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Volume-7 Issue-10, July 2018, ISSN: 2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

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1.

Authors:

Mohammad Abazid, Duaa Alkoud

Paper Title:

A Least-Squares Approach To Prediction The Future Sales of Pharmacy

Abstract: The least square methods (LSM) are widely utilized in data fitting, with the best fit minimizing the residual squared sum. LSM can be divided into two categories, the ordinary or linear LSM and the nonlinear LSM, this depends on the residuals. To statistically analyzed regression, the linear LSM most have a solution that is closed form. Conversely, the nonlinear LSM is analyzed using the iterative refinement. In this paper, the best fit of the data that correspond to pharmacy sales for the year 2019 and 2020 is evaluated using the LS method. The results revealed that the trend value for 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021 is found to be 10200, 27300, 44400, 61500, 78600, 95700, 112800 and 129900 respectively.

Keywords: The Least Square Methods, LSM, Pharmacy, Sales.

References:

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  2. Reid, F. (2000). The mathematician and the banknote: Carl Friedrich Gauss. Parabola, 36(2), 2-9.
  3. Menke, W. (2015). Review of the generalized least squares method. Surveys in Geophysics, 36(1), 1-25.
  4. Bates, D. M., & Watts, D. G. (1988). Nonlinear regression analysis and its applications Wiley. New York.
  5. Harper, H. L. (1974). The method of least squares and some alternatives. Part I, II, II, IV, V, VI. International Satistical Review, 42, 147-174.
  6. Seal, H. L. (1967). Studies in the History of Probability and Statistics. XV The historical development of the Gauss linear model. Biometrika, 54(1-2), 1-24.
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  8. Larson, R., & Farber, E. (2000). Elementary statistics: picturing the World. Prentice Hall.
  9. Boyd, S., & Vandenberghe, L. (2004). Convex optimization. Cambridge university press.
  10. Deakin, R. E. (1991). A review of Least Squares theory applied to traverse adjustment. Australian surveyor, 36(3), 245-253.
  11. Miller, S. J. (2006). The method of least squares. Mathematics Department Brown University, 1-7.
  12. Abdi, H. (2007). The method of least squares. Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. CA, USA: Thousand Oaks.
  13. Suykens, J. A., & Vandewalle, J. (1999). Least squares support vector machine classifiers. Neural processing letters, 9(3), 293-300.
  14. Mosteller, F. (2006). Remarks on the method of paired comparisons: I. The least squares solution assuming equal standard deviations and equal correlations. In Selected Papers of Frederick Mosteller (pp. 157-162). Springer, New York, NY.
  15. Teunissen, P. J. (1995). The least-squares ambiguity decorrelation adjustment: a method for fast GPS integer ambiguity estimation. Journal of geodesy, 70(1-2), 65-82.

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2.

Authors:

Hüseyin Gökçeku, Dania AL-Othman

Paper Title:

Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health

Abstract: Climate change poses major challenges to human society and to Earth systems, influencing the functioning of many ecosystems and thereby affecting human health. Many climate change/variability and extreme weather-associated events, such as sea level rise, hurricanes, and storm surge, as well as other weather extremes, including excessive precipitation and heatwaves, have direct and/or indirect impacts on human health. These impacts include death/injury, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, environmentally-mediated infectious diseases, and mental health, among others. The aim of this study is describing health impacts of the climate change through projected trends in climate-change-related health. The paper consists, the priority of introduction part is to define impacts of climate change on human health, and to present the relevant relationship between global climate change and health and it’s provide a background on climate change effect on health.

Keywords: Climate Change, Health, Health Systems, Diseases.

References:

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report 1–-944.
  2. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2001: Impacts Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report 1–-1000.
  3. Stott, P. A., Stone, D. A. & Allen, M. R. Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 432, 610–-614 (2004).
  4. Patz, J. A., Epstein, P. R., Burke, T. A. & Balbus, J. M. Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 275, 217–-223 (1996).
  5. Confalonieri U et al. (2007). Human health. In: Parry ML et al., eds. Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 391–431.
  6. McMichael A et al. (2003a). Climate change and human health: Risks and responses. Geneva, World Health Organization.
  7. WHO (2002). The world health report 2002. Geneva, World Health Organization.
  8. WHO (2009). Protecting health from climate change: Connecting science, policy and people. Geneva, World Health Organization.
  9. IPCC (2007b). Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Climate change 2007 – the physical science basis. Summary for policymakers. Geneva, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Secretariat.
  10. Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C. & Moss, R.H. (1998) The Regional Impacts of Climate Change. An Assessment of Vulnerability. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group II. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  11. IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contributions of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Pannel on Climate Change, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Omumbo, J.A., Lyon, B., Waweru, S.M., Connor, and S.J. & Thomson, M.C. (2011) Raised temperatures over Kericho tea estates: revisiting the climate in the East African highlands malaria debate. Malaria Journal 10:2.
  13. Mwandosya, M.J., Nyenzi, B.S. & Luhanga, M.L. (1998) The Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology (CEEST).
  14. IPCC (2001) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2001. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
  15. WHO (2009) Protecting Health from Climate Change. Connecting Science, Policy and People. World Health Organization. Hppt://www.who.int.globalchange_en.
  16. Urama, K.C. & Ozor, N. (2010) Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in Africa: the Role of Adaptation. African Technology Policy Studies.
  17. Thompson, L., Mosley-Thompson, E. & Mark, B. (2007) Core Project: Low latitude glacier retreat: Evidence of accelerating climate change and impacts on local to regional water resources. CWC Funded Project.
  18. Githeko, A.K., Lindsay, S.W., Confalonieri, U.E. & Patz, J.A. (2000) Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78, 1136-1147.
  19. Patz, J.A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Holloway, T. & Folley, J.A. (2005) Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438, 310-317.
  20. Kandji, S.T. & Verchot, L.V. (2005) Impacts of and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Climate Change in the East African Community. A focus on the Agricultural Sector. World Agroforestry Centre.
  21. Beniston, M. The 2003 heatwave in Europe: A shape of things to come? An analysis based on Swiss climatological data and model simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 2022–-2026 (2004).
  22. Schar, C. et al. The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427, 332–-336 (2004).
  23. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. World Disaster Report 2004 Ch. 2 (IFRC, 2004).
  24. Afrane, Y.A., Zhou, G., Lawson, B.W., Githeko, A.K., Yan, G. (2006) Effects of microclimatic changes caused by deforestation on the survivorship and reproductive fitness of Anopheles gambiae In Western Kenya Highlands. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74, 772-778.
  25. Shope, R.E. (1992) Impacts of global climate change on human health: Spread of infectious disease. Chapter 25 of Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures, ed. S. K. Majumdar, L. S. Kalkstein, B. Yarnal, E. W. Miller, and L. M. Rosenfeld, 363-70. Easton, PA: The Pennsylvania Academy of Science.
  26. McMichael, A.J., Haines, A., Slooff, R. & Kovats, S. (1996) Climate Change and Human Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

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3.

Authors:

Hüseyin Gökçeku, Saddam Hussain

Paper Title:

Assessing the Review of Impact of Climate Change on Transportation

Abstract: Environmental change represents a basic danger to future advancement, especially in territories where neediness is far reaching and key resources, for example, framework are immature for even current needs.The commitment of the transport frameworks, including air, road and ocean, are rolling out to atmosphere improvement through the emanation of green house (GHG) gases, and new innovations and projects of activity to relieve their effect on atmosphere is assessed. The exercises of the transport frameworks in many nations are sensitive to a scope of climate extremes, including those identified with precipitation, rainstorms, temperature, winds, perceivability and ocean level. The effect of atmosphere, atmosphere changeability and environmental change, specifically the effect of these extremes on transport frameworks and adjustment measures are examined. This paper likewise addresses the outline of atmosphere and effect on transportation.

Keywords: Climate, Climate Change, Transportation, Precipitation, Green House Gases

References:

  1. Climate Central. Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT). (2017). Climate Change. Neumann, James. (2009).
  2. A Historic Commitment ot Protecting the Environment and Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change. Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT). (2017
  3. Adaptation to Climate Change: Revisiting Infrastructure Norms. Resources for the Future. Obama White House. (2017).
  4. The Anthropocene Review. Georgetown Climate Center. (2017). State and Local Adaptation Plans. Huber Daniel G. and Jah Gulledge, Ph.D. (2011). Extreme Weather and Climate Change: Understanding the Link and Managing the Risk.
  5. IPPC, 2007a. In: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., Miller, H.L. (Eds.), Climate Change 2009: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Work Group I to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.
  6. IPPC, 2007b. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., Hanson, C.E. (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Forth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 976 pp.
  7. Chapman, L., 2007. Climate change and transport: a review. Journal of Transport Geography 15, 354–367.
  8. Carter, T.R., Parry, M.L., Harasawa, H., Nishioka, S., 1994. Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations with a Summary for Policy Makers and a Technical Summary. Department of Geography, University College London.
  9. Stern, N., 2007. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  10. Transportation Research Board, 2008. Potential impacts of climate change on US transportation. TRB Special Report 290. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
  11. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007c. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  12. Brigham, L. and B. Ellis (Eds.), 2004. Arctic Marine Transport Workshop: September 28-30. Held at Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge University, United Kingdom Hosted by: Arctic Research Committee, Arlington, Virginia.
  13. Brigham, L. and B. Ellis (Eds.), 2004. Arctic Marine Transport Workshop: September 28-30. Held at Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge University, United Kingdom Hosted by: Arctic Research Committee, Arlington, Virginia.

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