang Khattra

Paper Title:

An Improved Data Transfer Technique Using Steganography with Watermarking and Visual Cryptography

Abstract:    Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. It is a form of security through obscurity. The word Steganography in the modern day usually refers to information or a file that has been concealed inside a digital Picture, Video or Audio file. Essentially, the information-hiding process in a steganographic system starts by identifying a cover medium’s redundant bits. The embedding process creates a stego medium by replacing these redundant bits with data from the hidden message. In this paper a new type of cryptographic scheme is proposed, which can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations. The scheme is perfectly secure and very easy to implement. Further watermarking is also applied on the data so as to provide much security. Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content. The signal, known as a watermark, can be used later to identify the owner of the work, to authenticate the content, and to trace illegal copies of the work. 

Keywords:    Cryptography, Steganography, Water marking, security.  


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2.          N . Provos and P. Honeyman, “Hide and Seek: An introduction to Steganography,” IEEE Security & Privacy Journal 2003.

3.          Steven W. Smith , The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing.

4.          Katzenbeisser and Petitcolas , ”Information Hiding Techniques for Stenography and Digital watermaking” Artech House, Norwood, MA. 2000.

5.          L. Reyzen And S. Russell , “More efficient provably secure Steganography” 2007.

6.          S.Lyu and H. Farid , “Steganography using higher order image statistics , “ IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur. 2006.

7.          Venkatraman , s, Abraham , A . & Paprzycki M.” Significance of Steganography on Data Security “ ,Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology : Coding and computing , 2004.

8.          Fridrich , J ., Goljan M., and Hogea , D ; New Methodology for Breaking stenographic Techniques for JPEGs. “Electronic Imaging 2003”.

9.          http:/ hiding/stegdemo.aspx.Ucsb data hiding online demonstration. Released on Mar .09,2005.

10.       Mitsugu Iwanmoto and Hirosuke Yamamoto, “The Optimal n-out-of-n Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for GrayScale Images”, IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, vol.E85- A, No.10, October 2002, pp. 2238-2247.

11.       Doron Shaked, Nur Arad, Andrew Fitzhugh, Irwin Sobel, “Color Diffusion: Error Diffusion for Color Halftones”, HP Laboratories Israel, May 1999.

12.       Z.Zhou, G.R.Arce, and G.Di Crescenzo, “Halftone Visual Cryptography”, IEEE Tans. On Image Processing,vol.15, No.8, August 2006, pp. 2441-2453.

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14.       Swati Tiwari and  R. P. Mahajan “A Secure Image Based Steganographic Model Using RSA Algorithm and LSB Insertion”, International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer EngineeringVolume 3, Issue 1, ISSN 2249 –071X © 2012 IJECCE,

15.       E.R.Verheul and H.C.A. Van Tilborg, “Constructions and properties of k out of n visual secret sharing scheme”, Designs, Codes, and Cryptography, vol.1, no.2, 1997, pp.179-196.




A.VeeraLakshmi, S.Priya

Paper Title:

Leakage Reduction And Stability Improvement Techniques Of 10t Sram Cell: A Survey

Abstract:    Reduction of leakage power is very important for low power applications. Because these high leakage currents are the major contributor of total power consumption of the circuit. This paper explains about various leakage reduction techniques as well as stability improvement techniques of the different SRAM cells. Some of the leakage reduction techniques discussed in this paper are dynamic VDD, multiple Vth, SVL (Self- Controllable Voltage Level) and AVL (Adaptive Voltage Level). The stability improvement techniques are word-line adjustment, dual voltage supply, NBL (Negative Bit line) and bit interleaving technique. These techniques are applied on different SRAM cells (6T, 7T, 8T and 10T) and the results are compared. For simulation, MICROWIND 3.1 tool is used.

     Leakage reduction, write ability, SRAM, leakage power.


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3.          H. Yamauchi, “A   discussion on    SRAM circuit design trend in deeper nanometer-scale technologies,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 763–774, May 2010.

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7.          Monika Yadav, Shyam Akashe, Yogesh Goswami, “Analysis of leakage reduction techniques on different SRAM cells,” International Journal of Engg. Trends and Tech., vol.2, issue 3, pp. 78-83, 2011.

8.          Amit Agarwal,  Hai Li  and  Kaushik Roy, “DRG-Cache: A data retention gated-ground cache for low power”, Proceedings of the 39th Design Automation  conference, June 2002.

9.          K. Nii,  M. Yabuuchi, Y.  Tsukamoto,  “A  45-nm bulk CMOS embedded SRAM with improved immunity against process and temperature variations,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, pp. 180-191, Jan. 2008.

10.       K. Nii, M. Yabuuchi, Y. Tsukamoto,, “A 45-nm single-port and dual-port SRAM family with robust read/write stabilizing circuitry under DVFS environment,” in Proc. VLSI Circuits Symp., pp. 212-213, Jun. 2008.

11.       O. Hirabayashi, A. Kawasumi, A.Suzuki, “A process-variation tolerant dual-power-supply SRAM with 0.179mm2 cell in 40nm CMOS using level-programmable wordline driver,” ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. 458-459, Feb. 2009.

12.       K. Zhang, U. Bhattacharya, Z. Chen, “A 3-GHz 70-Mb SRAM in 65-nm CMOS technology with integrated column-based dynamic power supply,” IEEE J. Solid-State
Circuits, vol. 41, pp. 146-151, Jan. 2006.

13.       Saibal  Mukhopadhyay,  Rahul   M.  Rao Jae-Joon Kim, and Ching-Te Chuang, “SRAM Write-Ability Improvement With Transient Negative Bit-Line Voltage,” IEEE trans. On VLSI systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 24-32, Jan. 2011.

14.       Ming-Hung Chang, Yi-Te Chiu and Wei Hwang, “Design and Iso-Area Vmin Analysis of 9T Sub-threshold SRAM With Bit-Interleaving Scheme in 65-nm CMOS,” IEEE trans. on ckt. & systems, vol. 59, no. 7, Jul. 2012.




Rubina.A. Shaikh, Sajid Shaikh

Paper Title:

Wireless Stand-alone Real Time Remote Patient Health Monitoring System

Abstract:    Statistics reveal that every minute a human is losing his/her life across the globe. More close  in India, everyday  many lives are affected by heart  attacks  and  more  importantly  because  the   patients  did  not get timely and proper help . Care of critically ill patient, requires spontaneous& accurate decisions so that life-protecting & lifesaving therapy can be properly applied. This paper is based on monitoring of remote patients, after he is discharged from hospital. I have designed and developed a reliable, energy efficient remote patient monitoring system. It is able to send parameters of patient in real time. It enables the doctors to monitor patient’s parameters (temp, heartbeat, ECG) in real time. Here the parameters of patient are measured continuously (temp, heartbeat, ECG) and wirelessly transmitted using ZigBee.  

     Sensors, ARM7 microprocessor, GSM modem, ZigBee  


1.          IEEE   TRANSACTIONS   on   Biomedical   Circuits and Systems, VOL. 4, NO. 1, FEB 2010-11 “An Energy-Efficient ASIC for Wireless Body Sensor Networks inMedical Applications” Xiao Yu Zhang, Hanjun Jiang, Member, IEEE, Lingwei Zhang, Chun Zhang, Zhihua Wang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Xinkai Chen.
2.          “Design and Implementation of Wireless Biomedical Sensor Networks for ECG Home Health Monitoring”, International Conference on Electronic Design December 1-3,2008, Penang, Malaysia Rozeha A. Rashid, MohdRozainiAbd Rahim, MohdAdibSarijari, NurhijaMahalin.

3.          2011 International Conference on Information and Network Technology   IACSIT   Press,   Singapore   “Remote   Patient Monitoring- An Implementation in ICU Ward”, Arun,Marimuthu, Pradeep, Karthikeyan.

4.          Sahandi, R., Noroozi, S., Roushanbakhti, G., Heaslip, V.  & Liu, Y., 2010. “Wireless technology in the evolution of patient monitoring on general hospital wards”. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 34(1), 51-63.

5.          Wu Ting, Hu Jun-Da, Gao Chenjie, Zhao Jia, Ye Wei, “Wireless Monitoring System Based on Bluetooth Smart Phones”, 2010, 2nd International Conference on Networking and Digital society, Volume2, ISBN:978-1-4244-5161, 6th October 2010.

6.          K.Ramesh, S.V. Aswin Kumer, “Efficient Health Monitoring System Using Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering research, Volume 3, Issue 6, June-2010, ISSN:2229-5518.

7.          ARM Limited, “ARM7TDML-S Technical Reference Manual”, 2000

8.          Digi International, “XBee/XBee-Pro ZB RF Modules”, 2010.




Anand Mohanrao Magar, Nilesh J. Uke

Paper Title:

Use of AST for Translating Executable UML Models to Java Code in Eclipse and Testing Strategy for UML Models

Abstract:   Executable UML, coupled with Model-Driven Architecture is the foundation for a new software development methodology in which domain (business) experts would be involved in the crafting of high-level models and technologists would be concerned with translating the models to 3rd or 4th generation code. Editors like Eclipse provides modeling framework and code generation facility for building tools and other applications based on a structured data model. Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) is a framework to create meta-models with code-generation capabilities. Eclipse Modeling Framework is not an Model Driven Architecture framework but is the building block on top of which other tools may build. The Graphical Editing Framework (GEF) provides technology to create rich graphical editors and views for the Eclipse Workbench UI bundled with draw2d.Our work specifies translatable approach for executing UML models in Eclipse editor. The Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) maps plain Java source code in a tree form. This tree is more convenient and reliable to analyze and modify programmatically than text-based source. Eclipse plug-in Editor have Java Perspective and UML perspective merged together. Our plug-in contains UML editor which makes use of EMF and GEF based implementation. Class diagram which can be easily translated to Java code. These models are further modified to have action semantics and by modifying AST final Java source code which is directly executable in Eclipse Editor is generated. For testing xUML models, best strategy is to use model based testing.

     Abstract Syntax Tree, xUML, Model Based Testing


1.          A.M. Magar.; M.J. Chouhan; “Executable UML (xUML) and MDA”, International Conference GIT-2010 “Green-IT & Open Source” Conference Proceedings. No: 978-93-80043-89-0/13.
2.          Mellor, S.J., Balcer, M.J.: “Executable UML – A Foundation for Model-Driven Architecture” Addison-Wesley, 2002.

3.          A. M. Magar, N. J. Uke, “Executable UML plug-in for Eclipse”, International Conference on Emerging Trends, Technology and Research ICETTR-2013

4.          Eric Clayberg, Dan Rubel “Eclipse: Building Commercial-Quality Plug-ins (2nd Edition)”, Addison Wesley Professional, 2006, ISBN-10: 0-321-42672-X

5.          Timothy J. Grose, Gary C. Doney, Stephen A. “Mastering XMI: Java Programming with XMI, XML, and UML”, John Wiley & Sons; ISBN: 0471384291

6.          Object Management Group, Semantics of a Foundational Subset for Executable UML Models, Object Management Group Std., Rev 1.1  [Online] Aug 2013. Available:

7.          Fischer, G. ; Lusiardi, J. ; von Gudenberg, J.W., “Abstract Syntax Trees - and their Role in Model Driven Software Development”, 2007. ICSEA 2007. International Conference on Software Engineering  2007

8.          Burden, H. ; Heldal, R. ; Siljamaki, T. , ”Executable and Translatable UML -- How Difficult Can it Be?”, Software Egineering Conference (APSEC), 2011 18th Asia Pacific 2011

9.          Fei Xie ; Levin, V. ; Browne, J.C., “Model checking for an executable subset of UML”, 2001. (ASE 2001). Proceedings. 16th Annual International Conference on Automated Software Engineering  2001

10.       Wei Zuo ; Jinfu Feng ; Jiaqiang Zhang, “Model Transformation from xUML PIMs to AADL PSMs”, International Conference on Computing, Control and Industrial
Engineering (CCIE), Control and Industrial Engineering Volume: 1 2010

11.       Braune, A. ; Hennig, S. , “Using Executable UML to model algorithmic aspects of visualization systems “. 7th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics,  2009

12.       dos Santos, O.M. ; Woodcock, Jim ; Paige, R., “Using Model Transformation to Generate Graphical Counter-Examples for the Formal Analysis of xUML Models”, 16th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS),  2011




Lovenish Kumar, Sunita Rani

Paper Title:

Implementation of Improved AODV Protocol Based on WiMax Using Network Simulator 2

Abstract:    Wireless Bandwidth allocation and routing mechanisms are two main parameters that decided the quality of service (QOS) in wireless sensor network. Monitoring, surveillance and many other military and civilians needs are main area of wireless sensor networks. Security mechanism for the sensor network must be energy efficient because sensor has limited power. Energy efficiency protocol must require self configuration and autonomic functionality to operate properly. In this paper improve the AODV protocol (IAODV) by creating a Cycle on a node where the congestion probability is high i.e. at near sink node to find all those nearer nodes where buffer occupancy is high and proposed to minimize the delay, increase the throughput and increase the packet delivery Fraction (PDF) as compared to AODV protocol.

     Wireless sensor network, WiMax 802.16, AODV, IAODV, PDF.


1.          M. Castrucci, I. Marchetti, C. Nardini, N. Ciulli and G. Landi, “AFramework for Resource Control in WiMAX Networks”, In Proc. of the 2007 International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, pp. 316-321, 2007.
2.          Pang Yang, ”Multi-path Routing Protocol for mobile Ad hoc Network”, International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering,2008.

3.          I. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam,  E. Cayirci, ”A survey on Sensor Networks”,  IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, Issue: 8, 2002, pp. 102-114.

4.          Deepak kumar Garg, Balraj Singh, Darshan Singh Sidhu, “Performance Comparison of AODV, WBAODV, DSDV & Hybrid in WSN using Network Simulator 2”, Vol 2, Isuue: 11,Nov 2013, pp. 2744-2748.

5.          R Myrali Prasad & P. Satish Kumar, “A Joint Routing and Bandwidth Allocation Protocol for IEEE 802.16 WiMax Networks”, Vol 2, Issue: 5, Oct 2010, pp. 442-446.




Imranullah Khan, Tan Chon Eng

Paper Title:

The Performance Improvement of Long Range Inter-relay Wireless Cooperative Network using Three Time Slot TDMA based Protocol

Abstract:    Time division multiple access (TDMA) amplify and forward based protocols for cooperative wireless networks have been investigated previously by various researchers. However, the analysis for these protocols is not considered for long range cooperative wireless networks over Rician fading channel. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose three time slot TDMA based transmission protocol for inter-relay cooperative wireless network with longer distances between source to relays and destination as well as between relays to destination. It is concluded that the proposed protocol shows less BER performance for long range inter-relay cooperative network over Rician fading channel as compared to two time slot long range cooperative network. Moreover, the proposed protocol shows better performance in terms of less BER values when the inter-relay distance is minimum.   

     Cooperative inter-relay wireless communication, AF Protocol, TDMA, Path Loss Models, BER.


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27.       J. N. Laneman, et al., "Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior," Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 50, pp. 3062-3080, 2004.

28.       J. N. Laneman and G. W. Wornell, "Energy-efficient antenna sharing and relaying for wireless networks," in Wireless Communications and Networking Confernce, 2000. WCNC. 2000 IEEE, 2000, pp. 7-12.

29.       J. N. Laneman and G. W. Wornell, "Distributed space-time-coded protocols for exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks," Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 49, pp. 2415-2425, 2003.

30.       A. Kwasinski and K. R. Liu, "Source-Channel-Cooperation Tradeoffs for Adaptive Coded Communications [Transactions Papers]," Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 7, pp. 3347-3358, 2008.

31.       A. Nosratinia, et al., "Cooperative communication in wireless networks," Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 42, pp. 74-80, 2004.

32.       P. A. Anghel and M. Kaveh, "Exact symbol error probability of a cooperative network in a Rayleigh-fading environment," Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 3, pp. 1416-1421, 2004.

33.       R. Pabst, et al., "Relay-based deployment concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio," Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 42, pp. 80-89, 2004.

34.       V. Garg, Wireless Communications & Networking: Morgan Kaufmann, 2010.

35.       H. Jiang, et al., "Quality-of-service provisioning and efficient resource utilization in CDMA cellular communications," Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE
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39.       U. R. Tanoli, et al., "Hybrid TDMA-FDMA based inter-relay communication in cooperative networks over Nakagami-m fading channel," in Emerging Technologies (ICET), 2012 International Conference on, 2012, pp. 1-5.

40.       U. Tanoli, et al., "Performance Analysis of Cooperative Networks with Inter-Relay Communication over Nakagami-m and Rician Fading Channels," International Journal on Multidisciplinary sciences, 2012.

41.       V. Abhayawardhana, et al., "Comparison of empirical propagation path loss models for fixed wireless access systems," in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2005. VTC 2005-Spring. 2005 IEEE 61st, 2005, pp. 73-77.

42.       W. Joseph and L. Martens, "Performance evaluation of broadband fixed wireless system based on IEEE 802.16," in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2006. WCNC 2006. IEEE, 2006, pp. 978-983.

43.       C. Action, Digital Mobile Radio Towards Future Generation Systems: Final Report: Directorate General Telecommunications, Information Society, Information Market, and Exploitation Research, 1999.

44.       M. Shahajahan and A. A. Hes-Shafi, "Analysis of propagation models for WiMAX at 3.5 GHz," Department of Electrical Engineering Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2009.

45.       T. S. Priya, "Optimised COST-231 Hata Models for WiMAX Path Loss Prediction in Suburban and Open Urban Environments," Modern Applied Science, vol. 4, p. P75, 2010.

46.       V. Erceg, et al., "Channel models for fixed wireless applications," ed: IEEE, 2001.

47.       Y. Okumura, et al., "Field strength and its variability in VHF and UHF land-mobile radio service," Rev. Elec. Commun. Lab, vol. 16, pp. 825-73, 1968.

48.       W. Heisenberg, "Lee model and quantisation of non linear field equations," Nuclear Physics, vol. 4, pp. 532-563, 1957.




B. Jagadeesh Chandra Prasad, B.V. Sanker Ram

Paper Title:

Inter-turn Fault Analysis of Synchronous Generator using Finite Element Method (FEM)

Abstract:  A turn fault in the stator winding of a generator causes a large circulating current to flow in the shorted turns. If left undetected, turn faults can propagate, leading to phase-ground or phase-phase faults. Incipient detection of turn’s faults is essential to avoid hazardous operating conditions and reduce down time. At present the synchronous generators are protected against almost all kind of faults using differential methods of protection. All kind of faults develops into inter winding fault by damaging inter winding insulation. So it is necessary to protect the synchronous generator from inter winding faults which represents the protection against all kind of faults. There are different method based techniques for analyzing generator incipient/inter turn faults on stator side. They are circuit based, field based, wavelet based, artificial intelligence based, fuzzy based, artificial neural networks based. Machine performance characteristics that could be monitored to diagnose the stator inter-turn fault in generator include line current, terminal voltage, torque pulsations, temperature rise due to excessive losses, shaft vibrations, air-gap flux and speed ripples. So in this we are developing a  mathematical model or method based on online/offline condition monitoring system by analyzing various conditions and collecting various samples of voltage and current (i.e. normal and abnormal) for protection of generators against faults (i.e. means incipient/inter turn faults) on stator side. The main Objective is to develop a mathematical model or method based on online/offline condition monitoring system by analyzing various conditions (i.e. normal and abnormal) for protection of generators against faults (i.e. means incipient/inter turn faults) on stator side.

 Synchronous generator, windings, internal winding faults, fault detection, fault diagnosis, incipient faults, ANSYS


1.          H.Z.MA, L P U, “Fault Diagnosis Based on ANN for Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit of Synchronous Generator Rotor Windings,” J. Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, 2009.
2.          Hongwei Fang, and Changliang Xia, “Fuzzy Neural Network Based Fault Detection Scheme for Synchronous generator with fault,” China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project.

3.          Jaiomin liu, ” Inter-turn Short Circuit Fault Diagnose System Based on VB.Net,” The 3rd International Conference on Innovative Computing Information and Control.

4.          S. J. Salon,” Finite Element Analysis of Electrical Machines”, Book, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA, 1995.

5.          L. Petkovska, M. Cundev, G. Cvetkovski, V. Sarac “Different aspects of magnetic field computation in electric machines”, in Proc. IGTE Symp., 2002, pp. 294-299.

6.          D. Meeker” Finite element method magnetics”, User’s Manual, FEMM Version 3.3, Massachusetts, USA, 2003.

7.          Z. Kolondzovski, L. Petkovska:”Analysis of the synchronous machine reactance and methods for their determination”, MAKO -CIGRE Symp., Ohrid, 2004.

8.          S. J. Salon “Finite Element Analysis of Electrical Machines”, Book, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA, 1995.

9.          Ning Kang, Yuan Liao,“Some Experiences In Estimation Of Synchronous Generator Parameters”, 41st Southeastern Symposium on System Theory University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, TN, USA, March 15-17, 2009.

10.       Olivier Chadebec, Viet Phuong Bui, Pierre Granjon, Laure-Line Rouve, Nicolas Le Bihan, and Jean-Louis Coulomb,“Rotor fault detection of electrical machines by low frequency magnetic stray field analysis” Diagnostics for Electric Machines, Power Electronics and Drives Vienna, Austria, 7-9 September 2005.

11.       A.Chakrabarti, M.L.Soni, P.V.Gupta, U.S.Bhatnagar,”A Text Book On Power System Engineering”, Dhanpat Rai & Co.V.K.Mehta, ”Power System”, S.Chand. 





Mamta G. Pawar, Monarch K. Warambhe, Gautam R. Jodh

Paper Title:

Design and Analysis of Clutch Using Sintered Iron as a Friction Material

Abstract:    Clutch system is among the main systems inside a vehicle. Clutch is a mechanical device located between a vehicle engine and its transmission and provides mechanical coupling between the engine and transmission input shaft. Clutch system comprise of flywheel, clutch disc  plate and friction material, pressure plate, clutch cover, diaphragm spring and the linkage necessary to operate the clutch. The clutch engages the transmission gradually by allowing a certain amount of slippage between the flywheel and the transmission input shaft. However, the slipping mechanism of the clutch generates heat energy due to friction between the clutch disc and the flywheel. At high sliding velocity, excessive frictional heat is generated which lead to high temperature rise at the clutch disc surface, and this causes thermo-mechanical problems such as thermal deformations and thermo-elastic instability which can lead to thermal cracking, wear and other mode of failure of the clutch disc component. In this project, the modeling of clutch is done in detailed using modeling software. After that the FEM analysis is done for sintered iron friction material. The stresses & deformation obtained for this friction material is then compared to analysis software result. The analysis is done for worn out friction disc.

 Coefficient of friction, von-misses stress, young’s modulus and poisons ratio.  


1.          Machine Design II, by Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M. M. Mayuram
2.          K Tripathi, “Design Optimization of Friction Clutch “

3.          United States Patent Office On - “Auxiliary drive clutch mechanism “

4.          Arvind vadiraj “Engagement characteristic of friction pad for the commercial vehicle clutch system “ , vol 35 part 5,October 2010 page no 585-595,Indian Academy Of Science

5.          Samir Safarni & Emmanuel Bellenger.“ Numerical modeling of automotive riveted clutch disc for contact pressure verification “.

6.          Mechanical Design Handbook by Thomas A.Dow, Chaper 17

7.          Abdullah M-AL-Shabibi, “Thermo-mechancial behavior of automotive break & clutch system”.

8.          Han W, Yi S-J “A study of shift control using the clutch pressure pattern in automatic transmission “Proceedings of the I MECH E Part D Journal of Automobile Engineering, Volume 217, Number 4, 1 April 2003, pp. 289-298(10).

9.          J.R.Barber,” International Journal of mechanical Sciences and the Journal of Thermal Stresses, “Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Michigan, 2002.

10.       “Modelling And Assembly Of Single Plate Friction Clutch Of An Automobile” Dr.Prafull S. Thakre, volume 2, Issue II/ March, 12.PP1-4, Indian Streams Research Journal.

11.       NSWC-06 Handbook Part B-Chapter 11.




Kiran Babu T.S, Ragav Krishna.R

Paper Title:

Protection Against Online Password Guessing Attacks by Using Graphicals Passwords

Abstract:    Usable security has unique usability challenges because the need for security often means that standard human-computer-interaction approaches cannot be directly applied. A very pivotal usability goal for authentication systems is to support users in selecting secure passwords. Users often create predictable and easy to remember passwords that are easy for attackers to hack or guess, but  system-assigned passwords which are inherently strong are difficult for users to remember. We are proposing alternative methods wherein graphical pictures are used as security agents (passwords). Graphical passwords fundamentally use images or representation of images as passwords. Pictures are more lucid and easy to remember for the human brain than textual character. There for, this paper merges persuasive cued click points and password guessing resistant protocol. The pith and main intent of this work is to reduce the guessing attacks as well as encouraging users to select passwords that are random and thus logically become more difficult to guess. The rudimentary security threats including brute force attacks and dictionary attacks can be successfully abolished using this method.

   Authentication, graphical passwords, guessing attacks, computer security.


1.          Sonia Chiasson, P.C. van Oorschot, and Robert Biddle, “Graphical Password Authentication Using Cued Click Points” ESORICS, LNCS 4734, pp.359- 374,Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007.
2.          Manu Kumar, Tal Garfinkel, Dan Boneh and Terry Winograd, “Reducing Shoulder-surfing by Using Gazebased Password Entry”, Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), July 18-20, 2007, Pittsburgh,PA, USA.

3.          Zhi Li, Qibin Sun, Yong Lian, and D. D. Giusto, An association-based graphical password design resistant to shoulder surfing attack, International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), IEEE.2005

4.          R. Dhamija and A. Perrig, "Deja Vu: A User Study Using Images for Authentication," in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Security Symposium, 2000.

5.          S. Akula and V. Devisetty, "Image Based Registration and Authentication System," in Proceedings ofMidwes Instruction and Computing Symposium, 2004.

6.          L. Sobrado and J.-C. Birget, "Graphical passwords," The Rutgers Scholar, An Electronic Bulletin forUndergraduate Research, vol. 4, 2002.

7.          Sonia Chiasson, Alain Forget, Robert Biddle, P. C. van Oorschot, “User interface design affects security: patterns in click-based graphical passwords”, Springer-Verlag 2009.

8.          I. Jermyn, A. Mayer, F. Monrose, M. K. Reiter, and A.D. Rubin, "The Design and Analysis of Graphical Passwords," in Proceedings of the 8th USENIXSecurity Symposium, 1999.




Kiran Babu.T.S, Ragav Krishna.R

Paper Title:

A Comparative Overview of Popular Attacks   Relevant to Adhoc -Networks

Abstract:    The wireless ad hoc network become mundane, yet the core issue is the security. There are different types of attacks provided by different researcher but still faces research challenges. In Adhoc networks, nodes have limited resources like bandwidth, battery power and storage capacity. In this paper we pay attention to common attacks which occur in networks layer of OSI model such as Black hole attack, gray hole attack, Flooding attack, Jamming ,Wormhole attack, Collosion attack traffic monitoring and analysis & DOS.  We discuss about the counter measures against them.

   Attacks, Blackhole, DOS, Grayhole, Wormhole, Adhoc-Networks.


1.         Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, PH PTR, 2003.
2.          L. Zhou and Z. Haas, Securing Ad Hoc Networks, IEEE Network   Magazine Vol.13 No.6 (1999) pp. 24-30.

3.          S. Yi, P. Naldurg, and R. Kravets, Security Aware Ad hoc Routing for Wireless Networks. Report No.UIUCDCS-R-2002-2290, UIUC, 2002.

4.          H. Luo and S. Lu, URSA: Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking Vol.12 No.6 (2004) pp. 1049-1063.

5.          M. Zapata, Secure Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (SAODV). Internet draft, draft-guerrero-manet-saodv-01.txt, 2002.

6.          Y. Hu, A. Perrig, and D. Johnson, Packet Leashes: A Defense Against Wormhole Attacks inWireless Ad Hoc Networks. Proc. of IEEE INFORCOM, 2002