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Volume-5 Issue-3, August 2015, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Ajalloeian Rassoul, Kiani Mojtaba

Paper Title:

Predicting Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Through Soil Index Using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) 

Abstract:  Soil compaction and California bearing Ratio (CBR) tests are the common methods in determining the bearing capacity of linear construction like roads, railroads and airfield pavement   in designing the different layers of their select fill. Rapid access to the results of these tests contributes to the project management with respect  to implementation, time and savings. Attempt is made here to estimate the maximum value of dry density (MDD), optimum moisture Content (OMC), soaked CBR (CBRS), un soaked CBR (CBRU) and swelling percentage through OLS and Multi-layer Perception network (MLP) of ANNS with respect to more common and simple tests which include percentage of organic content (OC), liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), Percentage Passing No. 200 and No. 4 sieves. Also results obtained from the processed data indicate that the ANN method not only performs better than OLS but also provides acceptable and reliable outcomes with respect to the predicted objectives' materialization.

   ANN, CBR, Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content.


1.           BRAJA M. DAS,Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 7th Edition,” Cengage Learning, 2010, Available: www.cengage.com/engineering.
2.         AASHTO-T99, “Standard Test Method for Moisture-Density,” American   Association of state highway and transportation officials (2007).

3.         AASHTO-T193(2007), “Standard Test Method for CBR (Californian bearing ratio)  laboratory compacted soil,” American  Association of state highway and transportation officials (2007).

4.         Ch. Sudha Rani, Phani Kumar Vaddi,N.V.Vamsi Krishna Togati , “Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) For -Prediction of Engineering Properties of Soils,”  International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-3, Issue-1, June 2013

5.         M. A. Shahin, M. B. Jaksa, and H. R. Maier, “Recent Advances and Future Challenges for Artificial Neural Systems in Geotechnical Engineering Applications,” Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Artificial Neural Systems, Volume 2009, Article ID 308239, 9 pages

6.         V.Phani Kumar and Ch. Suda  Rani “Prediction of  compression index of soils using artificial networks(ANNs) ,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 1554-1558,   2009
7.         Ramasubbarao, G.V. and Siva Sankar, G. “Predicting Soaked CBR Value of Fine Grained Soils Using Index andCompaction Characteristics,”  Jordan Journal of Civil
Engineering, Volume 7, No. 3, 2013

8.         Sathawara Jigar K., Prof. A.K.Patel. “COMPARISON BETWEEN SOAKED AND UNSOAKED CBR,”   International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN2249–8974, IJAERS/Vol. II/ Issue III/April-June, 2013/132-135

9.         A. Ashrafi Fashi1, M. Khodaparast and N. Nariman-Zadeh. “Modeling and Prediction of CBR Values of soils Using Geotechnica

10.    Parameters and Evolved GMDH-type Neural Network,” The 4th International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Mechanics,November 2-3, 2010, Tehran, Iran Paper No. & Code: 283(TMAASH)





Pham Huu Tung, Quach Xuan Truong, Vu Le Quynh Giang

Paper Title:

Performance Evaluation of Cognitive Cooperative Radio Network Under Joint Constraints

Abstract:   In this paper, we investigate outage performance of a cognitive cooperative underlay network in which secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) sends signals to the secondary receiver (SU- Rx) through the help of a single relay (SR). Here, we assume that the relay is equipped with multiple antennas and operates in the decode-and-forward mode. Furthermore, the relay uses the selection combining (SC)/transmit antenna selection (TAS) technique to process the signal. Given this setting, an adaptive transmit power allocation policy for the SU-Tx and SR are derived. Accordingly, simulations for the outage probability of the considered system is executed. Our numerical results will show the impact of different channel mean power gains between pri- mary user and secondary user on the outage performance. Also, the impact of massive antennas at the SR on the performance of the considered system model is addressed.

 Cognitive Cooperative Radio Networks, Outage Constraint, Peak Transmit Power, Device-to-Device Communica- tion.


1.       A. Goldsmith, S. Jafar, I. Maric, and S. Srinivasa, “Breaking spectrum gridlock with cognitive radios: An information theoretic perspective,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 894–914, May 2009.
2.          A. Rabbachin, T. Quek, H. Shin, and M. Win, “Cognitive network interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 480-493, Feb. 2011.
3. A. Giorgetti, M. Varrella, and M. Chiani, “Analysis and performance comparison of different cognitive radio algorithms,” in Proc. IEEE International Workshop on Cognitive Radio and Advanced Spectrum Management, Aalborg, Denmark, May 2009, pp. 127–131.
4.          J. Lee, H. Wang, J. Andrews, and D. Hong, “Outage probability of cognitive relay networks with interference constraints,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 390–395, Feb. 2011.

5.           Y. Zou, J. Zhu, B. Zheng, and Y.-D. Yao, “An adaptive cooperation diversity scheme with best-relay selection in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 5438–5445, Oct. 2010.

6.          J. Si, Z. Li, H. Y. Huang, J. Chen, and R. Gao, “Capacity analysis of cognitive relay networks with the pu’s interference,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2020–2023, Dec. 2012.

7.          L. Luo, P. Zhang, G. Zhang, and J. Qin, “Outage performance for cog- nitive relay networks with underlay spectrum sharing,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 710–712, Jul. 2011.

8.          Z. Yan, X. Zhang, and W. Wang, “Exact outage performance of cognitive relay networks with maximum transmit power limits,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1317–1319, Dec. 2011.

9.          K. J. Kim, T.-Q. Duong, and H. V. Poor, “Outage probability of single- carrier cooperative spectrum sharing systems with decode-and-forward relaying and selection combining,” IEEE Trans.  Wireless  Commun., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 806–817, Jan. 2013.

10.     H. Tran, T. Q. Duong, and H.-J. Zepernick, “Performance analysis of cognitive relay networks under power constraints of multiple primary users,” in Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conference, Houston, U.S.A., Dec. 2011, pp. 1–6.

11.     Y. Han, S. Ting, and A. Pandharipande, “Cooperative spectrum sharing protocol with selective relaying system,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–6, Sep. 2011.

12.     C. Zhong, T. Ratnarajah, and K.-K. Wong, “Outage analysis of decode- and-forward cognitive dual-hop systems with the interference constraint in Nakagami-m fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 2875–2879, Jul. 2011.

13.     H. Ding, J. Ge, D. B. da Costa, and Z. Jiang, “Asymptotic analysis of cooperative diversity systems with relay selection in a spectrum-sharing scenario,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 457–472, Feb. 2011.

14.     S. Sagong, J. Lee, and D. Hong, “Capacity of reactive DF scheme in cognitive relay networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 3133–3138, Oct. 2011.

15.     Y. Han, S. H. Ting, and A. Pandharipande, “Cooperative spectrum sharing protocol with secondary user selection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 2914–2923, Sep. 2010.

16.     J. Hong, B. Hong, T. W. Ban, and W. Choi, “On the  cooperative diversity gain in underlay cognitive radio systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 209–219, Jan. 2012.

17.     H. Tran, H.-J. Zepernick, and H. Phan, Cognitive cooperative networks with decode-and-forward relay selection under interference constraints of multiple primary users,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Com- puting, vol. 8, pp. 1–30, Sep. 2013.

18.     ______, “Cognitive proactive and reactive df relaying schemes under joint outage and peak transmit power constraints,”  IEEE  Commun.  Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1548–1551, Aug. 2013.





Desislava Angelova, Pavlina Vodenova

Paper Title:

Urban Regeneration

Abstract:   The last years in all spheres of public life is spoken about recycling, redesign and about all connected with resources preservation. In same spheres this practice has occurred considerably, and in others, it is still to come. The aim of this paper is to find out if there exist good practices in the field of urban design, and in what direction are they. In the construction of equipment and buildings from a different nature are exhausted many materials and means which in many rare cases it is purposeful to be wholly destroyed. The question is: what could be done to improve their exploitation period?

   redesign, regeneration, urban design


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3.           A. L. Alperovich, Envisions Parasitic Cultural Space 'Under the Bridge' in Stockholm. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

4.           A. Goodwin, Spanish Train Station Transformed Into Gorgeous Daylit Office for Casa Mediterraneo. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

5.           L. Grozdanic, Gorgeous 15th-Century Church Renovated as a Modern Bookstore in The Netherlands. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

6.           L. Grozdanic, Abandoned Warehouse to Be Transformed into Lush Zero-Energy Office Space in Amsterdam
Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

7.           L. Grozdanic, Mesmerizing Penumbra Kinetic Shading System Brings Dull Facades to Life. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

8.           P. Hartford, Landscape Design Projects That Turn Damaged and Neglected Spaces Into Healthy, Beautiful Environments Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

9.           N. Jewell, The Cascade Project Transforms Disused Staircase into Inspiring Urban Space for Hong Kong Residents. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

10.         B. Meinhold, Urbanarbolismo's Magnificent 1500 m2 Vertical Garden Covers the Palacio de Congresos in Spain Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

11.        B. Meinhold, Windswept is a Fascinating Kinetic Façade That Reveals the Direction of the Wind. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

12.         B. Meinhold, Manhattan Beach Post Office Transformed Into Hip New LA Restaurant. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

13.        B. Meinhold, BĀKA Lighthouse: SAALS Architects Transform an Old Pump Station Into a Water Tourism Center in Latvia Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

14.        B. Meinhold, Old Sugar Refinery Transformed into a Sweet Climbing Gym in Montreal. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

15.        B. Meinhold, Renovated Paris Rail Station Will House 1000 Start-Ups! Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

16.        B. Meinhold, Abandoned Pearl Brewery Adapted into a Vibrant Mixed-Use Project in San Antonio. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

17.        B. Meinhold, Abandoned Grain Silo Converted into Arenc Silo Opera House in Marseille. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

18.        H. Morgan, Stunning Modern Building Breathes New Life Into Bergen's Historic Fish Market. Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

19.        T Laylin, Unique “Marche” Concept Reimagines Abandoned Post  Offices as Local Supermarkets

20.        S. Cameron, New York’s High Line Park to Double in Size by Next Spring! Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

21.        L. Zimmer, Historic Madrid Sawmill Transformed into Thriving Arts Center with Glowing LED Facade Available: http://www.inhabitat.com

22.        (Journal Online Sources style) K. Author. (year, month). Title. Journal [Type of medium]. Volume(issue), paging if given.          Available: http://www.(URL)

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24.        http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar





Pei-Chen Lo, Ming-Liang Huang, Jung-Cheng Chen

Paper Title:

Chan Ding for Autism Prevention  Hypothesis of Brain Plasticity by Tri-Mailuns Activation

Abstract:   ASD (autism spectrum disorder) prevalence has doubled in Taiwan since 2007. Like those with depression and stress syndrome, more autism individuals seek solution in heart-to-heart imprint sealing (HHIS) Chan Ding. HHIS Chan Ding, the unique practice of orthodox Chan Buddhism, has aroused more attention since 1990s due to its preventive capability and therapeutic effect explored in mailuns activation. In recent years, more successful cases demonstrate the positive effects of Chan Ding on ASD individuals. This paper mainly reports 1) the hypothesis for preventing ASD prevalence by HHIS Chan Ding, and 2) the results of ASQ (Autism Screening Questionnaire) survey on Chan-Ding and control volunteers. The effectiveness of Chan Ding on reducing ASD prevalence is hypothesized by 1) the optimal Yin-Yang balance (Tai-Ji) and WuXing efficiency of meridian networks driven by mailuns, in accordance with the principles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and 2) the unique neuroplasticity for realizing the new body-mind-spirit interfacing with detached brain dominated by true heart. The essential mechanism involves the brain reformation by tri-mailuns activation in Chan Ding that rewires the entire neural network. Meridian-energy results exhibit significant enhancement of Yin-Yang balance and WuXing efficiency after Chan Ding. ASQ statistics reveal prominent benefit of leg-crossing posture.

Keywords:    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Brain plasticity, Chan-Buddhist Chan Ding, Yin-Yang balance.

1. Sun, X., Allison, C., Matthews, F. E., Sharp, S. J., Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S., & Brayne, C. (2013). Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Autism, 4(1), 7.
2. Lai, D. C., Tseng, Y. C., Hou, Y. M., & Guo, H. R. (2012). Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.Research in developmental disabilities, 33(3), 909-915.
3. Steinberg, J., & Webber, C. (2013). The roles of FMRP-regulated genes in autism spectrum disorder: single-and multiple-hit genetic etiologies. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 93(5), 825-839.
4. Baron-Cohen, S. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of autism. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75(7), 945-948.
5. Happé, F., Ronald, A., & Plomin, R. (2006). Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature neuroscience, 9(10), 1218-1220.
6. Sparks, B. F., Friedman, S. D., Shaw, D. W., Aylward, E. H., Echelard, D., Artru, A. A., ... & Dager, S. R. (2002). Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology, 59(2), 184-192.
7. Dong, J. (2013). The relationship between traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2013.
8. Spooren, W., Lindemann, L., Ghosh, A., & Santarelli, L. (2012). Synapse dysfunction in autism: a molecular medicine approach to drug discovery in neurodevelopmental disorders. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 33(12), 669-684.
9. Ghanizadeh, A. (2011). Targeting of glycine site on NMDA receptor as a possible new strategy for autism treatment. Neurochemical research, 36(5), 922-923.
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12. Jepson, B., Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Olive, M. L., Stott, C., Braud, S., ... & Allen, M. S. (2011). Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 41(5), 575-588.
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16. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Manikam, R., Winton, A. S., Singh, A. N., Singh, J., & Singh, A. D. (2011). A mindfulness-based strategy for self-management of aggressive behavior in adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1153-1158.
17. Perrin, J. M., Coury, D. L., Hyman, S. L., Cole, L., Reynolds, A. M., & Clemons, T. (2012). Complementary and alternative medicine use in a large pediatric autism sample. Pediatrics, 130(Supplement 2), S77-S82.
18. Huffman, L. C., Sutcliffe, T. L., Tanner, I. S., & Feldman, H. M. (2011). Management of symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a comprehensive review of pharmacologic and complementary-alternative medicine treatments. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 32(1), 56-68.
19. Sequeira, S., & Ahmed, M. (2012). Meditation as a potential therapy for autism: a review. Autism research and treatment, 2012.
20. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S., Fisher, B. C., Wahler, R. G., Mcaleavey, K., ... & Sabaawi, M. (2006). Mindful parenting decreases aggression, noncompliance, and
self-injury in children with autism. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14(3), 169-177.

21. Ming, X., Chen, X., Wang, X. T., Zhang, Z., Kang, V., & Zimmerman-Bier, B. (2011). Acupuncture for treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012.
22. Lo, P. C., Huang, M. L., & Chang, K. M. (2003). EEG alpha blocking correlated with perception of inner light during Zen meditation. The American journal of Chinese medicine, 31(04), 629-642.
23. Liao, H. C., & Lo, P. C. (2007). Investigation on spatiotemporal characteristics of Zen-meditation EEG rhythms. Journal of International Society of Life Information Science, 25(1), 63-71.
24. Huang, H. Y., & Lo, P. C. (2009). EEG dynamics of experienced Zen meditation practitioners probed by complexity index and spectral measure.Journal of medical engineering & technology, 33(4), 314-321.
25. Lo, P. C., & Chang, C. H. (2013). Spatially nonlinear interdependence of alpha-oscillatory neural networks under chan meditation. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013.
26. Chang, K. M., & Huang, C. L., & Sheu, J. C., & Huang, M. L., & Lo, P. C. (2014, August). Chan-Ding for Drug Rehabilitation and Its Brain-basis Hypothesis. 2nd InternationalConference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine.Symposium conducted at the meeting of Beijing,China.
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29. Lo, P. C.,& Huang, M. L. (2015). Exploring preventive power of ten-mailuns actuation in chan ding. International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research, 1(2), 27-34.
30. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., &Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, malesand females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 31(1), 5-17.
31. Hoekstra, R. A., Bartels, M., Cath, D. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): a study in Dutch population and patient groups. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 38(8), 1555-1566.
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T. Divya Sree, M. Devi Shankar

Paper Title:

DSTATCOM with PI Controller for Voltage Sag Mitigation

Abstract:    Fault at transmission or Distribution level cause transient voltage sag in entire system or large part of it. Disturbances such as voltage sag, swell, short duration interruption, transient and harmonic occurs. Fault on 11Kv system or at load point affects voltage profile of other feeders. Unsymmetrical fault effect on distribution line and voltage restoration using DSTATCOM which is a custom power device. This paper deals with two control methods such as PI controller and Fuzzy logic controller implemented for the injection of current. The proposed method is implemented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

 DSTATCOM, Voltage sag, FIS, PI controller, MATLAB SIMULINK.


1.     Design and Simulation Studies of D-STATCOM for Mitigating Voltage Sag Problem by Using Fuzzy Inference System, and Proportional Integral based on controlled application Hamza Jaber Mohamed , Mohamed Ali Abdulsalam , Fathi A Mansur, Miftahul Anwar ,Muhammad Nizam .
2.     Role of custom power devices in Power Quality Enhancement: A Review by T.Devaraju

3.     Solution of Power Quality Problems using DSTATCOM by Ramesh C. Kumhar, Nitin Sanadhya, Prakash Sundaram,Pankaj Kumar, Raju Swami

4.     Mitigation of power quality problems by using DSTATCOM by Shaik Khaja Gareeb Nawaz, Shaik Hameed

5.     VSC Based DSTATCOM & Pulse-width modulation for Power Quality Improvement by Rodda Shobha Rani, B. Jyothi

6.     Simulation of D-STATCOM under Fault condition And Nonlinear Loads by P. Veeranjaneyulu,

7.     Review Paper on Applications of D-Statcom in Distribution System by Ankush Sharma






R. Thirunavukarasu, I. A. Chidambaram

Paper Title:

Application of Restoration Indices for the Automatic Generation Control in a Restructured Power System

Abstract: The nature of power system restoration problem involves status assessment, optimization of generation capability and load pickup. Quick system restoration is of prime importance not only based on the time of restoration and also stability limits also play a very vital role in power system restoration problems due to unexpected load variations in power systems. To achieve a faster restoration process, installing new black start generators, network reconfigurations and load recovery can be beneficial in accelerating system restoration. This paper proposes evaluation of Power System Restoration Indices (PSRI) based on the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) assessment of interconnected power system in a restructured environment. The PSRI are useful for system planners to prepare the power system restoration plans to improve the efficiency of the physical operation of the power system and to increase the transmission capacity in the network. A specific restoration strategy can be synthesized by a combination of the milestones and actions based on the actual system conditions. In this study, AGC with two-area two-unit interconnected two types of test systems such as all-thermal units and thermal-hydro mixed units under deregulated environment have been investigated. The control parameters of Proportional-Integral (PI) gains of AGC loop are optimized through Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithm in order to achieve the optimal transient response of the system under different Poolco and bilateral transaction in restructured electricity market. From the simulated results it is observed that all-thermal unit test system indicates that more sophisticated control for a better restoration of the power system output responses and to ensure improved PSRI in order to provide reduce the restoration time, thereby improving the system reliability. In hydro test system, the non-minimum phase characteristic of hydro turbine shows an opposite initial power surge results in heavy frequency oscillations and the system is unable to regain its stable state than thermal generating unit.

 Automatic Generation Control, Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm, Proportional-Integral controller, Power System Restoration Indices, Restructured Power System.


1.        Mukta and Balwinder Singh Surjan, “Load Frequency Control of Interconnected Power System in Deregulated Environment: A Literature Review”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Vol. 2, Issue-3,  pp. 435-441, 2013.
2.        Shayeghi H. Shayanfar, H.A and Jalili A., “Load frequency Control Strategies: A state-of-the-art survey for the researcher”, Energy Conversion and Management,  Vol. 50, No.2, pp.344-353, 2009.

3.        Nanda, J, Mangla, A and Suri, S, “Some new findings on automatic generation control of an interconnected hydrothermal system with conventional controllers”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 21, pp.187-194, 2006.

4.        Lalit Chandra Saikia, Nanda J and Mishra, S, “Performance comparison of several classical controllers in AGC for multi-area interconnected thermal system”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol.33, pp.394-401, 2011.

5.        Surya Prakash and Sinha S.K., “Artificial Intelligent and PI in Load Frequency Control of Interconnected Power system”, International Journal of Computer Science & Emerging Technologies,, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp.377-384, 2010.

6.        Wen Tan, “Decentralized load frequency controller analysis and tuning for multi-area power systems”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.52, pp. 2015–2023, 2011.

7.        Thangaraj G and Bhavani M., “Intelligent Load Frequency Control in a Restructured Power System”, International Journal of Emerging Technology  and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 4, Special Issue-3,               pp. 338-346, 2014.

8.        Liu F., Song Y.H., Ma J., Mei S and Lu Q, “Optimal load- Frequency control in restructured power systems”, IEE proceedings on Generation Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 150, No. 1,               pp.87-95, 2003.

9.        Chandra Sekhar Kona and Vaisakh Kanchapogu, “Application of Classical/Variable Structure / Fuzzy Controllers for AGC under Deregulated Environment”, International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology, Singapore, pp.202-208, March 29-30, 2014.

10.     Jalili A. Shayeghi H and Tabatabaei N.M, “Fuzzy PID controller base on LFC in the deregulated power system including SMES”, International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 3, Issue.8,    pp.38-47, 2011.

11.     Farook S. and Sangameswara Raju P, “AGC controllers to optimize LFC regulation in deregulated power system”, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Vol.1, Issue 5, pp. 278-289, Nov 2011.

12.     Chidambaram I.A. and Paramasivam B, “Optimized Load- Frequency Simulation in Restructured Power System with Redox Flow Batteries and Interline Power Flow Controller”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol.50, pp. 9-24, 2013.

13.     Adibi M.M., Borkoski J.N., Kafka R.J and Volkmann T.L., “Frequency Response of Prime Movers during Restoration”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 751-756, 1999.

14.     Herman  B. Ross, Ning Zhu, Jay Giri and Barbara Kindel, “An AGC Implementation for System Islanding and Restoration conditions”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 1399-1410, 1994.

15.     Adibi M.M. and Kafka R.J., “Power System Restoration Issues”, IEEE Computer Applications in Power, Vol.4, No.2, pp.19-24, 1991.

16.     Jayesh J. Joglekar and Yogesh P. Nerkar, “A different approach in system restoration with special consideration of Islanding schemes”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 30, pp. 519–524, 2008.

17.     Srinivasa Rao, “Implementation of Automatic Generation Control of Hydrothermal System Employing Hybrid Genetic-Neural Approach”, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.1, Issue.2, pp-352-357, 2011.

18.     Ogata Katsuhiko, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2010.

19.     Passino K.M., “Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control”, IEEE Control System Magazine, Vol.22, No.3, pp.52-67, 2002.

20.     Liu Y. and Passino K.M., “Biomimicry of Social Foraging for Distributed Optimization: Models, principles and Emergent Behavior”, Journal of Optimization Theory
Applications, Vol.115, No.3, pp.603-623, 2002.

21.     Janardan Nanda, Mishra.S and Lalit Chandra Saikia, “Maiden Application of Bacterial Foraging-Based optimization technique in multi-area Automatic Generation Control”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.24, No.2,  pp. 602-609, 2009.

22.     Hu, J.  Guo Z. Z., Liu Y. C. and Guo Q. Y, “Power System Restoration and Analysis Of Restoration Sequence of Generating Sets”, Power System Technology, Vol. 28, No. 18, pp. 1-4, 2004.

23.     Liu Q., Shi L. B., Zhou M., Li G.Y and Ni Y.X., “Optimal Strategy for Units Start-up during Power System Restoration”, Transactions of China Electro Technical Society, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 164-170, 2009. <driacdm@gmail.com>

24.      Jun Chen, Wei -Xing Zhao, Hua-ying Su, Jia-lin Bai, Nian Liu, Xiao-Yan Qiu and Qian Liao, “Research on Optimization for Units Start during Power System Restoration”, Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 5, pp.708-712, 2013.

25.     Nanda J. and Mangla A., “Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Hydro-Thermal System using Conventional Integral and Fuzzy Logic Controller”, IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies, Hong Kong, pp. 372-377, April 2004.






Saleh Abd El-Aleem Mohamed

Paper Title:

Activation of Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Using Lime Rich Sludge in Presence and Absence of Rice Husk Ash

Abstract:  These days there is an increasing emphasis on a cleaner environment and maintaining the balance of the eco-system of the biosphere. It is generally believed that, environmental protection with zero risk and economic growth do not go hand in hand, but at the same time it is also true that, sustainable growth with environmental quality is not an unattainable goal. This work aims at studying the effect of lime rich sludge (LRS) as a byproduct of acetylene industry on the activation of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS). LRS was calcined at 850oC for 4h and left to cool in furnace, then slaked with water and dried at 80oC for 24h. GBFS was replaced by 10, 20 and 30 wt., % of LRS. The results showed that, as the amount of LRS increases, the combined water and free lime increase also. The compressive strength values of GBFS-LRS mixes increase with LRS content up to 20 wt., %, and then decrease at 30 wt., % LRS. In order to enhance the compressive strength of the mixture containing 30 wt., % of LRS, different amounts of rice husk ash (RHA) were added. The results indicated that, the compressive strength increases with RHA content. The results of chemical and mechanical properties of GBFS-LRS blends in presences and absence of RHA are in a good agreement with those of XRD, FTIR and TG/DTG analyses.

 Granulated blast-furnace slag, Lime rich sludge, Rice husk ash, Compressive strength


1.        Sahu V., Gayathri V., “The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar”, Intern. J. of Eng. Tech. Innov., 4(1), (2014), pp. 30-37.
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7.        Abd El-Aziz Abdel Gawwad H., Mohamed Khater H., Abd El-Aleem Mohamed S., “Impact of Alkali Concentration and Metakaolin Content on Accelerated Ageing of Egyptian Slag”, American Journal of Chemical Engineering; 3(3) (2015), pp. 30-38.

8.        Abd El-Aleem S., "Hydration characteristics of granulated slag with fired by-pass cement dust", Sil. Ind; 69 (3-4); (2004), pp. 46-52.

9.        Heikal M., Abd El-Aleem S., and Morsi W.M., “Characteristics of blended cements containing nano-silica” HBRC Journal (9) (2013), pp. 243–255.

10.     Abd-El.Aziz M.A., Abd.El.Aleem S., and Heikal M., “Physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of pozzolanic cement pastes and mortars hydrated at different curing temperatures” Constr. Build. Mater. 26; (2012), pp. 310–316.

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17.     James S. Fabiyi, “Suitability of Portland Cement and Rice Husk Ash Pozzolan Systems for Cement Bonded Composites Production”, J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 4 (6) (2013), pp. 848-854.
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13(2), (2010), pp. 185-190.

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20.     Heikal M., Abd El.Aziz M., Abd El.Aleem S., El. Didamony H., “Effect of polycarboxylate on rice husk ash pozzolanic cement”, Silicates Industriels; 69 (9-10) (2004), pp.  73-84.

21.     Nair D., Fraaij A., Klaassen A. and Kentgens A. A, “structural investigation relating to the pozzolanic activity of rice husk ashes”, Cement and Concrete Research (Elmsford), 2008; 38(6):861-869.

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23.     Naji Givi A., Abdul Rashid S. , Nora A. Aziz F., Amran Mohd Salleh M., “Contribution of Rice Husk Ash to the Properties of Mortar and Concrete: A Review”,  Journal of American Science; 6 (3) (2010).

24.     Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcium Natural Pozzolona for Use as a Material Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete, ASTM C 618-78, American Standard for Testing Materials, (1978).

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26.     Abu Bakar B. H.; Ramadhansyah P. J., Megat Azmi M. J., “Effect of rice husk ash fineness on the chemical and physical properties of concrete”, Magazine of Concrete Research,  63 (5), (2011), pp. 313 –320.

27.     Khassaf S. I., Jasim A. T., Mahdi F.K., “Investigation The Properties Of Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash To Reduction The Seepage In Canals”, International Journal of Scientific& Technology Research, 3(4), (2014), pp. 348-354.

28.     Talsania S., Pitroda J., Vyas C.M., “Effect of rice husk ash on properties of pervious concrete”, Int. J. Adv. Eng. Res. Studies/IV/II/Jan.-March, (2015), pp. 296-299.

29.     Maurice et al., “Compressive strength of concrete with rice husk ash as partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement‖”, Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Scholarly Journal of Engineering Research, 1(2) (2012), pp. 32-36.

30.     Abd El-Aleem Mohamed S., Mohamed Morsi W., “Performance of Nano–Modified Cement Pastes and Mortars in Caron's Lake Water”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), Volume-4 Issue-6, August (2015), pp. 80–94

31.     El-Didamony H., Abd-El. Eziz M., and Abd.El.Aleem S., “Hydration and durability of sulfate resisting and slag cement blends in Qaron’s Lake water”, Cem. Concr. Res., 35; (2005), pp. 1592-1600.

32.     Abd El-Aleem Mohamed S., El-Rahman Ragab A., “Physico-Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Blended Cement Incorporating Nano-Silica”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 3 Issue 7, July (2014), pp. 339-358  

33.     ASTM C109M, “Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars”, (2012).

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Versavia-Maria Ancusa

Paper Title:

A Viewpoint on Multi-Dimensional Centrality

Abstract: Complex networks are a becoming a more and more used tool in order to represent real-life systems. Subject to inherent interdisciplinary constraints, the creation of a realist model and its interpretation are more often than not challenging. One of the most used factors in network analysis and interpretation is centrality, which measures the influence of a node in the network or the diffusion power of that node. While its computation is a relative simple problem in basic, uni-dimensional networks, this measure proves more difficult to define in multi-dimensional networks. As practice shows that multi-dimensional models are more accurate, the pressure to create a valid and easily computable influence measure increases. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the methods used to achieve a multi-dimensional centrality. In the end, a novel method for computing centrality in multi-dimensional networks is proposed.

  centrality, complex networks, multi-dimensional, vector


1.       National Research Council, Network Science, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2005.
2.       A.-L. Barabasi and J. Frangos, Linked: The New Science of Networks, Perseus Books Group, 2002.

3.       L. Barabasi, Bursts: The Hidden Pattern Behind Everything We Do, 2010.

4.       M. Newman, A.-L. Barabasi and D. J. Watts, The Structure and Dynamics of Networks: Princeton Studies in Complexity, 1st ed., Princeton University Press, 2006.

5.       G. Ghoshal and A. L. Barabasi, "Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks," Nature Communications, no. 2, pp. 1-7, 2011.

6.       L. Barabasi, "The network takeover," Nature Physics, vol. 8, pp. 14-16, 2012.

7.       Zachary Neal, "Differentiating Centrality and Power in the World City Network," Urban Studies, vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 2733-2748, 2011.

8.       Phillip Bonacich, Annie Cody Holdren, and Michael Johnston, "Hyper-edges and multidimensional centrality," Social Networks, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 189-203, July 2004.

9.       Matteo Magnani, Anna Monreale, Giulio Rossetti, and Fosca Giannotti, "On multidimensional network measures," in Italian Conference on Sistemi Evoluti per le Basi
di Dati (SEBD), Italy, 2013, pp. 1-8.

10.    Dimitrios Vogiatzis, "Influence Study on Hyper-Graphs," in AAI Fall Symposium Series FSS13, Westin Arlington Gateway, USA, 2013.

11.    M. Kitsak et al., "Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks.," Nature Physics, vol. 6, pp. 888-903, June 2010.

12.    D. Miorandi and F. D. Pellegrini, "K-Shell Decomposition for Dynamic Complex Networks," in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Dynamic Networks (WDN), Avignon, France, 2010, pp. 488 – 496

13.    Sanjukta Roy and Balaraman Ravindran, "Measuring Network Centrality Using Hypergraphs," in Proceedings of the Second ACM IKDD Conference on Data Sciences CoDS'15, New York, NY, USA, 2015, pp. 59-68

14.    Tsai-Ching Lu, Yilu Xhang, David L Allen, and Mutasim Salaman, "Design for fault analysis using multi-partite, multi-attribute betweenness centrality measures," in Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society , Montreal QC, Canada, 2011.

15.    Kristina Lerman, Rumi Ghosh, and Jeon Hyung Kang, "Centrality Metric for Dynamic Networks," in Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Mining and Learning with Graphs, New York, NY, USA, 2010, pp. 70-77.

16.    Marc Barthélemy, "Spatial networks," Physics Reports, vol. 499, no. 1-3, pp. 1–101, February 2011.

17.    Paolo Crucitti, Vito Latora, and Sergio Porta, "Centrality measures in spatial networks of urban streets," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 73, no. 3, p. 036125, March 2006.

18.    Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance, "The political blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. election: divided they blog," in Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Link discovery, New York, NY, USA, 2005, pp. 36-43.






R. Indira, V. Subharani

Paper Title:

On Secondary Normal and Unitary Polynomial Matrices

Abstract:  In this paper we introduce polynomial s-normal and polynomial s-unitary matrices and study some of its properties.

   s-normal polynomial matrix, s-unitary polynomial matrix.


1.     Anna lee., Secondary symmetric  secondary skew symmetric  secondary orthogonal matrices,  period.  math,  Hungary,  vol.7,  63-70, 1976.
2.     Krishnamoorthy.S   and   Govindarasu.A.,  On secondary unitary matrices, Int.J.contemp.math.science, vol.2  number 3 , 247-253, 2010.

3.     Krishnamoorthy.S   and  Vijayakumar.R.,  Some equivalent conditions on s-normal matrices,  Int.J.contemp.math.science, 4, 1449-1454,  2009.

4.     Ramesh.G, Sudha.P.N  and Galalakshmi.R., On normal and unitary polynomial matrices ,  Int. J. of  Modern Engineering  Research ,  volume5, 32-36 , 2015. 






Dunyazad K. Assi

Paper Title:

Shear Behavior of High Strength Ferro Cement Deep Beam

Abstract: The use of high strength concreting materials as well as mortars has taken a wide range of applications, whose mechanical properties are still at a research phase. However the application of ferrocement in many structural applications in many parts of the world started decades ago, many researchers around the world have tried to study the engineering properties of ferrocement. The present research work deals with the behavior of ferrocement deep beams tested in laboratory. A total of five rectangular reinforced concrete deep beams were tested. Test variables included the mortar strength and the ferrocement wire mesh layers. From the obtained test results reinforced with higher number of wire mesh are proved to have a higher ultimate load as well as having a lower deflection. In addition, the ultimate load capacity of normal strength beam is less than that of higher strength one. Moreover, A strut-and-tie model was proposed for better understanding of the shear behavior and to aid the design process.

  Deep Beams, Ferrocement, Wire Mesh, shear strength.


1.        Mohammed , Azad A. and Assi , Dunyazad, K. “ Estimating Tensile Stress of Ferrocement Used for Flexural Analysis”, Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal,  Vol.20, No.2, 2012, pp.27-40.
2.        Shichuan Tian (2013) “Shear Behavior of Ferrocement Deep Beams”,   A thesis submitted to The University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences.

3.        Barney T. Martin (2007)Verification and Implementation of Strutand-Tie Model in LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”. AASHTO.

4.        Bong, J.H.L and Ahmed, E. (2010) “Study the Structural Behavior of Ferrocement Beam” UNIMAS e-Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 1 (2)/April 2010.

5.        Md Ihtesham Hussain,Vaijanath Halhalli, P.M.B Raj kiran Nanduri (2013), “shear and flexural behavior of ferrocement deep beams” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology.

6.        ACI-318. 318-11: Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. American Concrete Institute. 2011.

7.        Brown, M. D., Bayrak, O. “Minimum Transverse Reinforcement for Bottle-Shaped Struts.” ACI Structural Journal. V. 103, No. 6, November-December, 2006, pp 813-821.

8.        C.W.Yu and John W. Bull (2006), “durability of Materials and Structures in Building and Civil Engineering. P56-60.

9.        Nilson A. H, Drawing D., and Doland C. W. (2010) : Design of Concrete Structures, MC Graw pp. 876—880.   Available: Hill, Higher Education. Fourteenth Ed.






StergiosTampekis, Fani Samara, StavrosSakellariou, AthanasiosSfougaris, OlgaChristopoulou

Paper Title:

Mapping the Optimal Access to the Natural Resources Based on Spatial Planning. The Case Study of Thassos Island, Greece

Abstract:   Small islands due to their small size face environmental risks, because of the pressures arising from the projects and actions aiming at economic development. Forests constitute vulnerable ecosystems that change at great speed. In most of the occasions the change is downgrading. The right management of the natural resources is the unique solution for the achievement of sustainable development. However, sustainable management of forests must be achieved with the respect and protection of nature and landscape. Sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network, designed with the optimal spatial variability and the minimum environmental impacts. In this paper, we focus on the environmental impacts’ intensity criteria evaluation and more specifically on the forest road density, the road spacing and the forest opening-up percentage evaluation. From the road density and the forest protection percentage evaluation, we can deduce that in the study area there have been opened a lot of forest roads. Nevertheless, with the integration of the intensity and the absorption multi-criteria evaluation we can deduce whether the existing forest roads in the study area have been designed with the optimal spatial planning. Consequently, with the application of the optimal spatial planning technique we will ensure the best protection and at the same time the sustainable exploitation of the forest resources.  Additionally, it will be valued if there are any impacts to the natural environment and if some of the forest roads had been constructed legally or not according to the guidelines.                            

  Forest opening-up,Geographic Information Systems (GIS), road density, spatial planning


1.     Abdi, E., Majnounian, B., Darvishsefat, A., Mashayekhi, Z.&Session, J. (2009). A GIS-MCE based model for forest road planning. Journal of Forest Science, 55(4), 171–176.
2.     Akay, A. E., Wing, M. G., Sivrikaya, F.&Sakar, D. (2012). A GIS-based decision support system for determining the shortest and safest route to forest fires: a case study in mediterranean region of turkey. Environ. Monit. Assess., 184(3): 1391-1407.

3.     Çalişkan, E. (2013). Planning of forest road network and analysis in mountainous area. Life Sci J 2013; 10(2): 2456-2465]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com 341.

4.     Demir, M. (2007). Impacts, management and functional planning criterion of forest road network system in Turkey. Transportation Research Part A, 41, 56–68.

5.     Dukas, Κ., (2004). Forest works and natural environment. Publications Giahoudi, Thessaloniki, pp. 227-310. (Greek).

6.     Eastman, J.R., Jin, W., Kyem, P.A.K.&Toledano, J., (1995). Raster procedures for multi-criteria / multi-objective decisions.Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote
vol. 61 (5): 539-547.

7.     Eker, Μ., and Coban, Η.Ο. (2010). Impact of road network on the structure of a multifunctional forest landscape unit in southern Turkey, Journal of Environmental Biology, ©Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India)  January 2010, 31, 157-168.

8.     Firozan, A. H., Hashemi, S. A.& Chai, M. M. F. (2010).  Evaluation of forest road network planning according to environmental criteria.American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 9 (1): 91-97, 2010, ISSN 1818-6769.

9.     Forman, R. T. T., Alexander, L. E. (1998). Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 207–231.

10.  Geneletti, D. (2003). Biodiversity impact assessment of roads: an approach based on ecosystem rarity. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 23, 343–365.

11.  Gianoulas, V. (2001). Forest opening-up with modern machinery. Technico-econmic, environmental effects. Ph.D. Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. (Greek).

12.  Greene, R., Devillers, R., Luther, J.E. & Eddy, B. E. (2011). GIS-Based Multiple-criteria decision analysis, Geography Compass 5/6 (2011): 412–432, 10.1111/j.1749

13.  Hayati E, Majnounian B, Abdi E, Sessions J. &Makhdoum M. (2013). An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, February 2013, Volume 185, Issue 2, pp 1767-1776, Springer Publications.

14.  Heinimann, H. R. (1996). Opening-up planning taking into account environmental and social integrity. Proceedings of the Seminar on Environmentally Sound Forest Roads and Wood Transport, Romania, PP. 62–69.

15.  Jankowski, P. (1995). Integrating geographical information systems and multiple criteria decision making methods. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9: 251–73.

16.  Malczewski, J. (1999). GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis. New York, John Wiley and Sons.

17.  Tampekis, S. (2009). The compatibility of the forest opening-up works with the natural environment, for the development of the mountainous region of Metsovo,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.(Greek).






Anand Patel, Divyesh Patel, Sadanand Namjoshi

Paper Title:

Thermal Performance Analysis of Helical Solar Water Heater

Abstract:    The alternative energy sources are new option in front of world to overcome energy crisis and pollution related issues. The solar energy, wind energy and bio mass are three major sources and out of these three energy sources solar energy is the easiest source to extract useful energy because the wind energy can be useful particularly in coastal area where there is high wind velocity and energy extraction bio mass needs either chemical conversion or thermo chemical conversion process. The objective of present work is to carry out thermal performance the proposed helical solar heater by using K type thermocouple at appropriate location of the experimental set up; using thermocouple the change in water temperature for 20 lt water capacity will be carried out.     

  Alternative Energy Sources, helical Solar Water Heater


1.       Rai G.D. Solar Energy Utilisation, 5th edn. Khanna Publishers Delhi, India, 2005
2.       Budihardjo, G.L. Morrison, “Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters”, Solar Energy 83 (2009) 49–56

3.        Y. Taheri, Behrooz M. Ziapour, K. Alimardani, “Study of an efficient compact solar water heater”, Energy Conversion and Management 70 (2013) 187–193

4.        N.M. Nahar, “Year round performance and potential of a natural circulation type of solar water heater in India”Energy and Buildings 35 (2003) 239–247

5.        K.K. Chong, K.G. Chay, K.H. Chin, “Study of a solar water heater using stationary V-trough collector”, Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 207-215

6.        Rakesh Kumar, MarcA.Rosen, “Thermal performance of integrated collector storage solar water heater with corrugated absorber surface”, Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010) 1764-1768

7.        Hussain Al-Madani, “The performance of a cylindrical solar water heater”, Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 1751–1763






Krista Svike, Sandra Laimovna

Paper Title:

Conceptual Innovation Design at Riga Building College, Latvia

Abstract:  Conceptual innovation design is a way for developing of competitiveness in architecture projects. Hereby, the formulation of requirements according to the design task is of essential importance [5], whereas these requirements should be met in accordance with the international level in the given area. The objective characteristics of shape and the means for its aesthetic organization are highly connected with contemporary innovative technologies. For instance, photovoltaic modules are hung on walls in a metrical order, wind turbines with their shape and dimensions actively participate in the formation of buildings. The principles of creation of form are greatly interconnected with innovations, while leaving their mark on the architecture image of buildings. All this is of high importance as well in the design of high and mega-high buildings where shape, function, construction, building technology, ecology and many other factors are indivisibly connected and determine contemporary architecture image. For example, the design of transportation systems in skyscrapers in cities with millions of inhabitants is a crucially important factor – here what matters is to reach a given point using the fastest way possible with the minimal loss of energy and time. In connection with the above-mentioned situation, at Riga Building College has been developed a project focusing on conceptual innovation design of panoramic elevators for serving high and mega-high structures – Super skyscrapers Competition № 100001360. This project, developed by Jurijs Eisaks, a second-year student  at the College, has been supervised by Assoc. Prof. Dr. arch. Liudmila Aleksandrovaand Prof. Dr. arch. Yanko Aleksandrov from the University of Structural Engineering & Architecture, Sofia, Bulgaria according to a “Erasmus +” cooperation contract [3, 4].

   conceptual innovation design, sections, geometric shapes, orientation, different angles.


1.     Liudmila Aleksandrova, Yanko Aleksandrov, Magdalena Mihaylova. Elevator Capsules-Types of New Generation Panoramic Elevators, Volume-4 Issue-12, May 2015, ISSN: 2278 - 3075 (Online), p. 21-33; Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.
2.     LiudmilaAleksandrova, YankoAleksandrov, MagdalenaMihaylova, IvanKirchev, IvanAleksandrov. Conceptual Innovative Design of Buildings - Toronto - Sky Velodrome 2015, Volume-4 Issue-12, May 2015, ISSN: 2278 - 3075 (Online), p. 38-Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

3.     LiudmilaAleksandrova  Erasmus +. Building Riga College. Education pogram- 2015.

4.     Yanko AleksandrovErasmus +. Building Riga College. Education pogram- 2015.

5.     Super skyscrapers Elevator annual competition -2014.