Toxins and Mechanisms of Their Interaction in Fruit Wines
L.V. Gnetko1, L.P. Nerovnykh2, S.A. Gisheva3, A.A. Skhalyakhov4, Kh. R. Siyukhov5, N.M. Ageyeva6, S.A. Volkova7

1L.V. Gnetko, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Adygea, Russia.
2L.P. Nerovnykh, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Adygea, Russia.
3S.A. Gisheva, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Adygea, Russia.
4A.A. Skhalyakhov, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Adygea, Russia.
5Kh.R. Siyukhov, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Adygea, Russia.
6N.M. Ageyeva, North Caucasian Federal Scientific Center of Horticulture, Viticulture, Wine-Making, Krasnodar, Russia.
7S.A. Volkova, Kuban State Agrarian University Named After I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar, Russia.

Manuscript received on 30 June 2019 | Revised Manuscript received on 05 July 2019 | Manuscript published on 30 July 2019 | PP: 1978-1981 | Volume-8 Issue-9, July 2019 | Retrieval Number: I8317078919/19©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.I8317.078919

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Abstract: The purpose of the work was to ensure the environmental safety of fruit wines based on studying the content of secondary metabolites of mold fungi – mycotoxins – and their properties in them. The study objects included different varieties of apples that were damaged in a different way. The whole apples that were not damaged by pests and diseases were used as a reference group. To define the content of patulin and aflatoxins A and G, thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography were used. In order to define the mass concentrations of amino acids, the method of liquid ion-exchange eluent chromatography was used. The analysis of wine materials produced from apples that had various types of damage has showed that they contained mycotoxins, namely, aflatoxins A and G and patulin. It has been determined that the degree of contamination of the apples surface with mold fungi depends on the type of the fruit damage. The content of toxins increases in the following sequence: mechanically damaged apples < pest damaged apples < apples damaged by diseases. All objects were characterized by a considerable content of patulin. An attempt has been made to define possible areas for the patulin synthesis with mold fungi. The impact of mold fungi on the composition of amino acids in fruit materials has been studied. The difference in the concentration of amino acids in low alcoholic and highly alcoholic environments has been revealed. It has been defined that the reason for obtaining fermented juices with a depleted amino acid composition is the use of the fruits damaged with rot. The increase in the content of certain amino acids in fermented alcoholized juices indicates the inhibitory effect of the alcoholic medium on the metabolic processes of mold fungi and a decrease in their enzymatic activity. The mechanism of the interaction between patulin and amino acids of fruit materials has been explained.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, Amino Acids, Fruit Wines, Mechanisms, Patulin.

Scope of the Article: Human Computer Interactions