Effect of Smoke Exposure on Chronic Inflammation and P53 Expression in Bladder Epithelial
Nur Budaya T1, Surya Putra T2, Daryanto Besut3, Anita Kenty W4

1Nur Budaya T, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

2Surya Putra T., Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

3Daryanto Besut, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

4Anita Kenti W, Department of Pathology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

Manuscript received on 09 January 2020 | Revised Manuscript received on 05 February 2020 | Manuscript Published on 20 February 2020 | PP: 41-46 | Volume-9 Issue-3S January 2020 | Retrieval Number: C10690193S20/2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.C1069.0193S20

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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open-access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Bladder cancer is widely studied for its association with cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Nicotine and carcinogenic substances in CS could induce chronic inflammatory state and DNA damage. This research was aimed to investigate the effect of CS exposure in chronic inflammatory state and p53 expression in bladder epithelial of Wistar rats. 25 male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were divided into five groups as follows: Control (without treatment); CS-1, CS-2, CS-4, and CS-8 (treated with CS 1x, 2x, 4x, and 8x/day, respectively). Each exposure was done for 15 minutes for 60 days. Chronic inflammatory score was calculated from HE-stained specimens and Immunohistochemistry method was applied to measure p53 expression. Results showed that lymphocyte and histiocyte count in CS-8 was significantly higher as compared to CS-1 (p<0.05) and control (p<0.05). Lymphocyte and histiocyte count in CS-4 was also significantly higher compared to non-treated group (p<0.05). Chronic inflammatory score was significantly higher in CS-8 compared to other group (p<0.05). Moreover, p53 expression was found in CS-8 group (2 of 5 subjects had positive p53 expression, 20 positive cells in from total 10 hpf) and significantly different with other groups (p=0.011). Correlation study showed significant correlation between frequency of cigarette smoking exposure and lymphocyte count (p=0.000; r=0.956); monocyte count (p=0.000; r=0.928); chronic inflammation score (p=0.000; r=0.928); and p53 expression (p=0.007; r=0.522). We concluded that there was significant differences in chronic inflammation state and p53 expression among groups. Correlation study showed that frequency of cigarette smoking exposure was positively correlated with chronic inflammation and p53 expression.

Keywords: Bladder, Chronic Inflammation, Cigarette Smoke, p53.
Scope of the Article: Bio-Science and Bio-Technology