Design of an Energy Efficient Cluster based Localization Algorithm (EECBLA) for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Tejaswini R Murgod1, S Meenakshi Sundaram2

1Tejaswini R Murgod*, Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GSSSIETW, Mysuru, Affiliated to VTU Belagavi, India.
2Dr. S Meenakshi Sundaram, Professor and HOD, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, GSSSIETW, Mysuru, Affiliated to VTU Belagavi , India.
Manuscript received on April 20, 2020. | Revised Manuscript received on April 29, 2020. | Manuscript published on May 10, 2020. | PP: 37-42 | Volume-9 Issue-7, May 2020. | Retrieval Number: G4861059720/2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.G4861.059720
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Abstract: In underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) the node mobility is higher as the nodes drift with the water so identifying the exact location of the nodes is a challenging task. Terrestrial WSN use Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate the nodes, but the same cannot be applied for UWSN as they do not propagate under water. Underwater uses acoustic channel for communication which suffers from low bandwidth, high propagation delay, high bit error rate, high node mobility and variable sound speed which makes localization a challenging task. Hence there is an evolving requirement for energy efficient localization algorithm. To overcome these problems we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Localization Algorithm (EECBLA) to minimize the energy utilization and identify an accurate location of the sensor nodes. EECBLA is a cluster based localization protocol where the GPS enabled high power anchor nodes are utilized to estimate the location of the un localized sensor nodes. To improve the localization accuracy it is necessary to improve the network connectivity. Network connectivity can be improved by increasing the lifetime of the sensor nodes. EECBLA proposes an energy efficient localization scheme where the node operates in active and sleep mode to efficiently utilize the available energy. In this research work we take a sample example and demonstrate how the location is estimated through TOA and Euclidean distance. Accuracy of TOA is measured as 8.36, 4.76, 13.21, 14.85, 16.26 and 3.60. The average estimated localization error of EECBLA is around 4m to 6m. EECBLA localization error is compared with other localization algorithms like 3DUL whose average localization error is 5m to 10m, SDMA whose average localization error is around 24% and localization error of Hybrid RSS ranges from 4.69m to 15.85m. When compared with these methodologies there is a decrease in localization error by 3%, and the increase in accuracy by 5% in EECBLA protocol. 
Keywords: Underwater Communication; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN), Energy Efficient Cluster Based Localization Algorithm, Localization Algorithm (EECBLA).
Scope of the Article: Wireless Sensor Networks