Reliability of Manual Vascular Segmentation for Retinal Fractal Dimension using Peek Retinatm
Nur Raihan Esa1, Siti Noor Hakimah Saidi2, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin3, Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri4, Norsham Ahmad5, Firdaus Yusof @ Alias6
1Nur Raihan Esa, Kulliyyah, Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
2Siti Noor Hakimah Saidi, Kulliyyah Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
3Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Associate Professor, Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
4Nor Azwani Mohd Shukri, Assistant Professor, Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
5Norsham Ahmad, Assistant Professor, Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia.
6Firdaus Yusof @ Alias, Assistant Professor, Department of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia
Manuscript received on 10 July 2019 | Revised Manuscript received on 22 July 2019 | Manuscript Published on 23 August 2019 | PP: 1560-1564 | Volume-8 Issue-9S3 August 2019 | Retrieval Number: I33260789S319/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.I3326.0789S319
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open-access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: Fractal dimension (Df) has been identified as indirect measure in quantifying the complexity of retinal vessel network which is useful for early detection of vascular changes. Reliability studies of Df measurement on retinal vasculature, has been conducted on retinal images processed by using semi-automated software which only permits image with 45ᵒ field of view (FOV). Smartphone-assisted fundus camera retinal image has a maximum 30ᵒ FOV which warrant manual processing in measuring the Df. Retinal blood vessels need to be manually segmented to produce binary images for retinal vasculatures Df measurement. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the intragrader and intergrader reliability of manual segmentation of the retinal vasculature Df measurement from retinal images taken using a smartphone-assisted fundus camera Forty-five retinal images were captured using the Portable Eye Examination Kit Retina (Peek Retina™, Peek Vision Ltd, UK). Suitable image for Df analysis were selected based on gradable retinal image criteria which included; i) good image focus, ii) centered position of optic nerve head (ONH) and iii) significant blood vessel visibility. The images were cropped 0.5 disc diameters away from disc margin and resized to 500×500 pixels using GNU Image Manipulation Program Version 2.8.18 (GIMP, The GIMP Team, United States). Retinal vessels were manually traced by using layering capabilities for blood vessel segmentation. Df values of segmented blood vessels were measured by using Image J (National Institutes of Health, USA) and its plugin software, FracLac Version 2.5. Intragrader and intergrader reliability was determined by comparing the Df values between; two readings measured one week apart by a grader and readings from two different graders, respectively, using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman graphical plots. Intragrader agreement for retinal Df showed good reliability with ICC of 0.899 (95% CI: 0.814–0.945). Bland Altman analysis indicated good agreement between Df values at different grading time (mean difference 0.0050; 95% CI:-0.0001–0.0101). Intergrader reliability for retinal Df was high with ICC of 0.814 (95% CI: 0.459–0.919). Bland Altman plot revealed good intergrader agreement for retinal Df between two graders with a bias value of 0.0158 (95% CI: 0.0092–0.0223). In conclusion, manual segmentation of retinal image captured by smartphone-assisted fundus camera has good reliability (0.75 < ICC < 0.9) for Df analysis to study the morphology of retinal vasculatures.
Keywords: Fractal Dimension, Retinal Vascular, Smartphone-Assisted Fundus Camera, Peek Retina, Reliability
Scope of the Article: Healthcare Informatics