Finding Optimal Operation Schedule for Electrical Appliances using Demand Response in Residential Sector
Nilima R. Das
Nilima R. Das, Faculty of Engg. & Tech., Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), India
Manuscript received on 02 June 2019 | Revised Manuscript received on 10 June 2019 | Manuscript published on 30 June 2019 | PP: 3141-3150 | Volume-8 Issue-8, June 2019 | Retrieval Number: H7274068819/19©BEIESP
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: Rapid growth in building infrastructure, global population and improving life standards has raised the electricity demand exponentially and it is expected to grow further. It is generally accepted that buildings are the most important manmade contribution to today’s world, as they impact on every aspect of our lives. Unfortunately, since their initial construction, these energy-hungry entities do not stop consuming energy until they reach the end of their lives and are demolished. This appetite for high energy consumption is not only associated with buildings themselves, but also with the devices/goods inside them. People generally use the energy concentrated appliances during their preferred times resulting in high demand during peak hours (high pricing hours) which in turn increases the pressure on the electric Grid. In such situation the supplier tries to avail more energy from the sources and sometimes to meet such high demand it can buy energy from expensive sources, which may result in increased cost of energy. The high demand of energy may make the Grid system unstable and unreliable. High demands of electricity result in increased production of electricity using fossil fuel-based plants leading to increased level of CO2 in the atmosphere which is considered as the main reason of climate change. The development of intelligent energy-efficient control technologies will both soften negative effects of the climate change on the environment and enhance the service quality of the power system. The improved performance of the grid system reduced peak loads and availability of electricity can reduce the greenhouse gas emission. There is a need of proper scheduling of the operation times of the appliances. When optimal scheduling is used it can reduce energy consumptions of the users during peak hours making the Grid more reliable. The work in this article is mainly focused on optimal load scheduling for energy cost minimization and peak load reduction without considerably compromising user satisfaction. To achieve the objective a Demand Response (DR) model has been designed that motivates the consumers to take part in the system leading to a balanced energy system. The objective is to not only reduce costs and improve reliability but also to enhance consumer acceptance of a DR program by restricting the dissatisfaction level of the consumer by using renewable energy sources that provides greater flexibility in using the appliances at consumer’s preferred times without reducing the amount of consumption required in a day. The optimization method proposed in this work reduces the consumer demand for electricity during peak hours by using an optimal schedule for the operation of the electrical appliances for the whole day. When the consumer follows the schedule generated by the optimizer the electricity payments is minimized. Simulation results reveals the effectiveness of the proposed method in providing reduced load during peak hours and minimized cost.
Keyword: Smart grid, DSM, Demand response, Renewable energy sources, TOU pricing, GA, PSO.
Scope of the Article: Optimal Design of Structures