Assessment of Godavari River Water Quality in and Around Rajamahendravaram
P.Lakshmi, Department of Civil Engineering, Aditya Engineering College, Surampalem, Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
Manuscript received on 07 March 2019 | Revised Manuscript received on 20 March 2019 | Manuscript published on 30 March 2019 | PP: 926-933 | Volume-8 Issue-5, March 2019 | Retrieval Number: D2774028419/19©BEIESP
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: Surface water is by far the most important nutrient for the human body next to oxygen. Rivers plays an important role in the development of our country and sustenance of life, which are being polluted due to development activities like rapid industrialization, urbanization, etc. The main objective of this work is to analyse and classify water quality of river Godavari in and around Rajamahendravaram in order to determine the degree of pollution and ascertain the required treatment level before usage. The samples are collected from Pushkarghat, Gowthami ghat, Kovvur, Katheru, Katheru oxidation ponds integrated samples from top to bottom in the middle of river. Parameters of the Godavari river water determined include pH, ammonia, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total alkalinity, salinity, total hardness, electrical conductivity,etc. using both in in-situ and standard laboratory procedures. The samples are analysed, then results of the water parameters are compared with the prescribed Pollution Control Board standards. If the parameters are exceeding the prescribed standards then suitable methods of treatment are suggested for the eradication or minimization of pollution. From the present study we came to know that Turbidity, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Ammonia parameters are found to be in excess. So treatment methods like coagulation followed by Flocculation, Softening techniques like lime soda process and reverse osmosis, Oxidation ponds, De-nitrification techniques are used in order to preserve the quality of the river water for Drinking, Industrial and Agricultural purposes. Based on the Water Quality Index(WQI) calculated for the samples, it is found that Sample 3 (WQI-17.84) can be classified as ‘Excellent’ quality of water to be used for drinking, irrigation and industrial consumption. Sample 1 (WQI-32.43) & Sample 2 (WQI-28.63) can be designated as ‘Good ‘quality’ of water which can be used for various above said purposes. Coming to Sample 4 (WQI-205.4) – the various parameters concentration is beyond the permissible limits specified by IS-10500 as well as CPCB and is classified as water ‘unfit for human consumption’. Sample 5(WQI-70.93) – in spite of treatment measures taken by the industry, it is designated as water is‘Fair’ in quality and still needs to be treated carefully to bring down the concentration of various parameters within the concentration of limits and make it suitable for consumption. In order to observe the effect of pollutants in the sample-5 ( WQI=70.93) on growth of plants and in order to know the extent of care taken by paper mill to remove pollutants, growth in a small plant is observed by watering the potted plant continuously for 15 days with the treated effluent. The plant is observed to show the normal growth indicating that the industrial management is taking care of the treatment of the effluent waste water. Finally, it is observed that in the study area, the impact of human activities on the river is existing even though the magnitude may be less, there is a danger in the near future, if proper care is not taken by respective authorities.
Keyword: Analyse, Degree of Pollution, Treatment, Water Quality Index.
Scope of the Article: Water Supply and Drainage