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Volume-6 Issue-8, March 2017, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Ma’aruf A., S.I.Abba, Nuruddeen M. M

Paper Title:

Self-Compacting Concrete – A Review

Abstract: Concrete is an essential material in the building industry with world consumption estimated close to 25 billion tons every year and it is considered as the widely used material in the world. Concrete is defined in the wider perspective as “ any product or mass made by the use of a cementing medium’’ and the medium is the product of hydraulic cement and water reaction. The shortcoming in conventional concrete such as poor flow faculty and subsequent segregation quandaries leading to poor culminating and delayed construction time led to the development of self-flowing or self levelling concrete. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a development of conventional concrete, where the use of vibrators for compaction is no more required. Formulating SCCs is a compromise between adequately high fluidity to ascertain good casting and an adequate consistency to eschew phase separations quandaries (segregation or bleeding). SCC mixes must have three important properties: flow under its own weight to completely fill intricate and complex forms, under its own weight the ability to pass through and bond congested reinforcement and high segregation resistance to aggregate. A mix proportion was proposed by Okamura and Ozawa for SCC where the water/powder ration is to be adjusted and aggregate and fine aggregate contents fixed with self-compatibility achieved with the addition of plasticizer dosage. The content of the course aggregate is fixed at 50 percent of the total solid volume while the 40 percent of the mortar volume is fixed for the fine aggregate content and 0.9-1.0 water/powder ratio is assumed depending upon the properties of the powder and super plasticizer dosage. Conducting a number of trials determined water /powder ratio. Lack of established mix design procedure yet is one of the limitations of SCC.

Self compacting, Admixture, super plasticizer, viscosity modifying agent.


1.       Self-Compacting Concrete: Theoretical and experimental study. Brouwers, H.J.H. and Radix, H.J. 2005, ELSEVIER, pp. 2116–2136.
2.       Ouchi, Masahiro, Nakamura, Sada-aki and Hallberg, Thomas Osterberg and Sven-Erik. APPLICATIONS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE IN JAPAN, EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES. ISHPC . 2013, pp. 1-20.

3.       RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETETWO-WAY SOLID SLABS USING EURO CODE 2. Abubakar, I. and Ma'aruf, A. 4, NSUKKA : Ngerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 2014, Vol. 33. 1115-8443.

4.       Self Compacted Concrete. Garg, Er. Neeraj Kumar. 2016, International Journal of Recent Research Aspects, pp. 116-117.

5.       ASSESSMENT OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE IMMERSED IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS WITH PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH MINERAL ADMIXTURE. Gautham, K. Santosh and S.Uttamraj. I, 2015, International Journal of Research and Innovation in Civil and Construction Engineering (IJRICCE), Vol. II, pp. 194-200.

6.       Evaluation of strength at early ages of self-compacting concrete with high volume fly ash. Sukumar, Binu, Nagamani, K. and Raghavan, R. Srinivasa. 2008, Costruction and building materials, Vol. 22, pp. 1394-1401.

7.       Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Manufactured Sand and Lightweight Sand on the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Self-Compacting Lightweight Concretes. Zhu, Yiyun, Cui, Hongzhi and Tang, and Waiching. 735, s.l. : MDPI, 2016, MDPI, Vol. 9, pp. 1-17.

8.       EFNARC. Specification and Guidelines for self-compacting concrete. Farnham : EFNARC, Association, 2002.

9.       A Silent Concrete in Scenic Valley. Bapat, S. G., Kulkarni, S. B. and Bandekar, K.S. 1, 2004, An International Journal of Nuclear Power, Vol. 18, pp. 43-51.

10.    Experimental study for obtaining self-compacting concrete. V, Jagadish and RV, Sudharshan MS : Ranganath. 77, 2003, Indian concrete Journal, Vol. 8, pp. 1261-6.

11.    A simple mix design method for self-compacting concrete. Su, Nan, Hsu, Kung-Chung and Chai, His-Wen. 2001, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 31, pp. 1799–1807.

12.    Specification and Guidelines for Self Compacting Concrete. Poulson, Brian. Norfolk : EFNARC, 2002. ENARC.


14.    Self-Compacting Concrete - Procedure for Mix Design. AGGARWAL, Paratibha, et al. 12, 2008, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, pp. 15-24.

15.    Self Compacting Concrete Incorporating high volume of class F Fly Ash : Preliminary result. Bouzouba, N. and Lachemib, and M. 2001, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 3, pp. 413-420.

16.    Assessment of Water Quality Changes at Two Location of Yamuna River Using the National Sanitation Foundation of Water Quality (NSFWQI). Abba, S.I., Said, Y.S. and Bashir3, A. 8, INDIA : Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology Krishi Sanskriti Publications, 2015, Vol. 2. 2349-8404; Online ISSN: 2349-879X;.

17.    Influence of Mineral additions and chemical admixture on setting and volumetric autogenous shrinkage of SCC equivalent mortar. G, Heirman, L, Vandewalle and D, Van Gemert. Grand, Belgium : s.n., 2007. Proceeding of the 5th RILEM symposium on SCC.

18.    Effect of Welan Gum- High ang Range Water Reducer of Cement Grout. Khayat, K. H. and Yahia, A. 1997, ACI Journal, Vol. 94, pp. 365-372.

19.    High strength self-compacting concrete, original solutions associating Organic and Inorganic admixtures. Sari, M, E, Prat and JF, Labastire. 29, 1999, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 6, pp. 813-818.

20.    Performance of Self-consolidating Concrete Made with Various Admixtur Combinations. Hwang, S. D., et al. 2003. Proceeding of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-compacting concrete.

21.    Use of Viscosiy-Modifying Admixture to Enhance Stability ofFluid Concrete. Khayat, K. H. and Guizani, Z. 4, 1997, ACI Material Journal, Vol. 94, pp. 332-341.

22.    Development of Cost-Effective Self-Compating Concrete Incorporating Fly-Ash, Slag Cement or Viscosity-Modifying Admixture. Lachemi, M., et al. 5, 2003, ACI Material Journal, Vol. 100.

23.    Viscosity-Enhancing Admixture for Cement-Based Materials; An Overview. Khayat, K. H. 1998, Cement and Concrete Composite, Vol. 20, pp. 171-188.

24.    INFLUENCE OF VISCOSCITY MODIFYING ADMIXTURES ON FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE WITH VARYING DOSAGE OF FLYASH. Shraddha, rao, M.V.Seshagiri and Mythili, K. I, 20115, International Journal of Research and Innovation in Civil and Construction Engineering (IJRICCE, Vol. II, pp. 123-131.

25.    Self-Leveling Concrete -Design and Properties. Abbroise, J., Rols, S. and Pera, J. 1999, Concrete Science and Enfgineering, Vol. 1, pp. 140-147.

26.    Evaluation of Hydoxy Prophyl Starch as a Viscosity Modifying Agent for Self-Compacting Concrete. Rajayogan, V., Santhanam, M. and Sarma, B. S. 2003. Proceeding of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete.

27.    Experimental Research on the Material Properties of Super Flowing concrete. Kim, J.K., et al. 1996, Production Methods and Workability of Concrete, E & FN Spon,, pp. 271-284.

28.    Application of Super workable concrete to Reinforced concerete structures with difficult construction condition. Miura, N., et al. Proceeding of ACI SP.

29.    Chemical Admixture-Cement Interaction: Phenomenology and Physio-Chemical Conceptes. Jolicoeur, C. and Simard, M. A. 23, 1998, Cement and Concrete Composites,
Vol. 20, pp. 87-101.

30.    NEVILLE, A. M. and BROOKS, J. J. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY. London : Pearson Edducation Limited, 2010.

31.    Bibm, et al. “The European Guidelines for Self Compacting Concrete, specafication, production and use. W. Bennenk : The “TESTING-SCC” project, 2005.

32.    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE BY VARYING PERCENTAGE OF FINE AGGREGATE TO TOTAL AGGREGATE RATIO FOR DIFFERENT GRADES OF CONCRETE. J.P.Alankruta1, S.Uttamraj2,. I, 2015, International Journal of Research and Innovation in Civil and Construction Engineering (IJRICCE, Vol. II, pp. 184-193.

33.    Self-compacting concrete. Development, present and future use. H, Okamura and M, Ouchi. RILEM : Rilem publications, 1999. First internation Rilem syposium on self-compacting concrete. pp. 3-14.

34.    Self compacting concrete. Okamura, Hajime and Ouchi, Masahiro. 1, 2003, Journal of Advance Concrete Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 5-15.

35.    Use of viscosity modifying admextures to enhance stability of fluid concrete. KH, Kayat and Z, Gaizani. 94, 1997, ACI Mater J, Vol. 4, pp. 332-40.

36.    Rational mix design method for self-compacting concrete. Binu, Sukumar, K, Nagamani and M, Indumathi. Tamil Nadu, India : s.n., 2006. Proceedings of national comference on concrete technology for the future (NCCTF).

37.    Mix design of self-compacting concrete. H, Okaruma and H, Ozawa. 1995, Concrete library of JSCE, Vol. 25, pp. 107-120.

38.    State-of-the-art report on self-compactability evaluation. M., Ouchi. 19999. Proceeding on the International Workshop on Self-Compacting Concrete.

39.    Construction of prestressed concrete outer tank for NLG storage using high-strength self-compacting concrete. H., Kimatura, et al. 1999. proceeding of the
International Workshop on Self-Compacting Concrete.

40.    Self-Compacting property of Highly-Flowable concrete. S, Nagataki and H, Fujiwara. Malhotra, : s.n., 1995. Second Comference on advances in Concrete Technology.

41.    Duravility Properties of High Strength Self-Compacting Concrete Using Silica Fuse and Quarry Dust. K, Karthick M : Nirmalkumar. 4, 2016, Internation Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Scieces (IJSEAS) , Vol. 2, pp. 389-395.


43.    Tanaka, K., Sato, K. and Watanabe, s. Development and Utilization of High Performance Concrete for the Construction of Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. Detroit : ACI SP, 1993.

44.    Construction of Prestressed Concrete Outer Tank for LNG Storage Using High-Strength Self-Compacting Concrete. Kitamura, H., et al. Kochi, Japan : s.n., 1998.International Wokshop on Self-Compacting Concrete.

45.    A Flowable Concrete in Bridge Pier Caps. Kosaka, H., et al. 2, 1996, Concrete International, Vol. 18.

46.    Application of Self-Compacting Concrete for Bridge Casting . Petersson, O., Billberg, p. and Osterberg, T. Japan : s.n., 1998. Proceeding of International Wrokshop on Self-Compacting Concrete. JCE Concrete Engineering Series.

47.    Placing of Highly-Flowable Concrete Using Automatic ate Valve. Arima, I., et al. 3, 1994, Concrete Journal , Vol. 32, pp. 79-85.

48.    Form Pressure Generated by Self-Compacting Concrete . Billberg, P. 2003. Proceeding of he 3rd RILEM syposium on Self-Compacting Concrete .

49.    Insitu Mechanical Properties of Wall Elements Casting Using Self-Compacting Concrete. KHAYAT, K. H., Manai, K. and Trudel, A. 6, 1997, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 94, pp. 491-500.

50.    Uniformity of In-situ Properties of Slf-Compacting Concrete in Full Scale Structural Element. Zhu, W., Gibbs, J. C. and Bartus, P. j. M. 2001, Cement and Concrete Coposites, Vol. 23, pp. 57-64.

51.    A Comparison Between Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete and Corresponding Properties of Normal Concrete. Persson, B. 2001, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 31, pp. 193-198.

52.    Cracking Susceptibility Due to Volume Changes of Self-Compacting Concrete. Hammer, T. A. 2003. Proceeding of 3rd International RILEM Syposium on Self-Compacting Concrete.

53.    A Study of Plastic Shrinkage of Self-Compacting Concrete. Turcry, P. and Loukili, A. 2003. Proceeding of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium onSelf-Compacting Concrete.

54.    RILEM. Mechanical Properties of Self-compacting concrete. Ghent Belgium : Springer, 2014.

55.    Full Scale Casting of Bridges with Self-compacting Concrete. O., P. Billberg, Petersson and Osterberg, T. 1999. RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete.

56.    Permeation properties of Self-compacting concrete. Zhu, w. and Bortos, P.J. M. 6, 2003, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, pp. 921-926.

57.    Frost Resistaance, Cloride Transport and Related Microstructure of Field Self-compacting concrete. Tragarah, J., Skoglund, P. and M. 2003. Proceeding of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium on self compacting concrete.

58.    Internal Frost Resistance and Salt Frost Scaling of SCC. Persson, B. 2003, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 33, pp. 373-379.

59.    Minelli, Linda Monfardini :Fausto. Experimental Study on Full-Scale Beams Madeby Reinforced Alkali Activated ConcreteUndergoing Flexure. MDPI. August 30, 2016, pp. 1-16.

60.    A conceptual approach to the mixture proportioning technique for producing self compacting concrete. Sivakumar, A., Elumalai, G. and Srinivasan, V. 3, 2011, Jornal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, Vol. vol. 2, pp. 65-71.

61.    SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE AND ITS APPLICATION IN CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL PRACTISE. Okrajnov-Bajić, Ruža and Vasović, Dejan. 20, 2009, SPATIUM International Review, pp. 28-34.

62.    Summary of self-compacting concrete workability. Gui-xiang11, Guo and Hon-jun22, Duan. 7(part-2), July, 2015, GUO Gui-xiang Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application , Vol. 5, pp. 138-142.





Prakhar Agarwal, Shivani Jain

Paper Title:

Multi-Lingual in End User Language: Native Language

Abstract:  now days in growing globalization, if we wish to expand our business or our interests then obviously we have to communicate with the language understandable at both ends. But this is not possible in certain cases due to the absence of common language. So, we require a translator for effective communication. To make the globalization possible for both ends we have to communication with each other. We propose a web portal which opens at the other end in their own language automatically to provide effective communication. At present, there are few web portals which provide the feature of multilingual but not in very effective way. They provide the link on their portal for translation of language but in our portal we remove this challenge and add the feature that the portal will open at the user end in their understandable language.

 Multilingual, Web portal, Internationalization


1.    Suresh Canagarajah, Pennsylvania State University and Adrian J. Wurr University of Idaho, Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions, The Reading Matrix © 2011 Volume 11, Number 1, January 2011
2.    Tijs van der Storm, Jurgen Vinju, CWI, Amsterdam, Towards Multilingual Programming Environments.

3.    Victor Zue, Stephanie Seneff, Joseph Polifroni, Helen Meng, and James Glass, Spoken Language Systems Group Laboratory for Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 USA, MULTILINGUAL HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTIONS: FROM INFORMATION ACCESS TO LANGUAGE LEARNING

4.    https://www.enlightenment.org/program_guide/multilingual_pg

5.    http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/tutorials/j-i18n/j-i18n.html

6.    Dorota Pawlak, http://dorotapawlak.eu/blog/5-features-great-multilingual-applications/

7.    The Babelingo team and Antje Schwarzmeier Translated by Maria Rogahn,   Methods of Multilingual Programming, Methods of Multilingual Programming / by the Babelingo team and Antje Schwarzmeier / Illustration and Layout: sandruschka

8.    Surekha Sastry and K Srinivasa Raghavan, Indic-Sarai Felllow Serve lots Info tech, Multilingual Support of Web Applications using Server Side Java






Monicah Wairimu Chonge

Paper Title:

A Study on the Relationship between Performance of Contractors in Kenya and the Performance Determinants

Abstract: The performance of a contractor is very critical as it means a lot to both the contractor and the various stakeholders in the industry. Even though the performance of contractors is considered as a very critical measure of either the success or failure of contractors, most of the contractors and most especially of the developing countries do not perform as expected. This has led to a number of studies in a bid to find out the factors affecting the performance of contractors. The factors affecting the performance of contractors as found out in the studies can be summarized into the following eight performance determinants: financial factors, construction management factors, construction technology factors, design factors, project management factors, materials factors, labour factors and external factors. This study therefore sought to find out the relationship between the performance of contractors and these performance determinants. The study employed the quantitative strategy as well as the cross-sectional research design. Quantitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires which were administered to local contractors of category NCA 1, 2 and 3. The contractors were sampled using the stratified random sampling and the systematic random sampling techniques. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for windows version 20). The method used for data analysis was correlation and multiple regression analysis. The analysis yielded a negative relationship between the performance of contractors and the following performance determinants: financial factors rho=-.448, construction technology factors rho=-.117, design factors rho=-.311, project management factors rho=-.250, materials factors rho=-.235, labour factors rho=-.261 and external factors rho=-.389. Contrary to the conceptual framework, the construction management factors yielded a positive relationship with performance with a rho=0.167. This study therefore concluded that financial factors, construction technology factors, design factors, project management factors, materials factors, labour factors and external factors have an adverse effect on the performance of contractors in Kenya whereas the construction management factors did not have adverse effect on the performance of contractors in the country. 

Contractors performance, Performance determinants, Construction industry.


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6.       Chan, D. W. M., Chan, M. M., & Kumaraswamy, M. M. (2002). Compressing construction duration: lesson learned from Hong Kong building projects. International J0urnal of Project Management, 20, 23–25.

7.       Chonge, M. W., Mbiti, P. K., & Gwaya, A. . (2016). An investigation of into the factors influencing the performance of contractors in Kenya. International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, 6(2), 1–8.

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9.       Enshassi, A., Al-Najjar, J., & Kumaraswamy, M. (2009). Delays and cost overruns in the construction projects in the Gaza Strip. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 14(2), 126–151.

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17.    Peansupap, V., & Rothmony, L. (2015). Evaluating the impact level of design errors in structural and other building components in building construction projects in Cambodia. Procedia Engineering, 123, 370–378.

18.    Rida, M. Z. M. (2015). Factors influencing construction projects performance in Sudan.

19.    Soekiman, A., Pribadi, K. S., & Soemardi, B.W. Wirahadikusumah, R. D. (2011). Factors Relating to Labor Productivity Affecting the Project Schedule Performance in Indonesia. Procedia Engineering, 14, 865–873.

20.    Walker, A. (2007). Project Management in Construction. Oxford , Blakcwell.






C. M. Jadhav, Rucha Dilip Patil

Paper Title:

Autonomously-Reconfigurable Wireless Mesh Networks

Abstract: Multi-hop wireless mesh network experience link-fail due to channel interference (i/f), dynamic obstacles etc. which causes performance degradation of the network in Wireless Mesh Networks. The paper proposes “The base of Autonomously Reconfigurable Wireless Mesh Networks system is IEEE 802.11” for mr-WMN to recover autonomously when the network failure occurs & to improve the performance of network. The paper uses an autonomously network reconfiguration system (ARS) algorithm to maintain network performance that allows a multi radio WMN to own recover from local link failure. ARS generates needful changes in local radio and channel assignments in order to recover from failures by using channels and radio variability in WMN's. Next, the system cooperatively reconfigures network setting among local mesh routers based on the generated configuration changes.

IEEE 802.11, multi-radio wireless mesh networks (mr-WMNs), Autonomous-Reconfigurable Network, Wireless Link Failures


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4.       P. S. Khanagoudar “A New Autonomous System (AS) for Wireless Mesh Network”, JEITVol 2, Issue 1, july 2012.

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7.       R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, “Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless meshnetworks,” in Proc. ACM MobiCom, Philadelphia, PA, Sep. 2004, pp. 114–128.

8.       Raniwala and T. Chiueh, “Architecture and algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-basedmulti- channel wireless mesh network,” in Proc. IEEE IN-FOCOM, Miami, FL, Mar. 2005,vol. 3
9.       Xiao Shu, Xining Li, “Link Failure Rate and Speed of Nodes in Wireless Network”, Computingand Info. SCi. University Canada, 2008 IEEE.

10.    L.Qiu, P.Bahl,A. Rao, and L. Zhou, “Troubleshooting multi-hop wire- less networks,” in Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, Jun. 2005, pp. 380–381.

11.    P. Kyasanur and N. Vaidya, “Capacity of multi-channel wireless net-works: Impact ofnumber of channels and interfaces,” in Proc. ACM Mobi Com, Cologne, Germany, Aug. 2005, pp. 43–57.






Anshu Mala, Saman Akhtar, Shruthi Kamal, Swarasya VL, K Raghuveer

Paper Title:

Resource Allocation in Cloud Computing using Resource Provisioning Algorithms

Abstract:  The current rise of open cloud commitment, surge processing - outsourcing errands from an inside data focus to a cloud provider in times of huge load-has turned into extra open to a decent shift of customers. Choosing that line of obligation to source to what cloud provider in such a setting, in any case, is path from inconsequential. The objective of this call is to boost the utilization of the inward data focus and to lessen the cost of running the outsourced assignments inside the cloud, though accomplish the applications' nature of administration limitations. We have a tendency to look at this improvement downside in an exceedingly multi-supplier mixture cloud setting with due date compelled and detectable however non-supplier migratable workloads that square measure portrayed by heart, centralized computer and data transmission needs. connected science could be a general strategy to handle such partner improvement downside. At present, it's however indistinct regardless of whether this framework is suitable for the matter at hand and what the execution ramifications of its utilization square measure. we tend to so break down and propose a parallel entire number program definition of the programming disadvantage and judge the technique costs of this framework with pertinence the issue's key parameters. We have a tendency to understand that this approach winds up in a tractable response for programming applications inside the open cloud, however that a comparable technique gets to be distinctly bottomless less conceivable horrendously crossover cloud setting on account of extremely high comprehend time fluctuations. The cloud model is anticipated to make such applications repetitive by giving programmed extent and down because of load variety. Other than decreasing the equipment value, it also saves money on power that adds to a real part of the operational costs in huge data focuses.

 Cloud computing, virtual machine provisioning, dynamic resource allocation, greedy heuristics.


1.       Windows Azure, http://www.windowsazure.com/enus/pricing/calculator/, 2014.
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3.       N. Nisan, T. Roughgarden, E. Tardos, and V. Vazirani, Algorithmic Game Theory. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.

4.       G. Wei, A. Vasilakos, Y. Zheng, and N. Xiong, “A Game-Theoretic Method of Fair Resource Allocation for Cloud Computing Services,”The J. Supercomputing, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 252-269, 2010

5.       N. Jain, I. Menache, J. Naor, and J. Yaniv, “A Truthful Mechanism for Value-Based Scheduling in Cloud Computing,” Theory of Computing Systems, pp. 1-19, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00224-013-9449-0, 2013.

6.       Z. Kong, C.-Z. Xu, and M. Guo, “Mechanism Design for Stochastic Virtual Resource Allocation in Non Cooperative Cloud Systems,”Proc. IEEE Fourth Int‟l Conf. Cloud Computing, pp. 614-621, 2011.

7.       Y. Wang, A. Nakao, and A.V. Vasilakos, Heterogeneity Playing Key Role: Modeling and Analyzing the Dynamics of Incentive Mechanisms in Autonomous Networks,” ACM Trans. Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, article 31, 2012.

8.       D. Ardagna, B. Panicucci, and M. Passacantando, “Generalized Nash Equilibria for the Service Provisioning Problem in Cloud Systems,” IEEE Trans. Services Computing, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 429-442, Oct.-Dec. 2013.

9.       Di Valerio, V. Cardellini, and F. Lo Presti, “Optimal Pricing and Service Provisioning Strategies in Cloud Systems: A Stackelberg Game Approach,” Proc. IEEE Sixth Int‟l
Conf. Cloud Computing,pp. 115-122, 2013.

10.    X. Zhou, S. Gandhi, S. Suri, and H. Zheng, “ebay in the Sky: Strategy-Proof Wireless Spectrum Auctions,” Proc. ACM Mobi- Com, pp. 2-13, 2008.






Umar Zahid, Zain Imran, Hafiz Qasim Ali

Paper Title:

Assessing and Controlling Risks During Construction Phase of Multi-Storey Residential Apartments

Abstract: Risk undertakes vital part in the accomplishment of construction project. In managing risk, distinguishing of risk factors is very critical. The aim of this research is to recognize and assess the current risks and vulnerabilities during the construction phase of multi-storey residential apartments through comprehensive literature survey. Data was collected utilizing checklist survey from distinctive building construction projects in Lahore. Total 35 risks were associated with construction projects classified in four categories such as scaffold, excavation, falling from height and ladders. A research result demonstrates that both owners and contractors do not systematically apply risk management practices, bringing about negative outcomes for the project’s performance. The fundamental hazards occur amid execution of the project were related to scaffold, fall into Excavation, Collapse of excavation and Falling from height. This study proposed that the organizations need to keep up legitimate documentation procedure which should be a solution to all hazards that are liable to occur during the construction phase of the project. The contractors ought to focus their strategy to alleviate top risk impacts and build their possibilities of success.

Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, construction


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3.       Potts, K., 2008. Construction cost management, learning from case studies. Abingdon: Taylor Francis.

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