Volume-5 Issue-7

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Volume-5 Issue-7, December 2015, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Aayush Shah, TwishaVyas, Siddharth Shah, Abhijit Patil

Paper Title:

Automated Essay Grader

Abstract:   Essays are crucial testing tools for assessing academic achievements, integration of ideas and ability to recall, but are expensive and time consuming to grade manually. Manual grading of essays takes up a significant amount of instructor’s valuable time, and hence is an expensive process. Automated grading, if proven to match or exceed the reliability of human graders, will significant reduce costs.  The purpose of this project is to implement and train machine learning algorithms to automatically asses and grade response. These grades from the automatic grading system should match the human grades consistently. Currently, automated grading is used instead of second graders in some high-stakes applications, and as the only grading scheme in low stakes evaluation.

 Automated essay grader; Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Linear Regression.

1.     Adamson, Alex, Andrew Lamb, and Ralph Ma. “Automated Essay Grading.” (2014).
2.     Mahana, Manvi, Mishel Johns, and Ashwin Apte. “Automated essay grading using machine learning.” Mach. Learn. Session, Stanford University (2012).

3.     Song, Shihui, and Jason Zhao. “Automated Essay Scoring Using Machine Learning.”

4.     Preston, Dan, and Danny Goodman. “Automated Essay Scoring and The Repair of Electronics.” Technical rep ort, http://snap. stanford. edu/class/cs341-2012/reports/03-Preston_cs341_-_Dan_and_Danny_-_Final. pdf (2012).

5.     Natural Language Processing [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing





Stavros Sakellariou, Stergios Tampekis, Fani Samara, Olga Christopoulou, Athanassios Sfougaris

Paper Title:

Observatories Establishment for the Prevention of Forest Fires. The case of Thasos Island, Greece

Abstract: Forests are primary providers of fundamental tangible and intangible goods to our planet, from vital chemical substances (O2) to more economic issues (wood for economic activity etc.). Hence, for the comprehensive protection of these priceless ecosystems, immediate detection of forest fires is of vital importance, so that the firefighting forces may react in the least possible time before forest fires take large dimensions with unpredictable consequences. Primary aim of the paper is the immediate fire detection through establishing observatories across the entire area of a Greek island, Thasos. Vital objective is the selection of the most efficient observatories in terms of maximizing the visible area as well as their optimal location for avoiding significant degree of overlapping. According to the visibility analysis, the five most efficient observatories in terms of visible area and least degree of overlapping have been selected. In addition, establishing only 5 observatories, we will be able to monitor approximately 42% of the entire study area and its corresponding land cover types. Certainly, the visibility potential could be increased if the firefighting authority decides to establish more than 5 observatories, which means demand of additional financial resources.

  Forest fires, Fire detection, Visibility analysis, Observatories, GIS, Thasos, Greece 


1.        Demir M., Kucukosmanoglu A., Hasdemir M., Ozturk T. and Acar H., 2009. Assessment of forest roads and firebreaks in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8(18): 4553-4561
2.        Forest Service of Thasos island, 2012.

3.        Hellenic Military Geographic Service 2012

4.        Majlingova A., 2012 Opening-up of forests for fire extinguishing purposes. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering. 33(1): 159-168

5.        Narayanaraj G. and Wimberly M.C., 2012. Influences of forest roads on the spatial patterns of human- and lightning-caused wildfire ignitions. Applied Geography 32: 878-888

6.        Oguz Coban H. and Eker M., 2010. Analysis of forest road network conditions before and after forest fire. In Proceedings of FORMEC 2010. Forest Engineering: Meeting the Needs of the Society and the Environment. July 11 – 14, 2010, Padova – Italy.

7.        Pompa-García M., Solís-Moreno R., Rodríguez-Téllez E., Pinedo-Álvarez A., Avila-Flores D., Hernández-Díaz C. and Velasco-Bautista E., 2010. Viewshed Analysis for Improving the Effectiveness of Watchtowers, in the North of Mexico. The Open Forest Science Journal, 2010, 3, 17-22

8.        Pompa-García M., Zapata-Molina M., Hernández-Díaz C., Rodríguez-Téllez E., 2012. Geospatial Model as Strategy to Prevent Forest Fires: A Case Study. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012, 3, 1034-1038

9.        Sakellariou S., Samara F., Tampekis S., Sfougaris A. and Christopoulou O., 2015. Targeting to an efficient prevention strategy of forest fires, estimating the fire hazard on islands. The case study of Thasos island, Greece. International Journal of Advanced Engineering and Nano Technology (IJAENT). ISSN: 2347-6389, Volume-2 Issue-11, October 2015, pp. 27-32.

10.     Stergiadou A., Valese E. and Lubello D., 2007. Detailed Cartography System of fuel types for preventing forest fires. In Proceedings of 6th International workshop of the EARSeL special interest group on forest fires. Advances in remote sensing and GIS applications in forest fire management. Towards an operational use ofremote sensing in forest fire management. 27-29 September 2007, Thessaloniki – Greece.

11.     Tampekis S., Samara F., Sakellariou S., Sfougaris A. and Christopoulou O. 2015. Mapping the Optimal Access to the Natural Resources based on Spatial Planning. The Case Study of Thassos Island, Greece.  International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-5 Issue-3, August 2015

12.     Wikipedia, 2015. http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%98%CE%AC%CF%83%CE%BF%CF%82 (accessible on 12/3/2015)






Rijuta Wagh, Janvi Shah, Khyati Shah, Sindhu Nair

Paper Title:

Profiling and Jury Selection Using Sentiment Analysis

Abstract:  Jury Selection is the process of selecting 12 jury members from a pool of random people. These selected Jurors attend the trial proceedings and after the closing statements give a verdict on whether the defendant is guilty or not. For a defendant to be pronounced guilty or not guilty the jurors must unanimously vote on it. If there isn’t a unanimous vote, then there is a mistrial. A mistrial can mean the whole case being restarted or the case being retired, meaning the case will not be pursued further. Thus the selection of the correct jurors is paramount to a decision in our favor, whichever side we may represent. We aim to develop a model in which the opinion of Twitter users is analyzed to create demographics which the lawyer can use for jury selection. Upon extracting data from Twitter based on hash tags pertaining to a certain case, the data undergoes an extensive cleaning process. We first classify the people according to age, sex, and profession and then plot graphs that can be statistically compared. This helps lawyers to make informed decisions and select a jury favorable to his/her case.

Maximum Entropy, Naïve Bayes, Neural networks Sentiment Analysis, SVMs


1.        http://www.thejuryexpert.com/2011/09/trial-strategy-using-social-media-analytics/
2.        Bollen, J., Pepe, A., & Mao, H. (2009). Modeling public mood and emotion: Twitter sentiment and socioeconomic phenomena, Nov 2009.

3.        Andrew L. Maas, Raymond E. Daly, Peter T. Pham, Dan Huang, Andrew Y. Ng, and Christopher Potts. (2011). Learning Word Vectors for Sentiment Analysis. The 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2011).

4.        Ms. K. Nirmala1 Devi, Ms. K. Mouthami, Dr. V. MuraliBhaskaran’Sentiment Analysis and Classification Based on Textual Reviews’,2012.

5.        Kennedy, Alistair, and Diana Inkpen. “Sentiment classification of movie reviews using contextual valence shifters.” Computational Intelligence 22.2 (2006): 110

6.        B. Pang, L. Lee, and S. Vaithyanathan. Thumbs up? Sentiment classification using machine learning techniques. Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), pages 79–86,2002.

7.        A. Esuli and F. Sebastiani. Sentiwordnet: A publicly available lexical resource for opinion mining. pages 417–422,2006.

8.        Tong. An operational system for detecting and tracking opinions in on-line discussion. In Proceedings SIGIR 2001 Workshop on Operational Text Classification, 2001.

9.        H. Witten & E. Frank. Data Mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques. Morgan Kaufmann,2ndedition,2005.






Karan Napanda, Sujil Shah, Ojas Kharbe, Sindhu Nair

Paper Title:

Analysing and Improving Student Performance Using Data Mining and Business Intelligence

Abstract:   Academic failures among university students have been the subject of concern in higher education community. Students drop out due to poor academic performance as early as in the first year of their university enrolment. Many interested parties’ debate and try to find reasons for this poor performance. Consequently, the ability to predict a student’s performance could be useful in many ways to stakeholders of higher education institutions. The proposed system puts forward data mining techniques used to identify the significant variables that affects and influences the performance of undergraduate students. Students’ demographic and past academic performance data are then used to study the academic pattern. The knowledge is hidden among the educational data set and it is extractable through various data mining techniques. Such knowledge can be extracted from end semester exams, talents, ethics, grasping power, involvement in extracurricular activities, mid term tests and other educational data sets. Data classification algorithms coupled with decision trees assist in such extraction which can further be analyzed to produce semantic rules to predict student’s final performance. The system utilizes semantic web technologies such as ontologies and semantic rules to enhance the quality of the educational content and the delivered learning activities to each student. This proposed system generates a type of confidence among the students and teachers. Hence, the system aims to analyse this extracted such data and mine educational data to produce graphical and statistical results which can help in the improvement of student’s performance and also give tutors an overview of the proficiency of the student’s learning abilities.

 Data Mining, ID3, Naïve Bayes, Perceptron Learning rule, Student Performance Analysis


1.       Brijesh Kumar Baradwaj, Saurabh PalMining Educational, Data to Analyze Students‟ Performance, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011
2.       J. Han and M. Kamber, “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques,” Morgan Kaufmann, 2000

3.       http://www.saedsayad.com/naive_bayesian.htm

4.       Mrinal Pandey, Vivek Kumar Sharma, A Decision Tree Algorithm Pertaining to the Student Performance Analysis and Prediction, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 61– No.13, January 2013.

5.       Jia-Lin CHEN and Jyh-Yeong CHANG, Fuzzy Perceptron Learning and Its Application to Classifiers with Numerical Data and Linguistic

6.       Knowledge, Neural Networks, 1995. Proceedings., IEEE International Conference






Sanat Kumar Sahu

Paper Title:

Need for Eco-Friendly Architecture of Computing and Telecommunications Devices: Green Computing Perspective

Abstract:  Green computing, also called green technology is the present need for safe environment. Its major goals are to use computers  related resources like – monitors, printer, storage devices, networking and communication systems – efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. There is need to study the effect of computing  resources , e-waste and other hazardous  element that are responsible for   global warming and changing nature of climate. So that how we can go for the eco-friendly Information and communications Technology, which aim to reduce the emissions of the CO2, CFC and N2O gases. To be safe from all the hazardous and harmful effect on environment, in the present time use of eco-friendly computers and electronic products has to be adopted. Business industries, Government and Nonprofit organizations should learn and adopt the future of Green computing. In this paper I intend to review the state and art of e-waste and in addition examine the possible solutions for prospect research advice to make possible green Computing.

Green computing, Energy Star, Kyoto Protocol, EPEAT, Green House, Global Warming, Environm.


1.     Shinde Sharmila , Nalawade  Simantini,  Nalawade  Ajay, “ Green Computing: Go Green and Save Energy”,   published in  the International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering  Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X pp 1033- 1037
2.     Lakshmi  S.V.S.S, Sarwani  I Sri Lalita  , Tuveera M.Nalini,”A Study On Green Computing: The Future Computing And Eco-Friendly Technology,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1282-1285

3.     Lilius Johan ,”Green Computing”, Abo Akdemi University, published in  the article January 19, 2012 pp 1-67

4.     Chen Yuh-Shyan,” Green Computing”  , published in the article Chaptert-11 WMNLab NTPUCSIE  pp1-80

5.     5.” Kyoto Protocol “ ,published in the article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol

6.     Patra Asit K, “Environmental regulations in india” published Constitution – Article 48a:Indian Constitution – Article 51-A (G)

7.     Curtis Lewis “A comprehensive understanding of environmental sustainability needs for IT infrastructure system design.”,Published in the The Architecture Journal #18 www.architecturejournal.net pp-28

8.     Aggarwal Swati,. Garg Monika, Kumar Pramod SRGC,

9.     “ Green Computing is SMART COMPUTING –– A  Survey “,published in the International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: www.ijetae.com ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012 pp 297-30






Y. B. I. Shaheen, A. A.  El Sayed

Paper Title:

Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams with Openings Reinforced with Innovative Composite Materials

Abstract:  This research aims at developing structural behavior of Ferro-cement beams with openings. To accomplish this objective, an extensive experimental program was conducted. In addition theoretical mathematical models were investigated. The experimental program comprised casting and testing of fourteen reinforced concrete beams of dimensions 200x100x2000mm.These beams are organized in six groups, Group number one is the control group in which beams are cast using conventional reinforcement where beam B1 was reinforced with two steel bars Φ12mm at the bottom and two steel bars Φ10mm at top. Number of steel stirrups 16 Φ 8mm. Beam B2 is the same as B1 but with the addition of polypropylene fibers to the concrete matrix. Group two consists of casting three beams namely B3, B4 and B5. Beam B3 was reinforced as B2 but with two openings of dimensions 10×20 cm located at equal distances from the end of the beam. Beams B4 and B5 were reinforced with two steel bars Φ 12mm at the bottom and two steel bars Φ10mm at the top with two and four layers welded steel meshes respectively. Group three comprises of casting and testing two beams B6 and B7 with two openings 10x20cm located at equal distances from the ends of beam and reinforced with one and two layers of expanded steel meshes respectively. Group four consists of casting and testing beams B8 and B9 which reinforced with one and two layers of fiber glass mesh for durability reason respectively. Group five consists of beams B10 and B11 having three openings and reinforced with four layers welded steel meshes and two layers expanded steel meshes respectively. Group six comprises beams B12, B13 and B14 with three openings and reinforced with four layers welded steel meshes, two layers expanded steel meshes and three layers welded steel meshes respectively. The test specimens were tested as simple beams under four line loadings on a span of 180cm. The performance of the test beams interms of strength, stiffness, cracking behavior, ductility, and energy absorption properties was investigated. The behavior of the developed beams was compared to that of the control beams. Two analytical models were modified and used to suit the developed composite beams one to predict the first crack load based on the well-known principles of strength of materials, and the other one to determine the ultimate strength and mode of failure based on the ultimate strength theory. The experimental results showed that high ultimate and serviceability loads, better crack resistance control, high ductility, and good energy absorption properties could be achieved by using the proposed beams. Comparison between the experimental results and the results obtained from the theoretical model showed that there is a close agreement for all beams. This agreement verified the validity of this model.

Ferro-cement; Beams with openings; Experimental program; Structural behavior; Analytical model.


1.        ACI Committee 549.1–R08. “Guide for the design, construction and repair of ferrocement”. ACI Structure Journal 2008.
2.        Elsakka A. M. (2007), “Structural Behavior of Masonry Units with Openings Strengthened With Ferrocement Layers Under Compression Loadings”, M.SC. Thesis submitted to Menoufia University, Egypt.

3.        E.H.Fahmy and Y.B.Shaheen, (1991), “Strengthening and Repairing of Reinforced Concrete Tanks”, Fourth Arab Structural Engineering Conference 18-21 November,

4.        E.H.Fahmy, Y.B.Shaheen, and Y.S.Korany,( January 1997, “Repairing Reinforced Concrete Beams Ferrocement”, Journal of Ferrocement: 27 (1).

5.        E.H.Fahmy, Y.B.Shaheen, and Y.S.Korany, (July 1997), “Use of Ferrocement Laminates for Repairing Reinforced Concrete Slabs”, Journal of Ferrocement: 27 (3),

6.        H. Fahmy, Y.B.Shaheen, Y.S.Korany, (April 1999), “Repairing Reinforced Concrete Columns Using Ferrocement Laminates”, Journal of Ferrocement: 29, (2),  115

7.        Hagenbach, T. M.,(Oct. 1972), “Experience of 300 Commercially Built Craft in More Than 20 Countries, FAO Seminar on the Design and Construction of Ferrocement Fishing Vessels”, Wellington, PP. 22 (Also, Fishing News, West Byfleet, Surrey.)

8.        Washington, D.C (Feb.1973), “Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries”, National Academy of Science, PP. 90.

9.        (Jan. 1981) “Housing Application in Ferrocement”, Journal of Ferrocement (Bangkok), 11 (1) Special Issue, 108- 112.

10.     Barberio, V., (May-June 1975), “CupulasDelgadas de Ferrocemento Para UnaInstalacionIetica en el Rio Pirino, Revista” IMCYC (Mexico, D.F.), 13 (74), 20-28.

11.     Lee, S. L.; et al., (Nov. 1983),” Ferrocement: Ideas Tested at the University of Singapore”, Concrete International: Design & Construction, 5 (11),  12-16.

12.     Paramasivam, P.; Ong, K. C. G.; and Lee, S. L., (1988), “Ferrocement Structures and Structural Elements, Steel Concrete Composite Structures”, R. Narayanan, Ed., Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 289-338.

13.     Naaman, A. E., and Shah, S. P., (May 1976 “Evaluation of “Ferrocement in Some Structural Applications,” Proceedings, 4th IAHS International Symposium on Housing Problems (Atlanta), Pergamon Press, Elms-ford, 1069-1085.

14.     Mahmoud Abo El-Wafa and Kimio Fukuzawa ” Flexural Behavior of Lightweight Ferrocement Sandwich Composite Beams” Journal of Science& Technology “Vol.(15), No. (1), 2010, JST(3)

15.     Noor Ahmed Memon, Salihuddin Radin Sumadi and Mahyuddin Ramli “strength and behavior of lightweight ferrocement -A erated concrete sandwich blocks” Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 18(2): 99-108 (2012).

16.     Yousry B I Shaheen 1, Mohamed A Safan 2, Abdalla M “Structural Behavior of Composite Reinforced Ferrocement Plates” concrete research letters,Vol. 3 (3) Sept. 2012
17.     E.C.P. 203/2007, 2007, Egyptian Code of Practice: Design and Construction for Reinforced Concrete Structures, Research Centre for Houses Building and Physical Planning, Cairo, Egypt.
18.     E.S.S. 1109/2008, 2008, Egyptian Standard Specification for Aggregates, Egypt.

19.     E.S.S. 4756-1/2009, 2009, Egyptian Standard Specification for Ordinary Portland Cement, Egypt.

20.     ASTM C 494-03, 2003, American Society for Testing and Materials: Chemical Admixtures, Philadelphia, USA.

21.     E.S.S. 262 /2011, 2011, Egyptian Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Egypt.

22.     ACI Committee 549.1–R08. “Guide for the design, construction and repair of ferrocement”. ACI Struct J 2008.






Adel Francis, Fabian Ardila

Paper Title:

The Chronographic Protocol: Validation of Textures and Colors

Abstract: Graphical modelling is considered to be a suitable approach for displaying project data because of its ability to communicate information clearly and effectively. Despite this fact, little research has been undertaken in this area with regards to the construction sector, and current methods and software do not propose standard graphical protocols. Therefore, it has been up to each planner to individually set his or her own standard. To addresses these shortcomings, the Chronographical modelling proposes a standard protocol. This paper presents the validation of the first phase of this standard protocol for construction project scheduling. This phase proposes two ranges of light and dark colors and a graphical convention for textures and shapes. The validation process was performed through a case study that evaluates the texture convention and color limits followed by the application of the proposed graphical convention to a building scheduling. These validations were performed through case studies that evaluated the visual data and assessed the necessary mental effort for finding information on the schedule. The results demonstrate clearly that the proposed convention helps to improve the visual clarity while simultaneously seeking to diminish the mental effort necessary for finding information.

Chronographical, Construction Project, Protocol, Schedule.

1.        M. Tory and T. Moller, “Human factors in visualization research,” Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE, vol. 10(1), 2004, pp. 72-84.
2.        H. G. Hawkins, “Evolution of the MUTCD: Part 2 – The Early Editions of the MUTCD”, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1992, pp.17-23.

3.        APA (2013), LBCS Background. Available:
4.        M. Tory, S. Staub-French, D. Huang, Y.-L. Chang, C. Swindells and R. Pottinger, “Comparative visualization of construction schedules,” Automation in Construction, Elsevier, 2013, vol. 29, pp. 68-82.

5.        D. Echeverry, C. W.  Ibbs and S. Kim, “Sequencing knowledge for construction scheduling,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 117(1), 1991, pp. 118-130.

6.        B. Koo, M. Fischer and J. Kunz, “Formalization of construction sequencing rationale and classification mechanism to support rapid generation of sequencing alternatives,” Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, vol. 21, 2007, pp. 423-433.

7.        J. M. Stott, P. Rodgers, R. A. Burkhard, M. Meier and M. T. J. Smis, “Automatic layout of project plans using a metro map metaphor,” Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation, London, United Kingdom, IEEE, 2005, pp. 203-206.

8.        W. Aigner, S. Miksch, B. Thurnher and S. Biffl, “PlanningLines: Novel glyphs for representing temporal uncertainties and their evaluation,” Ninth International Conference on Information Visualisation, London, United Kingdom, IEEE, 2005, pp. 457-463.

9.        A. Francis, “La modélisation chronographique de la planification des projets de construction,” Montreal, Canada, École de technologie supérieure, 2004.

10.     A. Francis, “The Chronographical approach for construction project modelling,” Management, Procurement and Law, ICE, vol. 166 (MP4), 2013, pp. 188-204.

11.     P. Carrier-Fraser, A. Francis and M. J. McGuffin, “Conception d’un protocole graphique des opérations de construction par l’utilisation des textures et des couleurs, ” 4e Conférence spécialisée sur la construction,Montreal, Canada, CSCE, 2013, pp. CON-188, 1-10.

12.     F. Ardila and A. Francis, “Design and validation of the first phase of the new Chronographical standard protocol for construction project scheduling,” Proceedings of the 5th International/11th Construction Specialty Conference, ICSC 15, Vancouver, Canada, 2015, pp. 104(1-9)

13.     J. Encarnacao, J. Foley, S. Bryson, S. K. Feiner, and N. Gershon, “Research issues in perception and user interfaces,” Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, vol. 14(2), 1994, pp. 67-69.

14.     J. F. Jr. Rodrigues, A. G. R. Balan, A. J. M. Traina, and C. Jr. Traina, “The visual expression process: bridging vision and data visualization,” 9th International Symposium in Smart Graphics. Berlin, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 2008, pp. 5166: 207-215.

15.     C. Ware, Information visualization : perception for design, 3rd Edition. Boston: Morgan Kaufmann, 536 p., 2013.

16.     J. Bertin, La graphique et le traitement graphique de l’information. Paris: Flammarion, 277 p., 1977.

17.     C. G. Healey, “Large Datasets at a Glance: Combining Textures and Colors in Scientific Visualization,” Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE, vol. 5(2), 1999, pp. 145-167.

18.     C. A. Brewer, “Color Use Guidelines for Mapping and Visualization,” In Visualization in Modern Cartography, Tarrytown, NY, Elsevier Science, Vol. 7, 1994, p. 123-147.

19.     C. A. Brewer and M. Harrower (2009), “Colorbrewer: Color Advice for Maps.” Available:
20.     E. R.Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, 2nd Edition. Cheshire: Graphics Press, 197 p., 2001.

21.     A. Wilkins, I. Nimmo-Smith, A. Tait, C. Mcmanus, S. Della-Sala, A. Tilley, K. Arnold, M. Barrie and S. Scott, “A Neurological basis for Visual Discomfort,” Brain, vol. 107(4), 1984, pp. 989-1017.

22.     BSI (2002), BS 8888 – Technical product documentation (TPD), Specification for defining, specifying and graphically representing products.

23.     BSI (1993), BS 308-1 – Engineering drawing practice, Recommendations for general principles.

24.     BSI (1987), BS 1192-3 – Construction drawing practice, Recommendations for symbols and other Graphic Conventions.

25.     BSI (1999), BS 5930 – Code of Practice for Site Investigations.

26.     BSI (2011), BS 8541-2 – Library objects for architecture, engineering and construction. Recommended 2D symbols of building elements for use in building information modeling.

27.     NIBS (2005),  National CAD Standard Version 3.1.

28.     CSI (2012). MasterFormat. Available:
29.     H. Lam, E. Bertini, P. Isenberg, C. Plaisant,  and S. Carpendale, “Empirical Studies in Information Visualization: Seven Scenarios,” Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE, 18(9): 2012, 1520-1536.






Bouchra Rahali, Mohammed Feham, Junwu Tao

Paper Title:

Design of Ka-Band Substrate Integrated Waveguide Bend, Power Divider and Circulator 

Abstract: Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) features interesting characteristics for the design of microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. In this study, a substrate integrated waveguide bend, power divider and circulator are conceived and optimized in Ka- band by Ansoft HFSS code. Thus, through this modeling, design considerations and results are discussed and presented. Compact size and planar form make these devices structure easily integrated in planar circuits.

Rectangular waveguide; microwave components; SIW; bend;power divider; circulator; HFSS.

1.     D. Deslandes and K. Wu, “Design Consideration and Performance Analysis of Substrate Integrated Waveguide Components,” Europ. Microw. Conf., pp.1-4, Oct. 2002.
2.     Rahali Bochra, Feham Mohammed, Junwu TAO, “Design of optimal chamfered bends in Rectangular Substrate Integrated Waveguide”, IJCSI, International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 4, No 2, July 2011.

3.     Rahali Bouchra and Feham mohammed,”Design of Ku-Band Substrate Integrated Waveguide Phase Shifter ” IJIEE International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, May 2014 ISSN (Online): 2010-3719
4.     Rahali Bouchra , Feham mohammed and Junwu Tao,”Analysis of S-Band Substrate Integrated Waveguide Power Divider, Circulator and Coupler” IJCSEA International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014 ISSN (Online): 2230-9616
www. IJCSEA.org
5.     Rahali Bouchra and Feham mohammed,”Substrate Integrated Waveguide Power Divider, Circulator and Coupler in [10-15]GHz Band” IJIST International Journal of Information Sciences and Techniques, Vol. 4, No. 1/2, March 2014  ISSN (Online):2249-1139
www. IJIST.org
6.     Rahali Bouchra  and Feham mohammed ,“Coupler, Power Divider and Circulator in V-Band Substrate Integrated Waveguide  Technology” IJCSA International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications

7.     Vol.3, No.6, December 2013 ISSN (Online): 2200-0011
8.     Rahali Bouchra and Feham mohammed ,”Design of K-Band Substrate Integrated Waveguide Coupler, Circulator and Power Divider” IJIEE International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 2014  ISSN (Online): 2010-3719
9.     Y. J. Ban “Tunable Ferrite Phase Shifters Using Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technique“ Département de Génie Electrique Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal Décembre 2010.

10.  Y. Cassivi, L. Perregrini, P. Arcioni, M. Bressan, K. Wu, G. Conciauro,“Dispersion    Characteristics of Substrate Integrated Rectangular Waveguide” IEEE Microw. Wireless Comp. Lett., Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 333-335, 2002.

11.  Rahali Bouchra “Contribution à la Modélisation Electromagnétique des structures Complexes Hyperfréquences en Technologie SIW”, Thèse de doctorat, Département de Génie Electrique et Electronique, Faculté de Technologie, Université Abou Bekr Belkaid de Tlemcen Algérie Mai 2013.

12.  User’s guide – High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), v11.0   Ansoft Corporation. 

13.  Dominic Deslandes and Ke Wu, “Integrated Micro strip and Rectangular Waveguide in Planar Form”, Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE, 2001, pp.68-70.

14.  Dominic Deslandes “Design Equations for Tapered Microstrip-to-Substrate Integrated Waveguide Transitions”, Microwave Symposium Digest, IEEE MTT-S International, pp. 704-707, 2010.





Ananda Reddy.N, Vidya Sagar, Raju. M. C, Varma. S. V. K.

Paper Title:

Thermal and Solutal Buoyancy Effects on Viscous Dissipative and Chemically Reactive Fluid Flow past a Uniformly Moving Plate  With Variable Suction

Abstract: An attempt is made to study the chemical reaction effect on an unsteady free convection flow past a semi- infinite vertical plate with viscous dissipation. The governing equations of motion, energy, and species concentration are reduced into a set of ordinary differential equations by applying regular perturbation technique and then solved analytically. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration are presented and discussed through graphs.

chemical reaction, free convection, viscous dissipation.


1.        M. Y. Gokhale and F. M. AL. Samman, “Effects of mass transfer on the transient free convection flow of a dissipative fluid along a semi-infinite vertical plate with constant heat flux”, Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 46, (2003), pp. 999-1011.
2.        R. Cortell, “Effects of viscous dissipation and radiation on the thermal boundary layer over a nonlinearly stretching sheet,” Physics Letters A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics, vol.372 (5), (2008), pp. 631–636.  

3.        P. K. Singh, “Effects of variable fluid proper ties and viscous dissipation on mixed convection fluid flow past a vertical plate in porous medium”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol.3 (7), (2012), pp. 1-10.     

4.        P. Vyas, A. Rai, K.S. Shekhawat, “Dissipative heat and mass transfer in porous medium due to continuously moving plate”, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol.6 (87), (2012), pp. 4319-4330.

5.        V. ravi kumar, m. c. raju and g. s. s. raju, “heat and mass transfer effects on mhd flow of viscous fluid through non-homogeneous porous medium in presence of temperature dependent heat source”, international journal of contemporary mathematical sciences, Vol.7 (32), (2012), pp.1597-1604.

6.        R. Kandaswamy, B. Wahib, Md. Raj and B. Azme Khamis, “Effects of chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer on boundary layer flow over a porous wedge with heat radiation in presence of suction or injection”, Theatrical Applied Mechanics, 33(2), (2006), pp.123-148.

7.        R. Muthucumaraswamy, “Chemical reaction effects on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature”. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 16 (2), (2010), pp.167-173.

8.        O. D. Makinde, P. Sibanda, “Effects of chemical reaction on boundary layer flow past a vertical stretching surface in the presence of internal heat generation”, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol.21 (6), (2011), pp.779 – 792.

9.        J. Rao, S. Shivaiah, “Chemical reaction effects on unsteady MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate with viscous dissipation”, Appl. Math. Mech. –Engl. Ed., 32 (8), (2011), 1065-1078.

10.     D. Pal, B. Talukdar, “Buoyancy and chemical reaction effects MHD mixed convection heat and mass transfer in a porous medium with thermal radiation and Ohmic heating”, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol.15 (10), (2010), pp. 2878-2893.

11.     F. S. Ibrahim, A. M. Elaiw, and A. A. Bakier, “Effect of chemical reaction and radiation    absorption on the unsteady MHD free convection flow past a semi infinite vertical permeable moving plate with heat source suction”, Communications. Nonlinear. Science. Numerical simulation, 13, (2008), pp. 1056-1066.

12.     F. S. Ibrahim, and O. D. Makinde, “Chemically reacting MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a moving vertical plate with suction”, Scientific Research and Essays, Vol.5 (19), (2010), pp. 2875-2885.

13.     K. S. Balamurugan, S. V. K. Varma, K. Ramakrishna Prasad  and N. Ch. S. N. Iyengar, “Chemical reaction and Thermal diffusion effects on MHD three dimensional free convection couette flow with heat absorption”, International Journal of Advances in Sciences and Technology, Vol.3 (1), (2011), pp.58-92.

14.     N. Ananda Reddy, S. V. K. Varma and M. C. Raju, “Thermo diffusion and chemical effects with simultaneous thermal and mass diffusion in MHD mixed convection flow with Ohmic heating”. Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering vol.6 (2009), pp. 84-93.




Volume-5 Issue-8

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Volume-5 Issue-8, January 2016, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Bhavana Arora, Shakti Kumar

Paper Title:

Study of Non Point Pollution of Water Resources of Kaithal District

Abstract:  Kaithal district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Kaithal town is the district headquarters. Kaithal district is situated in the North- West of the state . The district occupies an area of 2317 km² located between 29o31’: 30o12’ north latitudes and 76o10’: 76o42’ east longitudes. The Kaithal city, occupies an area of 43.76 sq. km within the municipal limit. This district came into existence on 1 November 1989. There are 277 villages and 253 Panchayats in Kaithal districts. Kaithal district comprises of five administrative blocks including  Pundri, Rajaund, Kaithal, Kalayat and Siwan.. According to the 2011 census Kaithal district has a population of 1,072,861. This gives it a ranking of 423rd in India (out of a total of 640). The study is carried in the Kaithal district of Haryana. Since the Kaithal district in Haryana state of India .The district has a population density of 463 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,200 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.39%. Mainly villages of Pundri block showed problem of Total dissolved solids and Hardness in water samples. One or two villages showed high value of fluoride content also.Five to six villages out of fifteen villages chosen showed high content of total dissolved solids , sulphates and alkalinity. In Rajaund block out of seven sample stations two to three stations showed high values of alkalinity and sulphates. Two villages had high fluoride content..In Kalayat block out of four village stations  one station showed high value of hardness, total dissolved solids ,sulphates and fluorides.

Pollution, Ground Water, River, Contaminated, Sub Area: Civil Engineering, Broad Area: Environment Engineering


1.       APHA (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water   (21th ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association.
2.       Bishnoi, M., and Malik, R. (2008) “Ground water quality in environmentally degraded localities of Panipat city, India”, Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol 29(6), pg 881-886.

3.       Goyal, S.K, and Chaudhary , B.S., (2010),“ GIS based study of Spatio-Temporal changes in groundwater depth and quality in Kaithal district of Haryana, India”, Journal of Ind. Geophysics Union, Volume 14(2), pg 75-87.

4.       Gupta, D. P., Saharan, S., and Saharan, J. P., (2009) “Physico chemical analysis of ground water of selected area of Kaithal city (Haryana), India”, Researcher, Vol. 1(2), pg1-5.

5.       Jain, C.K., Bhatia, K.K.S., and Vijay, T. (1994-1995) Technical Report, CS (AR) 172, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee.

6.       Mittal, S., and Sharma, S. (2008) “Assessment of drinking ground water quality at Moga, Punjab (India): An overall approach”, Journal of Environmental Research And
Development, Vol 3(1), pg 129-136.

7.       Mukherjee, S., and Nelliyat, P., (2007) “Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges Of Industrial Effluent Irrigation: A Case Study Of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu”, IWMI-(Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Discussion Paper 4).

8.       Rajmohan, N., and Elango, L. (2005) “Nutrient chemistry of groundwater in an intensively irrigated region of southern India”, Environmental Geology, Vol 47, pg 820-830.

9.       Rao, N. S. (2006) “Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh India”, Environmental Geology, Vol. 49, pg 413-429.

10.    Reza, R., and Singh, G. (2010) “Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 4, pg 785-792.

11.    Singh, B., and Garg, V.K. (2012) “Fluoride Quantification in Groundwater of Rural Habitations of Faridabad, Haryana, India”, International Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 (10), pg. 8-17

12.    Singh, M.K., Jha, D., and Jadoun, J. (2012) “Assessment of Physico-chemical Status of Groundwater Samples of Dholpur District, Rajasthan, India”, International Journal of Chemistry, Vol 4, No 4, pg 96-104

13.    Trivedi, R.K., and Goel, P.K. (1984) “Chemical and biological methods for pollution”, Karad (INDIA): Environmental publication.






Abhishek Shah, Rushabha Maru, Kinjal Shah, Khushali Deulkar

Paper Title:

Generation of Pathology Reference Intervals for Indian Population

Abstract: Almost all reference intervals currently used in India are developed by Western, European and other Asia Pacific countries. The use of these reference intervals can be misleading as India is a huge nation with enormous racial and ethnic diversity. The international guidelines on reference intervals suggest the generation of new reference intervals for local homogeneous population. This paper illustrates the  literature review done on  various papers having similar subject and also enlightens a solution for generation of new reference interval.  General Terms- Big data processing, Data mining, Hadoop application for clinical laboratory

 CLSI, clinical laboratory, Reference Interval Generation, Reference Population

1.     “Defining, Establishing, and Verifying Reference Intervals in the Clinical Laboratory”, Third Edition, C28 – A3c, Vol. 28 No. 30.
2.     T Malati, “Whether Western Normative Laboratory Values Used For Clinical Diagnosis Are Applicable To Indian Population? An Overview On Reference Interval”, Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2009.

3.     Abhijit Banerjee, Diganta Dey, Parbati Banerjee, Sudarshan Ray, Ratnamala Ray, Banasri Hazra, “CLSI-Derived Hematology Reference Intervals for Healthy Males in Eastern India”, Global Journal Of Medicine And Public Health, 2013.

4.     Tanzeel Huma, Usman Waheed , “The Need To Establish Reference Ranges”, Journal of Public Health and Biological Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, ISSN 2305-8668 (Print) 2307-0625 (Online), 2013

5.     Yuthika Agrawal, Vipin Goyal, Kiran Chugh, Vijay Shanker , “Reference Values of Lipid Profile for Population of Haryana Region”, Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences, 2014.

6.     Alex Katayev, MD, Claudiu Balciza,and David W. Seccombe, MD, PhD , “Establishing Reference Intervals for Clinical Laboratory Test Results – Is There a Better Way?”, American Journal for Clinical Pathology, 2010.

7.     Richard C. Friedberg, MD, PhD; Rhona Souers, MS; Elizabeth A. Wagar, MD; Ana K. Stankovic, MD, PhD, MPH; Paul N. Valenstein, MD, “The Origin of Reference Intervals A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of ‘‘Normal Ranges’’ Used in 163 Clinical Laboratories”, Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine —Vol 131, March 2007.

8.     Hyung Hoi Kim, MD, PhD , Hae Sook Hong, RN, PhD , Shine Young Kim, MD, MS, Tung Tran, PhD, Ji Min Lee, RN, MS, Hwa Sun Kim, RN, PhD, Hune Cho, PhD, “An Improved Auto-Generation System to Obtain Reference Intervals for Laboratory Medicine”, Healthcare Informatics Research, 2010.

9.     Yuthika Agrawal, Vipin Goyal, Kiran Chugh, Vijay Shanker , “Reference Values of Lipid Profile for Population of Haryana Region”, Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences,2014






Ebru Alp, Tamer Dag, Taner Arsan

Paper Title:

Indoor Positioning System by Using Triangulation Algorithm

Abstract: In this paper, a Wi-Fi based indoor positioning system (IPS) is developed. IPSs are expected to be used in a vast variety of environments such as shopping malls, hospitals, airports and campuses for navigation purposes, real-time location based advertisements, efficient emergency handling situations. Due to the rapid growth of wireless access points in urban areas and the booming usage of smart phones, Wi-Fi has become one of the key technologies to enable location based services for indoors where GPS technology would not work. This paper introduces least square method based triangulation algorithm for IPSs. The implemented system has been tested under various circumstances in order to achieve the minimum error possible. Wi-Fi channel optimization, filtering, calibration of the relation between the signal strength and distance, using more Wi-Fi modems and the least square method are some of the improvements made on the implemented system. The results show that the location accuracy is significantly improved when compared with the simple triangulation algorithm

Keywords:   Indoor Positioning Development, Triangulation Algorithm, Least Square Method


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15.     D. J. Bernstein, ‘Understanding brute force’, ECRYPT STVL Work. Symmetric Key Encryption, pp. 10–19, 2005






Najmuddin Aamer, S. Ramachandran

Paper Title:

Pipelined, High Speed, Low Power Neural Network Controller for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation Using FPGA

Abstract:  The demand for autonomous robots which incorporates efficient path planning and obstacle avoidance is increasing rapidly. In this paper, we have proposed a neural network based hardware architecture for autonomous mobile robot which is able to detect and avoid obstacles by using prediction model of neural network and distribution computation techniques using FPGA. Learning and prediction is implemented by using back propagation  method on FPGA Virtex-II pro kit.  For flexibility and accuracy of the neural network, floating point based computation method is applied. The proposed model uses the principle of reconfigurability which reduces the implementation cost and area. In this proposed architecture of autonomous mobile robot, pipelined architecture is used which increases the speed and reduces the delay for the prediction. Simulation is performed by using Xilinx 14.3 ISE simulator. Place and Route results exhibit high throughput and low power consumption achieved using this proposed model for controlling the autonomous robot.

Autonomous Mobile Robot, FPGA, Neural Network, Pipeline, Reconfigurability, Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance.


1.     Chakravarthy, N. and Jizhong Xiao, “FPGA-based Control System for Miniature Robots,” International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 2006 IEEE/RSJ, pp. 3399-3404, 9-15 Oct. 2006.
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3.     Ziemke, T, “Remembering How to Behave-Recurrent Neural Networks for Adaptive Robot Behavior”, in Recurrent Neural Networks: Design and Applications, CRC Press 2000. ISBN 0849371813. pp. 355–390.

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8.     W. de la Torre, F. Jurado, M. A. Llama, and R. Garcia-Hernandez, “Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy dynamic regulator for a pendulum on a cart system,” in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE ’13), pp. 52–57, Mexico City, Mexico, October 2013.

9.     Qin Gao, Zhelong Wang and Hongyi Li, “An Optimization Algorithm with Novel RFA-PSO Cooperative Evolution: Applications to Parameter Decision of a Snake Robot”

10.  Y. Alanis, M. Lopez-Franco, N. Arana-Daniel, and C. LopezFranco, “Discrete-time neural control for electrically driven nonholonomic mobile robots,” International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 630–644, 2012

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12.  Najmuddin Aamer and S. Ramachandran, “Neural Networks Based Adaptive Approach for Path Planning and Obstacle Avoidance for Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR)” International Journal of Research in Computer Applications and Robotics(IJRCAR), Vol.3 Issue 12, Pg.: 66-79, December – 2015.

13.  Najmuddin Aamer and S. Ramachandran, “A Novel Algorithm for Autonomous Robot Navigation System Using Neural Network” International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER), Volume, 05, Issue, 12,December – 2015.

14.  Sara Bouraine, Thierry Fraichard, and Hassen Salhi. Provably safe navigation for mobile robots with limited field-of-views in dynamic environments. Autonomous Robots, 32(3):267–283, 2012.

15.  Farmahini-Farahani, S. M. Fakhraie, and S. Safari, “SOPC-based architecture for discrete particle swarm optimization,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, Marrakech, Dec. 2007, pp. 1003–1006.

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19.  X. Jin and A. Ray , “Navigation of autonomous vehicles for oil spill cleaning in dynamic and uncertain environments” ,  International Journal of Control , vol. 87 , no. 4 , pp.787 -801 , 2014

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Nasser Rostam Afshar, Ev Rochelle Ashzana Roger Sumail

Paper Title:

Pipelined, High Speed, Low Power Neural Network Controller for Autonomous Mobile Robot Navigation Using FPGA

Abstract:   The construction industry nowadays has higher complexities with increased scope of work, number of parties involved and is technically more advanced. However, the industry does not give adequate attention to proper delay management. The causes of delay need to be identified and assessed. The methods on delay mitigation need to be mapped out to cater for these delays. Even the smallest mistake or unforeseen causes can lead to major lost and even bankruptcy to construction firms. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a compilation of causes and effects of delay data for Malaysian construction industry. The discussions related the field of causes and effects of delay in construction projects has been reviewed. Result of delay identification from other countries have been studied and compared to make this paper more comprehensive.The overall discussion will focus on the causes of delay related to each specific group; the direct effects of these delay, and also the correlation between the causes and effects. The data is collected by conducting structured questionnaire surveys and distributing it out to government agencies, consultants, and contractors involved in the construction industry. An in depth study is also done on different methods of delay identification available in project management.

 Delay causes, Delay Effects, Construction Industry,Malaysia,Correlational Analysis


1.        Enas Fathi Tsher, R. P. ,Study of Delay in Project Planning and design Stage of Civil Engineering Projects, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), Vol 3, 2013, pp,457-458.
2.        Frank D.K, F. a.-B., Delays in Building Construction Project in Ghana. Australian Journal of Construction Economics and Building,vol 10,2010, pp,104-106.

3.        Murali Sambasivan, Y. W., Causes and Effects of delays in Malaysian construction Industry,International Journal of Project Management,  2007, pp, 518-520.

4.        Ismail, T. P., Significant Factors Causing and Effects of Delay in Iranian Construction Projects, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science,vol 7, 2011, pp,450-451.

5.        Abisuga A.O, Amusu O.R.O, Salvador K.A, Construction Delay in Nigeria: A Perception of Indigenous and Multinational Construction Firms,Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences (JETEMS) 5(3), ISSN: 2141, 2014,pp371-378.

6.        Omayma Motaleb1 and Mohammed Kishk2, An investigation of    construction delay and effects in UAE , The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7QB, UK, 2010, pp.1149-1157.

7.        Bharath, S. K., Analysis of Critical Causes of Delay in Indian Infrastructure Project. International Journal of Innovative Research & Development, vol 3, 2013,pp.254-260.



Volume-5 Issue-9

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Volume-5 Issue-9, February 2016, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Ozlem Odabas, Mustafa Cem Kasapbasi

Paper Title:

Churn and Customer Segmentation Analyses with Data Mining Techniques for a Bookstore Company

Abstract: Data mining, through piles of very large data is the process of obtaining meaningful data. Nowadays, rapidly developing technique. In this technique; data are grouped, classified according to the relationship, the model is created. In the last stage; the generated models reviewed. Impacts of data mining are widely used, one of the areas allocated to the customer analysis and segmentation of customers. In this study, bookstore customer groups and customer of segment showing the tendency to leave are analyzing; campaigns and marketing strategies that are appropriate to the groups identified. Classification techniques are used for Churn Analysis, clustering techniques are used for Customer Segmentation, and then the appropriate model was created. WEKA software was used to determine the model to be created.

  Data Mining, Churn Analysis, Customer Segmentation, Classification, Clustering


1.        Rygielski C., Wang J., Yen D., “Data Mining Techniques for Customer RelationshipManagement”, Technology in Society, 24:483-502, 2002.
2.        Berkay M, ÇamurE,KoruM,Özkan Ö ve Rzayeva Z, “ VeriKümelerindenBilgiKeşfi : VeriMadenciliği” YüksekLisansTezi

3.        http://www.gurunlu.com/

4.        http://ceng.gazi.edu.tr/~ozdemir/teaching/dm/slides/10.DM.TWM.pdf

5.        http://www.iszekam.net/






Rena J. Kasumova, V.C. Mamedova, G.A. Safarova

Paper Title:

Phase Effects at Second Harmonic Generation in Zinc Oxide, Grown on Glass Substrate

Abstract:  Theoretical investigation of frequency conversion in ZnO films laid over glass substrates with account for phase effects has been developed. For this the constant-intensity approximation of fundamental radiation is applied. The numerical calculation of the efficacy obtained in constant-intensity approximation confirms the following that because of dispersion of the second order nonlinear optical coefficients the generated signal decreases for an increasing fundamental wavelength. Furthermore, the zinc oxide films generate stronger second harmonic signal because of the larger interaction length of the nonlinear medium. Method of analysis of second harmonic generation in zinc oxide, grown on glass substrate used in the present work, may be involved for research of other films.

 nanocompo site film; glass substrate; second harmonic generation; constant-intensity approximation; frequency conversion.


1.        Ma, H.; Jen, A.K.-Y.; Dalton, L.R.; Advanced Materials, 2002, 14, 1339-1365.
2.        Amore, Franco D; Lanata, Marta; Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Gallazzi, Maria C.; Zerbi, Giuseppe. Optical Materials, 2004, 24, 661–665.

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8.        Kulyk, B.; Sahraoui, B.; Krupka, O.; Kapustianyk, V.; Rudyk, V.; Berdowska, E.; Tkaczyk, S.; Kityk, I. J. of Appl. Phys., 2009, 106, 093102(1-6).

9.        Johnson, Justin C.; Yan, Haoquan; Schaller, R.D.; Petersen, P.B.; Yang, P.; Saykally, R.J. Nano Letters, 2002, 2, 279-283.

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Zhang, H. Y.; He, X. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Schurman, M.; Feng, Z. C.; Stall, R.A. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1996, 69, 2953-2955.
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Ebenezer Komla Gavua, Seth Okyere-Dankwa, Martin Offei

Paper Title:

The Importance of Management Information Systems in Educational Management in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic

Abstract:   There is a clear synergy between the history of education policy and the development of educational management. Initial attempts at data collection helped support the formulation of the country’s national education policy. In spite of all the success chalked in the development of educational management; most educational institutions are faced with numerous challenges especially in the area of Information and Communications Technology. A study into the importance of Management Information Systems in educational management was undertaken among others to examine the role of MIS in improving educational management, examine how MIS could improve capacities in data processing, storage, analysis and the timely supply of educational information to management and administrators to enhance quick and efficient decision making. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were the main sampling techniques employed. Interviews and Questionnaires were employed to gather data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that cost, lack of competent Information Technology Staff to man the systems, lack of computer systems and accessories and the fear of the unknown were the major problems militating against the implementation of MIS in most institutions. Recommendation were made to aid in ameliorating the challenges discovered.Staff in the institution should be taken through in-service training on the use of computers.

  Management Information Systems, Education Management, Information and Communication Technology.


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3.        Cambridge Education(February,2006), “Education Management Information System”: a short case study of Ghana,(a working paper)

4.        Cambridge Education(February,2006), “Education Management Information System”: a short case study of Nigeria,(a working paper)
5.        Charles C. Villanueva (2003),“Education management information system (EMIS) and the formulation of education for all (EFA)”
6.        Hoag, Ed(February,1973) “Total Information” for Oregon’s schools, School Management (pp37-39)

7.        Kowizt, Gerald et al (1970), “Information for School Administration”.

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11.     Mellor, Warren (December, 1973), “Management Information System”,Educational Management  Review Series Number 25. O’brien, J (1999). “Management Information Systems”

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15.     Smith,Robert (1970),Editor “Management Information Systems for the 1970s.Technology-Application Research”.

16.     Tom Cassidy (PhD) (January, 2005) “Education Management Information System (EMIS) development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons and Challenges”.

17.     Thimbleby, H. (1993). “User Needs in Human Interface Standards”. In c.d. Evans, B.L. Meek & R.S. Walker (eds.)

18.     Visscher, A.J. (1997). “Facilities for Computer-Supported Decision-Making in Schools: Explanations for Lack of Use and Proposals for Improvement.” 

19.     Visscher, B.Z. Barta& D.C.B Teather (eds.), Information Technology in Educational Management for the Schools of the Future (pp. 57-62). Oxford: Chapman & hall.






Parminder Kaur

Paper Title:

ROMCOB – Reduced Overhead and Memory Consumption on Base Station with Improved LEACH Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are gaining popularity with each passing day because of their wide range of applications [1]. WSNs consist of sensor nodes, which are small in size and have wireless communication capability [2]. To increase the efficiency of the network, the sensor nodes are grouped in the form of Cluster, such a network of clusters is known as Clustered Wireless Sensor Network. In Clustered WSN, the base station keeps and maintains the record of all the sensor nodes in the network hence the load on the base station is more than any other sensor node in the network. This paper attempts to reduce the workload of base station, reduce memory consumption and maintains secure connectivity by using the concept of Exclusion Basis System (EBS) matrix. The paper is organized in five sections. Section I & II gives the overview of background and literature review. Section III explains the system architecture which gives the description of proposed scheme. Section IV describes the performance evaluation. Section V explains the future scope.

WSN, Exclusion basis system, Key management, secure group communication.


1.           Reza Azarderakhsh, Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, and Zine-Eddine Abid. “A key management scheme for Clustered wireless sensor networks”, IEEE/IFIP, International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, 2008.
2.           Mohamed F. Younis, Senior Member, IEEE, Kajaldeep Ghumman, and Mohamed Eltoweissy, Senior Member, IEEE, “Location-Aware Combinatorial Key Management Scheme for Cluster Sensor Networks”, IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol.17, No.8, August 2006.

3.           Li Zheng, Wei Guoheng, and Waang Ya. “Key-management scheme based on identity and cluster layer in wireless sensor network”, IEEE workshop on Advanced reaearch and Technology in Industry Applications (WARTIA), 2014.

4.           Rong Jiang, Jun Luo, Fang Tu, and Jin Zhong, “LEP: A Lightweight Key Management Scheme based on EBS and Polynomial for Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC), 2011.

5.           Ian Akyildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci. “A survey on sensor networks” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40.

6.           Rabia Riaz, Arshad Ali, Ki Hyung Kim, H. Farooq Ahmad, and Hiroki Suguri, “Secure dynamic key management for sensor networks” IEEE 2006.

7.           Kamal Kumar, A.K. Verma, and R.B. Patel, “Framework for key management scheme in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks”, Journal of emerging technologies in web intelligence, vol. 3, no. 4, November 2011.

8.           Olutayo Boyinbode, Hanh Le, Audrey Mbogho, Makoto Takizawa, and Ravi Poliah, “A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor network”, 13th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems, 2008.

9.           I.F. Akyildiz et.al., “Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey, computer networks”, vol. 38, pp. 393-422.

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12.        Minghui Shi and Xuemin Shen, Yixin Jiang and Chuang Lin, “Self-healing group-Wise Key Distribution Schemes with Time-Limited Node Revocation for WSN”, IEEE Wireless Communications, October 2007.

13.        D. Djenouri, L. Khelladi, and N. Badache, “A survey of security issues in mobile ad  hoc and sensor networks,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 7, pp. 2–28, 2005.

14.        Ossama Younis, Marwan Krunz, and Srinivasan Ramasubramanian, “Node clustering in wireless sensor networks: Recent developments and deployment challenges”, IEEE Network, May/June 2006.

15.        Johnson C. Lee, Victor C. M. Leung, Kirk H. Wong, Jiannong Cao, and C. B. Chan, “Key management issues in wireless sensor networks: current proposals and future developments”, IEEE wireless communications, pp. 76-83, October 2007,

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18.        J. Kloeppel. Smart bricks could monitor buildings, save lives. News Bureau, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

19.        Intel Corporation. Intel Research–Exploratory Research–Deep Networking. http://www.intel.com/research/exploratory/heterogeneous.htm

20.        B.J. Feder. Wireless Sensor Networks Spread to New Territory. The New York Times, July 2004. URL http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/26/business/26sensor.html.

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22.        Alan Mainwaring, David Culler, Joseph Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, and John Anderson. Wireless sensor networks for habitat monitoring. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications, pages 88–97. ACM Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58113-589-0.






Suresha Gowda M. V, Ranganatha S, Vidyasagar H. N.

Paper Title:

Basic Studies on the Role of Softer Metallic Coatings in Ball Bearings

Abstract:  The performance, reliability and load transferring capabilities of bearing elements are very important in industrial applications. The newer design of high speed machines demands better bearing system. The reliability is of primary importance in case of bearing elements used in aerospace industries. Exhaustive studies have been carried out by different researchers under two extreme conditions. One is using a fluid as lubricants which do not bear shear loads. The other extreme were using hard coatings which bears enormous amount of shear loads. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to understand the kinematics of deformation of coatings which are not as hard as conventional coatings. Casehardened carbon steel balls were coated with tin, zinc and nickel by electroplating technique. The thickness of the coating was maintained at 25 µm. Four ball test rig was used to simulate the field conditions. The experiments were conducted without lubricants. The normal loads were 100N, 300N and 500N respectively and run for a period of 5 minutes. The frictional load and normal load were monitored and co-efficient of friction was estimated. The wear scar was studied under scanning electron microscope. The co-efficient of friction was found to be dependent on normal load and type of coating material. The co-efficient of friction was found to be minimum of value 0.28 for a maximum normal load of 500N for tin coating. The morphology of wear scar studied in scanning electron microscope explains the dependency of co-efficient of friction on normal load and different coating materials.

 Rolling contact fatigue, four ball tester, Coatings.


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18.     T. Morishita, E. Kuramochi, R.W. Whitfield, S. Tanabe, Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference, Orlando, OH, 1992, pp. 1001–1004.

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Himangi Pande, M. U. Kharat

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis and Comparison of Modified SMAC and WiseMAC with Adaptive MAC for WBAN Applications

Abstract:   Wireless Communication and Wireless Networking is the popular research in this era. The combination of this is useful method for one step ahead to increase the life of human being. The motto of the research is to implement the protocol on Data-Link Layer, which is the WBAN stack protocol layer architecture, use to increase the life time of battery by energy saving. The novelty in the proposed method is to reduce energy consumption using the concepts of contention window which is adaptive to the different traffic conditions. The experimental result shows increase in Total Remaining Energy, Common Node Energy, Cluster Head Energy and BAN Coordinator Node Energy of Wireless Body Area Network. The proposed protocol is simulated in NS2 environment.

 Wireless Body Area Networks, Media Access Control, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Personal Digital Assistance


1.        W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin. An energy efficient mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In 21st International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’02), New York, NY, USA 2002.
2.         T. van Dam and K. Langendoen. An adaptive energy efficient mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In 1st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pages 171–180, 2003.

3.         Sha Liu, Kai-Wei Fan and Prasun Sinha , “An Energy Efficient MAC Layer Protocol Using Convergent Packet Forwarding for Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE SECON,2007.

4.        J. Polastre, J. Hill, and D. Culler, Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In The Second ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pages 95–107, November 2004.

5.         M. Buettner, G. V. Yee, E. Anderson, and R. Han. X-mac: A short preamble mac protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. In Proc. Sensys’06, 2006.

6.        El-Hoiydi, A.; Decotignie, J.-D, “WiseMAC: An Ultra-Low Power MAC Protocol for Multi hop Wireless Sensor Networks”, First International Workshop on Algorithmic Aspects of WSN, 2007, pp – 18 -31.

7.        Philipp Hurni, Torsten Braun, “Increasing Throughput for WiseMAC”, IEEE/IFIP WONS 2008, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, January 23 – 25, 2008, pp -1-12

8.        Philipp Hurni and Torsten Braun, Universität Bern, “Evaluation of WiseMAC on Sensor Nodes”, Wireless and Mobile Networking, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 284, 2008, pp 187-198.

9.        El-Hoiydi and J.-D. Decotignie, “WiseMac: An Ultra-Low Power MAC Protocol for the Downlink of Infrastructure Wireless Sensor Networks”, Computers and Communications, 2004. Computers and Communications, 2004. Proceedings. ISCC 2004. Ninth International Symposium, 1, pp – 244 – 251.

10.     El-Hoiydi, J.-D. Decotignie, C. Enz and E. Le Roux, “Wise-MAC: An Ultra-Low Power MAC Protocol for the WiseNET Wireless Sensor Network”, in the Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication, ISCC’04, Alexandria, Egypt, June 2004, pp–302-303.

11.     Philipp Hurni and Torsten Braun, Markus Anwander, “Evaluation of WiseMAC and extensions on wireless sensor nodes”, Telecommunication Systems, February 2010, Volume 43,Issue 1-2, pp 49-58.

12.     Haigang Hu,Jie Min,Xiaodong Wang,Yu ZhouAn improvement of S-MAC based on dynamic duty cycle in wireless network sensor network,2011 IEEE.

13.     http://www.memsic.com/products/wireless-sensor-networks/wireless-modules.html

14.     NS 2, Network Simulator, http://www.isi.edu./nsnam/ns/ns-build.html

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Mark Obegi Kenyatta

Paper Title:

Exploring Into the Factors That Cause Payment Defaults: a Perspective of the Payment Dispute Cases in the Kenyan Construction Industry

Abstract: Regular and timely payment is an important feature of the construction industry. Therefore failure to pay one or several certificates or invoices, paying in installments and sometimes not paying at all will undoubtedly cause cash flow hardships to those involved and may even bring the project work to an end. This study explores the factors that cause payment default in building and civil Engineering projects in Kenya. Primary document analysis of payment dispute cases lodged in the commercial courts in Kenyan was adopted. The study establishes that inadequate funding, variations, disagreements on the value of work done and defective work are the main factors that lead to payment default in their various forms. The study not only creates but also enhances awareness to all construction stakeholders in matters payment. It is therefore hoped that the awareness created will reduce the prevalence of payment default problems in the construction industry of Kenya.

Payment, cash flow, construction industry of Kenya


1.        Abdul-Rahman, H., Wang, C., Takim, R., & Wong, S. (2011). Project schedule influenced by financial issues:Evidence in construction industry. Scientific Research and Essays, 6(1), 205-212. Retrieved 2013 йил 5-12 from http://www.academicjournals.org/SRE
2.        Abidin, A. (2007). The Profiles of Construction Disputes. KualaLumpure: Unpublished Masters Thesis.

3.        Abidin, A. B. (2007). The Profile of Construction Disputes. Kulalumper: Unpublished Masters Thesis.

4.        Ameer, A. N. (2006 йил 3rd Quarter). A “Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication Act: Reducing Payment-Default And Increasing Dispute Resolution Efficiency In Construction. Master Builders Jounal, 3-14.

5.        AngSuSin, T. (2007). Payment issues – the present dilemmas of malaysian construction industry. kuala lumpur: Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia Istitutional Repostory.

6.        Ansah, S. K. (2011). Causes and Effects of Delayed Payments by Clients on Construction Projects in Ghana. Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation, 1(1), 27 – 45.

7.        Ashworth, A. (2012). Contarctual Procedures (6 ed.). Pearson Education Limited.

8.        Aswa Developers and Contractors Limited V Compact Freight Systems Limited (2012).

9.        Board of Governors Ng’iya Girls High School v Meshack Ochieng’ t/a Mecko Enterprises (2014). Retrieved 12 21, 2014, from http://www.kenyalaw.org

10.     Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

11.     Centurion Engineers & Builders Ltd. v Kenya Bureau Of Standards (2014).

12.     China Sichuan Corporation for International Techno-Economic Co-Operation v Kigwe Complex Ltd (2013).

13.     China Wu Yi Co. Ltd V Edermann Property Ltd & 2 Others (2013).

14.     Chitkara, K. K. (2011). Construction Project Management – Planning,Scheduling & Control (2 ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

15.     CIDB. (2010). Delayed Payments in the Construction Industry. Johannesburg: Construction Industry Development Board of Sourth Africa.

16.     Cooke, B., & Williams, P. (2009). Construction Planning, Programming and Control (3 ed.). Oxford.: Blackwell.

17.     Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2014). Business Research Methods,Twelfth Edition (12 ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin Series.

18.     Cunningham, T. (2013). Will the construction contracts bill improve subcontractor cash-flow? Retrieved 2013 йил 1-December from http://arrow.dit.ie/beschreoth/10

19.     D. Manji Construction Limited v C & R Holdings Limited (2014).

20.     Danuri, M. S., Munaaim, C. M., Rahman, A. H., & Hanid, M. (2006). Late and Non Payment Issues in the Malaysian Construction Industry-A Contractor’s Perspective. Sustainable Development through Culture and Innovation, The Joint International Conference on Construction Culture, Innovation and Management
(CCIM), 613-623.

21.     Fong, L. C. (2005). The Malaysian Construction Industry – The Present Dilemmas of Unpaid Contractors. Master Builders Jounal, pp. 80-82.

22.     Graham, D. (2006). Managing Residential Construction Projects – Strategies and Solutions. McGraw-Hill.

23.     Hamzah, A.-R., Chen, W., S, M.-D. M., & Che-Munaaim, E. M. (2014). Cause, Effect and Reaction for Late-payment and Nonpayment Issues in Malaysian Building Sector. Journal of Business Management and Innovations, 1(1), 8-20.

24.     Harris, F., & McCaffer, R. (2006). Modern Construction Management (6 ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

25.     Hasmori, M. F., Ismail, I., & Said, I. (2012 йил 12-13-March). Issues of Late and Non-Payment Among Contractors in Malaysia. International Conference On Business And Economic, 82-93.

26.     Highway Furniture Mart Limited v Permanent Secretary Office of The President & another (2006).

27.     Jared Oduor Osodo T/A Jaredo Building Construction V Ben Gakere Nyutho (2010).

28.     Kundan Singh Construction International Limited v Bank of Africa Kenya Ltd & another (2015).

29.     Latham, M. (1994). Constructing the Team. UK: HMSO.

30.     Laxmanbhai Construction Ltd V Kihingo Village (Waridi Gardens) Ltd & 2 Others (2012).

31.     Maritz, M. J., & Robertson, D. C. (2012). What are the legal remedies available to contractors and consultants to enforce payment? Journal of the South AfricanInstitution of Civil Engineering, 54(2), 27-35.

32.     .Marx, H. J. (2012). Construction Industry Indicators Affecting Contractors. Journal for the Advancement of Performance Information and Value, 4(1), 119-132.

33.     Marx, H. J. (2014). Results of the 2014 Survey of the CIDB Construction Industry Indicators. University of the Free State.

34.     Mbachu, J. (2011). Sources of contractor’s payment risks and cashflow problems in the New Zealand construction industry:Project team’s perceptions of the risks and mitigation measures. Construction Management and Economics, 29(10), 1027-1041.
35.     Mbiti, T. K. (2008). A System Dynamics Model of Construction Output in Kenya. Melbourne: Unpublished Phd Thesis.
36.     Mofokeng, T. G. (2012). Assessment of the Causes of Failure among Small and Medium sized Construction Companies in Free State Province. Johannesburg: Unpublished Masters Thesis.

37.     Murdoch, ,. J., & Hughes, W. (2008). Construction Contracts: Law and Management (4 ed.). London: Taylor and Francis.

38.     Nanchang Foreign Engineering Company (K) Limited v Easy Properties Kenya Limited (2014).

39.     NCASL. (2008). Report on payment delays in Sri Lankan Construction Industry – Prepared by: National Construction Association of Sri Lanka (Southern Branch). National Construction Association of Sri Lanka(Southern Branch).

40.     NESC. (2014). Credit gurantee schemes: The road to expanding business and investiment in Kenya. Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council with support fro USAID Kenya.
41.     Ramachandra, T. (2013). Exploring Feasible Solutions to Payment Problems in the Construction Industry in New Zealand. Auckland University of Technology. Auckland: AUT. Retrieved September 2, 2014, from http://hdl.handle.net/10292/5554
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44.     Sigma Engineering Company Limited V Attorney General (2011).

45.     Silverman, D. (2010). Doing Qualitative Research (3 ed.). SAGE.

46.     Thomas, R., & Wright, M. (2011). Construction Contract Claims (3 ed.). Hampshire: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.

47.     Tolson, S. J. (2004). Payment, abatement and set-off. (pp. 1-24). UK: Fenwick Elliott.

48.     Tran, H., & Carmichael, D. G. (2013). A contractor’s classification of owner payment practices. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 20(1), 29-45.

49.     True North Construction Limited v Kenya National Highways Authority (2014).

50.     Uff, J. (2009). Construction Law (10 ed.). London: Thomson Reuters.

51.     Unispan Limited v African Gas & Oil Limited (2014).

52.     Wahome, G. W. (2014). Influence of Public Procurement Oversight Authority’s Standard Tender Document on Public Building Projects in Kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished Masters Thesis.

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Volume-5 Issue-10

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Volume-5 Issue-10, March 2016, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Aliyeva Gulchohra Babali

Paper Title:

On the Definition Technology of Plan of Expression and Plan of Contents in Quantitative Categories within the Frame of Field Theory

Abstract:  Development level of modern science of linguistics is characterized by increasing interest to the description of descriptive function of the language. That’s why the attention of the investigators, having changed its orientation, has directed to the study of mutual correlations of elements of different language levels, taking part in conveying the contents of the utterance. This allows making the analysis possible not only directed from forms to contents, from means to functions, but also it makes it possible to carry out analysis directed from contents to the forms/from functions to the means. In order to study quantity semantics expressed by the word form, having the meaning of grammatical quantity, we think it purposeful to devide them into two groups – to the morphological and syntactic forms. Morphological quantity forms are peculiar to the substantivized words and nouns possessing correlative quantity forms. These forms reflect logical dependence on the real quantity of the intended object. But syntactic quantity forms are peculiar to the words of parts of speech, the word forms of which depend on the nouns grammatically and which reflect their quantity. Contents plan of the quantity field and the analysis of the expression plan, the unification of language means within the quantity macro-field bases on the extremely generalized meaning of the quantity. We can distinguish two types of nuclear of the objects in the field of quantity: grammatical category of quantity and number. The difference between their usages often bases on the definite and indefinite quantity meanings. The nuclear in the field of quantity of the movements manifest themselves in the form of word-forming affixes and lexical means. In the field of quantity of signs comparative degree as a grammatical category can be accepted as nuclear. By this time context plays an important role in the expression of this or that quantity meaning.

 quantity, context, semantics, field theory, quantity field of the objects, quantity field of the movements, plan of the contents, expression plan.


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5.        Baudouin de Courtenay IA.  Quantified in linguistic thinking // Selected works on general linguistics: Volume 2, Moscow, 1963, c.311-324

6.        Nasilov DM. Problems Turkic aspectology: Aktsionalnost.L Science, 1989. -208 p.

7.        Chesnokov D. Number of categories and ways of expression in the modern Russian language // Taganrog, 1997, p.56

8.        8.Menovschikov GA. Ways of expression of single and multiple languages ​​in different types // Questions of linguistics. 1970. – №1, c.82-88.

9.        Van Mintz. The expression amount in the Russian language (From the position of the carrier of the Chinese language): Dis. … Cand. Philology. Sciences: 10.02.01: Penza, 2004, 174.

10.     Hrakovsky V.S. Tipology of iterative konstructions. L.: 1989 -309, s.5-53






Suman Mann

Paper Title:

Web Page Metrics: An Empirical Analysis to Improve the Quality of Web Page

Abstract: Web Metrics play an important role in measuring the different attributes of a website. It gives actual values of different attributes of website. It can be further used to distinguish between good site design and bad site design. The web page can be evaluated on the basis of different parameter like size of the page, quality of information load time, content available etc. Nowadays website and Internet are emerging media require improvement in their quality for better customer satisfaction. If the website has high page load time or have ambiguous script it results to freeze of web browser due to this user gets irritated and switch to another site. To improve the quality of website and for better understanding we need to measure the website design using the web page metrics. In this paper I gathered the data from Alexa Website and categorize them into good site design and bad site design on the basis of metrics. I have proposed 15 new metrics related to web page design. To achieve our goal we investigate 19 metrics. We present the conclusion of enumerative analysis of web page attributes. The end result of this paper can be used in reckonable studies in designing of web site.

  Website; Metrics; Web page; Web page quality; Empirical Studies; Web Site Design.


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5.        B. Krishnamurthy, C. E. Willis et al.,” On the use and performance of content distribution network”In Proc.IMW, 2001

6.        S. Singh et al. “Active measurement system for high-fidelity characterization of modern cloud applications” In Proc. USENIX Conference on Web Applications, 2010.

7.        F. Schneider, S. Agarwal, T. Alpcan et al.,”The new Web: Characterizing AJAX traffic” In Proc. PAM, 2008.

8.        A. Nazir, S. Raza, D. Gupta,and B. Krishnamurthy,” Network level footprints of Facebook applications” In Proc. IMC, 2009.

9.        F. Schneider, A. Feldmann, B. Krishnamurthy et al,”Understanding online social network usage from a network perspective” In Proc. IMC, 2009.

10.     P. Gill, M. Arlitt, N. Carlsson and C. Williamson.,”Characterizing Organizational Use of Web-based Services: Methodology,Challenges,Observations, and Insights” ACM TWEB, 2011.

11.     D. Fetterly and J. Wiener, ” A large scale study of the evolution of web pages” In Proc.WWW, 2003.

12.     Vincent Flanders and Michael Willis,”Web Pages That Suck: Learn Good Design by Looking at Bad Design” SYBEX, San Francisco, 1998.

13.     Jakob Nielsen, “The alertbox: Current issues in web usability”, http://www.useit.com/alertbox.

14.     Jakob Nielsen, ” User interface directions for the Web,” Communications of the ACM, 42(1):65–72, January 1999.

15.     Jakob Nielsen, “Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity”, New Riders Publishing,Indianapolis, IN, 2000.

16.     Karen A. Shriver, Dynamics in Document Design”, Wiley Computer Publishing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997.

17.     Lincoln D. Stein, The rating game, http://stein.cshl.org/lstein/rater/,1997.

18.     George W. Furans,Effective view navigation”, in proceedings of ACM CHI 97 conference on human factors in computing systems, volume 1 of PAPERS: information structures, pp. 367-374, 1997.

19.     Kevin Larson and Mary Czerwinski., Web page design: Implications of memory, structure and scent for information retrieval”, In proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on human Factors in Computing Systems,volume 1 of Web Page Design , pp. 25-32, 1998.






Hemaraju, Ranganatha S, Shashidhara K N

Paper Title:

Studies on wear loss and Deformation Morphology in Three Body Abrasion

Abstract:  Machineries which are used in industries involves relative motion between two components called elements. These relative motion between elements is required either to transfer force or motions. In some cases, example material conveying system, relative motions exists between material and conveyor. All the above cases give rise to discontinuities in velocity and displacements. These discontinuities results in volume loss of materials. Loss of materials give rise to loss of durability and reliability of machines. There will be a lot of thrust in reducing the new advanced machines due to loss of materials or wear. Understanding wear and controlling is a strong need for advanced and reliable design of machines. In the present investigation a basic systematic study has been carried out to understand the impact of material and its metallurgical phases on wear behavior. Rubber wheel abrader with different sized sand as abrader is used for conducting the experiments. CA 40 Steel (269 BHN), Alloy cast iron (450 BHN) Ni Hard cast iron (500 BHN) were used as target materials. Experiments were conducted with two loads 53.2 N and 102.4 N. The speed was maintained at 200 rpm. The time of test was 6 minutes, the flow rate was 100 grams/min. The wear loss was estimated and found that for CA 40 Steel was 0.15 at a normal load of 52.3 N and 0.21 at a load of 102.4 N. The wear loss was for ally cast iron is 0.07 and 0.08 which are comparable at two different normal loads. In case of Ni hard cast iron the wear loss was found to be 0.04 at a normal load of 53.2 N and 0.07 at a normal load of 102.4 N. the effect of normal load was found to be less for materials of higher hardness. The morphology of deformation was found to characterize the experimentally observed wear loss volume for material of different hardness.

Abrasive wear, Deformation, Hardness.


1.        Bingley M.S, Schnee., A study of the mechanisms of abrasive wear for ductile metals under wet and dry three body conditions. Wear 258 (2005) 50-61.
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3.        Niko Ojala. Kati Valtonen., Vuokko Heino, Marke Kallio, Joonas Aaltonen, Pekka siitonen, Veli-tapani Kuokkala,. Effects of composition and microstructure on the abrasive wear performance of quenched wear resistant steels. Wear 317 (2014) 225-232.

4.        Jonas allebert, Mikael Jungedal, Patric waara,. Wear on overlay welded HCWI vs. quenched and tempered low alloyed carbon steels evaluated with granite in a laboratory drum test machine. Wear 330-331 (2015) 364-370.

5.        Xiaojun Xu, Sybrand van der Zwaag, Wei Xu, Wear 338-339 (2015) 47-53.

6.        Xiangtao Deng, Zhadong Wang, Yong Tian, Tianliang Fu, Guodong Wang. An investigation of mechanical property and three body impact abrasive wear behavior of a 0.27 % C dual phase steel. Materials and Design 49 (2013) 220-225.

7.        Ronaldo camara cozza,. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible? J MATER RES TECHNOL.2014; 3(2); 191-193.

8.        Basavaraju.M and Ranganatha.S, “Effect of material hardness and hard material surface morphology on friction and transfer layer formation; Dry condition. IJRTE, ISSN: 2277-3878, Volume 2, Issue-4, 2013, PP 40-46.

9.        Basavaraju.M and Ranganatha.S, “Effect of soft material hardness and material surface morphology on friction & transfer layer formation; Lubricated condition. IJRTE, ISSN: 2277-3878, Volume 2, Issue 4, 2013, PP 59-66.
10.     Hemaraju, Ranganatha.S, Shashidhara K.N., Role of hardness on abrasive wear modes in a three
body wear.IJRTE. Vol-4, Issue 6,(2016), 40-46.

11.     Suresh gowda et al, 2016, Influence of ball material on deformation in non-confirming contact ball elements, IJRTE, Vol 1, 1-8.

12.     Suresh gowda et al, 2016, Basic studies on the role of softer metallic coatings in ball bearings. IJITEE, ISSN; 2278-3075, Volume 5, Issue-9, February 2016.

13.     Archard, J.F. 1953, Contact and rubbing surfaces, J, Appl.Phys,24,981-988

14.     Bhansali, K.J. 1980 Wear coefficients of hard surfacing materials, in wear control handbook, Peterson M.B and Winer, W.O. (Eds), ASME , 373-383.

15.     Hirst, W. 1957, in proceedings of the conference on lubrication and wear, ImechE, London, 674

16.     Hokkirigawa, K. 1997, Wear maps of ceramics, Bulletin of the ceramic society of japan,1, 19-24.

17.     Holm, R. 1946, Electric contact. Almquist and Wiksells, Stockholm, Section 40.

18.     Lancaster, J.K 1978, Trans. Inst. Metal Finish. 56,4,145.

19.     Rabinowicz, E. 1980, Wear coefficients – metals, wear control hand book, Peterson M.B and Winer, W.O. (Eds), ASME , 475.

20.     Kozi Kato, Koshi Adachi. Wear Mechanisms. CRC press LLC (2001).






Cyrus Babu Ong`ondo

Paper Title:

Communication Management Practice for Better Project Controls in the Construction Industry of Kenya: Industry Players’ Perspective

Abstract:   Communication plays an important role in integrating people, and taking decisions to make project control process a success. However, what constitutes effective communication is lacking as evidenced by failure of projects during implementation. In the construction industry of Kenya for example, several studies have alluded to poor communication within projects as one of the causes of poor project performance during implementation pointing to a missing link between what constitutes effective communication on one hand and its application in the management of projects on the other hand. This study therefore, sought to investigate communication management in the construction industry of kenya, with emphasis on its adequacy. A mixed-method design was used consisting of analysis of a questionnaire survey and interviews with subject matter experts. Data was collected from active 95No. (NCA1, NCA2 and NCA3) contractors selected by way of stratified random sampling. A similar approach was also used to select 92No.Consultants with a response rate of 54.73% and 46.73% respectively. In addition, 11No.practitioners were interviewed in the current study. The study established six (6No.) issues that need to be given careful attention when managing communication during projects implementation. The issues in order of importance include; Quality of decision making process (RII=0.900), Change approval procedure (RII=0.0.835), Quality & frequency of project meetings (RII=0.825), Update of project plans (RII=0.811), Project vision (RII=0.799) and progress reporting system(RII=0.636). The study concludes by compiling views of the practitioners on what they consider good practice in improving communication management practice. The study recommends the use of the good-practice checklist developed for better communication management in projects.

 Communication, Management, construction industry, good-Practice checklist, Kenya


1.        Akintoye, A. (2007). Collaborative relationships in construction-The UK contractor`s perception. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
2.        Atkinson, R. (1999). Project management: Cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomena. its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management, Vol 17,Issue 6 December,1999,Pages 337-342..

3.        Chandara, P. (2002). Projects Planning, Financing, Implementation and Review. Tata: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

4.        Chitkara, K. (2002). Construction Project Management Planning, Scheduling and Control. Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

5.        Christenson, D. (2008). Using vision as a critical Success element in Project Management. International Journal of Project Management.

6.        Cooke, B. W. (2004). Construction Planning Programming and Control. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

7.        Cooke-Davies, T. (2002). “The real success factors on projects. International Journal of Project Management.

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10.     Floyd, L. (2004). ” Application of appropriate control tools for contract type”. Cost Engineering, 46(2),25-30.

11.     Forsythe, P. (2008). Modeling customer perceived quality in housing. International journal of project management, Elsevier Science Ltd and IPMA.

12.     Fortune, J. (2006). Framing of critical success factors by a systems model. International Journal of Project Management, Elsevier Science Ltd and IPMA.

13.     Frimpong, Y. (2003). Delay and cost overruns in Construction of Ground water Projects in developing countries. International Journal of Project Management, 21,321-326.

14.     George, R. (2008). Critical activities in front End planning process. Journal of Management of Engineering.

15.     Gichunge, H. (2000). Risk management in the Building Industry in Kenya. Unpublished PHD. Thesis. University of Nairobi.

16.     Goodman, L. (1988). Project Planning and Management-an integrated system for improving productivity. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.
17.     Greer, M. (1999). Handbook of Human performance Technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bas.
18.     Gwaya, A. (2014). Development of appropriate project management factors for the construction industry in Kenya. International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), ISSN:2231-2307,Vol 4,Issue 1.

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20.     Hillebrandt, P. (2000). Economic theory and the construction Industry.3rd Edition. London: Macmillan.

21.     Iyer, K. J. (2005). Factors affecting cost performance evidence from indian construction projects. International journal of project management,, 23 (4),283-295.

22.     Jackson, B. (2004). Construction Management Jump Start. CA: Sybex Incorporated Alaneda.

23.     Johnson, G. (2006). Exploring Corporate Strategy 7th Edition. London: Pearson Education.

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25.     Kaming, P. (1997). Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overruns on High-Rise Projects in Indonesia. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 7,83-94.

26.     Kenny, C. (2007). Construction, Corruption and developing countries. World Bank policy Research working paper.

27.     Kerzner, H. (2006). Project Management: A systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling 9th Edition. John Wiley & Sons publications.

28.     Kongere, N. S. (2010). Project Management, From Design to Implementation. Nairobi: Richmond Designers and Printers.

29.     Lester, A. (2000). Project Planning and Control. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

30.     Lindahl, G. (2007). Client`s goals and the Construction Project Management Process. Journal of Construction Management and Economics.

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34.     Muchungu, P. (2012). The contribution of human factors in the performance of construction projects in kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished Phd. Thesis. University of Nairobi.

35.     Munano, A. (2012). Pre-construction Planning: Exploring the factors that influence timelines of project completion for public sectors buildings in Kenya.
Unpublished Master of Construction Management Thesis. Jomo Kenyatta University.

36.     Musa, G. (1999). Determination of Factors Influencing Projects Delays in Water Projects in Kenya: The case of Government Funded Projects. Nairobi: Unpublished MBA Thesis University of Nairobi.

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38.     Nguyen, A. (2004). A study on Project success factors in large construction projects in Vietnam.

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40.     Olawale, Y. a. (2010). “Cost and time control of construction projects: Inhibitng factors and mitigating measures in practice”. Construction Management and Economics, 28 (5),509-526.

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43.     Rozenes, S. (2006). “Project Control: Literature review”. Project Management Journal, 37(4) 4-14.

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49.     Yakubu, O. a. (2009). Cost and time control of construction projects: A survey of Contractors and Consultants. Construction Information Quarterly, , 11(2),53-59.

50.     Zhen Yu, Z. (2010). Application of innovative Critical Chain Method for project planning and control. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management.






Kamalkishor G. Maniyar, Swapnil K. Agrawal, D. S. Ingole

Paper Title:

Optimization of Multiple Performance Characteristics in EDM: A Critical Literature Review

Abstract: Electrical discharge machining (EDM) plays a very important role in manufacturing industries for shaping hard metals and alloys. Optimization is one of the techniques used in manufacturing sectors to arrive for the best manufacturing conditions, which is an essential need for industries towards manufacturing of quality products at lower cost. [14] EDM performance is evaluated on the basis of multiple performance characteristics. The objective of this paper work is to study optimization of multiple performance characteristics in EDM. A sufficient amount of research work has been described by the researchers on the evaluation of EDM performance on the basis of multiple performance characteristics for various materials. Design of experiment (DOE) is very useful in the analyzing the optimum condition of parameters, main effect, and the significance of individual parameter to machining characteristics for various materials. In a vision of above, this paper work presents a critical literature review on optimization of multiple performance characteristics in EDM.

EDM Parameters, EDM Characteristics, DOE Method


1.        Yan Cherng Lin, Biing Hwa, Yong Song Chang “Machining characteristics of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) using a combination of process of EDM with USM”, Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol.104, 2000, pp. 171-177.
2.        S.H. Lee, and X.P. Li, “Study of the effect of machining parameters on the machining characteristics in electrical discharge machining of tungsten carbide”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 115(3), 2001, pp. 344-358.

3.        B. Mohan, A. Rajadurai, and K.G. Satyanarayana, “Effect of sic and rotation of electrode on electric discharge machining of Al-sic composite”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 124(3), 2002, pp. 297-304.

4.        H. C. Tsai, B. H. Yan, F. Y. Huang, “EDM performance of Cr/Cu based composite materials”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 242-252. 

5.        Puertas, I., Luis, C.J., and Alvarez, L.“Analysis of the Influence of EDM Parameters on Surface Quality, MRR and EW of WC-Co”, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 2004.

6.        H. K. Kansal, Sehjipal Singh, and P. Kumar, “Developed of Powder Mixed Electrical Discharge  Machining (PMEDM) Process”, 14th ISME International Conference on Mechanical Engineering in Knowledge Age December 12-14, 2005.

7.        Y. Lin, C. Cheng, and L. Hwang, “Machining characteristics and optimization of machining parameters of SKH 57 high-speed steel using electrical-discharge machining based on Taguchi method”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 21(8), 2006, pp. 922- 929.

8.        S. Dhar, R. Purohit, N. Saini and G.H. Kumar, “Mathematical modeling of electric discharge machining of cast Al-4Cu-6Si alloy-10 wt.% sicp composites”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 193(1-3), 2007, pp. 24-29.

9.        A A. Khan, “Electrode wear and material removal rate during EDM of aluminum and mild steel using copper and brass electrodes”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2008, vol. 39, pp. 482-487.

10.     Yan Cherng Lin, Yuan Feng Chen, Der An Wang, Ho Shiun Lee, “Optimization of machining parameters in magnetic force assisted EDM based on Taguchi method”, Journal of Material Processing Technology, 2009, vol. 209, pp. 3347-3383.

11.     Rajesh Choudhary, H. Kumar, and R K Garg, “Analysis and evaluation of heat affected zones in electric discharge machining of EN-31 die steel”, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, 2010, Vol. 17, pp. 91-98.

12.     N Natarajan, and R M Arunchalam, “Optimization of micro- EDM with multiple performance characteristics using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis”, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 2011, vol. 70, pp. 500-505.
13.     Pushpendra S. Bharati, S. Maheshwari and C. Sharma, “Multi- objective optimization of electric- discharge machining process using controlled elitist NSGA-II”, Journal of Mechanical Sciences and Technology, 2012, vol. 26(6), pp. 1875-1883.
14.     Raghuraman S. Thiruppathi K. Paneerselvam T., Santosh S., “Optimization of EDM parameters using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis for mild steel IS 2026”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2013, vol. 2, Isssue 7.

15.     Sureshkumar S., Uthayakuma M., Thirumalai Kumaran S.,.Parameswaran P., and Mohandas E., “Electrical  Discharge machining of Al (6351)- 5% SiC-10 % B4C Hybrid Composite : A Grey Relational Approach”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Modeling and Simulation in Engineering, Volume 2014Article ID426718, 7 pages.






Akhilesh Kumar Pandey, Rajeev Singh

Paper Title:

CPW-Fed Band Pass Filter for GSM Application

Abstract:  A novel band pass filter of a coplanar waveguide fed planar patch is proposed for Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) (880-965 MHz) applications and is simulated by means of AWR (Microwave Wave Office) and results are compared with ideal transmission line model, balance strip model and lumped element model for GSM applications. Simulated results of insertion loss and transmission loss of models have been discussed.

Coplanar plane wave guide (CPW); Micro strip antenna; Band pass filter; Lumped-Distributed element; AWR.


1.        Y.H.  Cho, I.S.  Jeon, X.G. Wang, S.W. Yun, Balanced dual-band bandpass filter using microstrip resonator loaded with lumped-elements, IEEE CONFRENCE. (2011)   1286 – 1289.
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Volume-5 Issue-11

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Volume-5 Issue-11, April 2016, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



K. Ashok Reddy

Paper Title:

A Survey of Entropy Generation in a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

Abstract:   In this technical paper, the review of literature for entropy generation in a helical coil heat exchanger was presented. The pressure drop, friction factor, heat transfer rates and flow distribution like velocity and temperature field are essential properties to control the entropy generation in a heat exchanger process are fairly presented in this article.

  entropy, heat transfer, friction factor


1.           Shaukat Ali  Pressure drop correlations for flow through regular helical coil tubes Fluid Dynamics ResearchV 28(4),2015
2.           T. H. Ko  Numerical Investigation of Laminar Forced Convection and Entropy Generation in a Helical Coil with Constant Wall Heat Flux Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of  Computation and Methodology   V 49(3),  2006  pp- 257-278

3.           T.H. Ko, , K. Ting  Entropy generation and thermodynamic optimization of fully developed laminar convection in a helical coil International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer   V 32(2), 2005, pp-214–223

4.           T.H. Ko   Thermodynamic analysis of optimal mass flow rate for fully developed laminar forced convection in a helical coiled tube based on minimal entropy generation principle Energy Conversion and Management  V 47(19),  2006, pp-3094–3104

5.           T.H. Ko    Thermodynamic analysis of optimal curvature ratio for fully developed laminar forced convection in a helical coiled tube with uniform heat flux  International Journal of Thermal Sciences   V 45(7), 2006, pp-729–737

6.           Mohammad AhadiAbbas Abbassi   Entropy generation analysis of laminar forced convection through uniformly heated helical coils considering effects of high length and heat flux and temperature dependence of thermophysical properties Energy  V 82(3),  2015,pp-322–

7.           T.H. Ko, ,  K. Ting   Optimal Reynolds number for the fully developed laminar forced convection in a helical coiled tube  EnergyV31(12), 2006, pp-2142–2152

8.           T.H. Ko, ,  K. Ting   Entropy generation and thermodynamic optimization of fully developed laminar convection in a helical coil International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer   Volume 32, Issues 1–2,  2005, pp- 214–223

9.           Jiangfeng Guo, ,  Xiulan Huai  Numerical investigation of helically coiled tube from the viewpoint of field synergy principle Applied Thermal Engineering  V 98(5), 2016, pp-137–143

10.        M. Hasanuzzaman,, R. Saidura, and N.A. Rahim  Effectiveness Enchancement Of Heat Exchanger By Using Nanofluids 2011 IEEE First Conference on Clean Energy and Technology CET

11.        M. Mohanraj, S. Jayaraj , C. Muraleedharan    Applications of artificial neural networks for thermal analysis of heat   exchangers e A review International Journal of Thermal Sciences V 90 2015 pp-152

12.        M.A. Khairul , R. Saidur , M.M. Rahman , M.A. Alim , A. Hossain , Z. Abdin  Heat transfer and thermodynamic analyses of a helically coiled heat  exchanger using different types of nanofluids International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer  V 67 2013 pp-398–403






Aniket Nikam, Nilam Thakur, Sachin Patil

Paper Title:

Intelligent Waste Collection System

Abstract: Now a day, there are a number of techniques used for waste collection. In this system, there is lift container for the collection of garbage in residential area. To give a brief description of the project, the sensors are placed in the storage area, when the garbage reaches the level of sensor; the controller will give indication to the driver of garbage collection truck that the garbage bin is completely filled and needs urgent attention. Indication is done by sending SMS using GSM technology.

Garbage level sensor, GSM technology, SMS.


1.    Gaikwad Prajakta , Jadhav Kalyani, Machale Snehal,”Smart   Garbage Collection System In Residential Area”,IJRET ,2015
2.    Kanchan Mahajan , Prof. J.S. Chitode,” Wate Bin Monitorin System Using Integreated Technologies”,IITRSET,2014.

3.    Islam, M.S. Arebey, M. ; Hannan, M.A. ; Basri, H,”Overview for solid waste bin monitoring and collection system” Innovation Management and Technology Research (ICIMTR), 2012 International Conference , Malacca, 258 – 262

4.    Raghumani Singh, C. Dey, M. Solid waste management of Thoubal Municipality, Manipur- a case study Green Technology and Environmental Conservation (GTEC 2011), 2011 International Conference Chennai 21 – 24.

5.    Latifah, A., Mohd, A. A.,& NurIlyana, M. (2009).solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges. Waste Management, 29,2902-2906.

6.    Vicentini, F. Giusti, A., Rovetta, A., Fan, X., He, Q., Zhu, M., & Liu, B. (2008). Sensorized waste collection container for content estimation and collection optimization. Waste Management.29, 1467-1472






Awatif M.A. Elsiddieg

Paper Title:

Implementation of Gaussian- Elimination

Abstract:  Gaussian elimination is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations, can also use to find the rank of any matrix ,we use  Gaussian Jordan  elimination to find the inverse of a non singular square matrix. This work gives basic concepts  in section (1) , show what is pivoting , and implementation  of  Gaussian  elimination  to solve  a system of linear equations. Section (2) we   find the rank of any matrix. Section (3) we use Gaussian elimination to find the inverse of a non singular square matrix. We compare the method by Gauss Jordan method. In section (4) practical implementation of the method we inherit the computation features of Gaussian elimination we use programs in Matlab software.

 Gaussian elimination, algorithm Gauss, Jordan, method, computation, features, programs in Matlab, software.


1.       D. Eugene, Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Mathematica, McGraw-Hill,NY,(2001).
2.       E .B. Magrab and others , An Engineer’s Guide to Matlab ,Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River ,NJ, (2000).

3.       Eivind Eriksen B/ Norwegian School of Management Department of      Economics (2010).

4.       Jim  Hefferon Mathematics ,Saint Michael College  Colcheser  Verno USA (2014).

5.       M. Golubitsky and M.  Dellnitz , Linearv Algebra and Differential Equations Using Matlab, Books/Cole Publishing Co., NY, (1999).

6.       Stephen Boyd Convex Optimization . Department of  Electrical Engineering Stanford  University.

7.       Stephen G. Nash Linear and non linear programming (1996).






Vyshali V Nayak

Paper Title:

Efficient Speaker Verification Algorithm using Spectral Characteristics

Abstract: Speaker recognition is a recognition purpose that articulates words. The speaker recognition process relies on physical structure of an individual’s person’s vocal tract and the behavioral characteristics of the individual. Speaker verification is evolved with the technologies of speech recognition and speech synthesis because of the similar characteristics in the voice and challenges associated with it. Speaker recognition has two forms which is text dependent or text independent. In text dependent method a particular phrase or password is stored into the system, whereas in text independent method the speaker will not be aware that his voice is being collected.  In the proposed algorithm, speech signal has been recorded in the database. And the speaker is verified using the input the speaker provides by comparing with the database. The time domain, frequency domain and power domain features of the speech is extracted.  For validating the performance, a comparative analysis has been carried out with various other methods. These methods exhibit some unique behavior.

  Spectral Characteristics, Speech Recognition, Text Dependent, Text Independent


1.       Douglas A. Reynolds and Larry P.Heck, “Automatic Speaker Recognition: Recent Progress, Current Applications and Future Trends”, 19 February 2000, http://www.ll.mit.edu/IST/pubs/aaas00-dar-pres.pdf
2.       Joseph P. Campbell, “Speaker Recognition”, Identification in Networked Society, 1999

3.       Samudravijaya K, “Speech and Speaker Recognition: A Tutorial”, 2001

4.       Bojan Imperl, “Speaker recognition techniques”, Maribor, Slovenia, 2000

5.       Rosenberg, “L16: Speaker recognition”, Benesty, 2008

6.       W. M. Campbell, D. E. Sturim, and D. A. Reynolds, “Support Vector Machines Using GMM Supervectors for Speaker Verification”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 13, no. 5, may 2006

7.       Md Jahangir Alam, Pierre Ouellet, Patrick Kenny, Douglas O’Shaughnessy, “Comparative Evaluation of Feature Normalization Techniques for Speaker Verification”, Springer, 2011

8.       Santosh K.Gaikwad, Bharti W.Gawali, Pravin Yannawar, “A Review on Speech Recognition Technique”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887), Volume 10– No.3, November 2010

9.       Zhang Wanli, Li Guoxin, “Application of Improved Spectral Subtraction Algorithm for Speech Emotion Recognition”, IEEE Fifth International Conference, 2015

10.    Luciana Ferrer, Yun Lei, Mitchell McLaren, and Nicolas Scheffer, “Study of Senone-Based Deep Neural Network Approaches for Spoken Language Recognition” IEEE/ACM Transactions, 2015

11.    S. K. Singh, “Features and Techniques for Speaker Recognition”, 2003

12.    W. M. Campbell, D. E. Sturim, and D. A. Reynolds, “Support Vector Machines Using GMM Supervectors for Speaker Verification”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 13, no. 5, may 2006






Nanda P, Josephine Prem Kumar

Paper Title:

A Survey on QOS Improvement in Wireless Mesh Network

Abstract: Wireless mesh Network (WMN) is rapidly catching momentum in developing countries like India for providing seamless internet services and for disaster time emergency networking. QOS is one of the hurdles for acceptance of WMN because as more people start using the network for internet services, latency, session drops, and packet loss are noticed. Many solutions for improving QOS in terms of placement of components, QOS based routing, cross layer optimizations, MAC layer scheduling etc. are proposed to improve the QOS.  In this work, we review all these solutions and problems in these solutions for large scale acceptance of WMN.

(WMN), QOS, WMN, MAC, Wireless


1.       Anis Ouni, Herv´e Rivano, Fabrice Valois, Catherine Rosenberg. Energy and Throughput Optimization of Wireless Mesh Network with Continuous Power Control. [Research Report] RR- 7730, 2013, pp.27.
2.       Mathilde Benveniste “A Distributed QoS MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh” The Second International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2008. 

3.       Kwan-Wu Chin, Sieteng Soh, Chen Meng, “ A Novel Spatial TDMA Scheduler for Concurrent Transmit Receive WMN” 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, 2010.

4.       Mauro Leoncini, Paolo Santi, Paolo Valente, “An STDMA Based Framework for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Mesh Network”, IEEE 2008.

5.       Jaydip Sen “A Throughput Optimizing Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks”. 12th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications.2010.

6.       Catalan-Cid M, Ferrer JL, Gomez C, Paradells J: Contention- and interference-aware flow-based routing in wireless mesh networks: design and evaluation of a novel routing metric. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2010, 2010: 1-20.

7.       Xi Fang “Consort: Node-Constrained Opportunistic Routing in wireless mesh networks” INFOCOM, 2011 Proceedings IEEE.

8.       T. Le, N. G. Nguyen, and D. H. Nghia, “A novel PSO-based algorithm for gateway placement in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc, 3 rd IEEE International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), China, 2011, pp. 41-46

9.       Mojtaba Seyedzadegan “Internet Gateway Placement Optimization in Wireless Mesh Networks” Springer August 2013
10.    Awadallah, Hashim and A. Hashim , Aisha Hassan (2015) A genetic approach for gateway placement in wireless mesh networks. Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 15 (7). pp. 11-19. ISSN 1738-7906
11.    Wangkit Wong “Optimizing Router Placement for Wireless Mesh Deployment” IEEE ICC 2014 – Mobile and Wireless Networking Symposium

12.    J. Wang, K. Cai, and D. R. Agrawal, “A multi-rate based router placement scheme for wireless mesh networks,” in Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, 2009. MASS’09. IEEE 6th International Conference on. IEEE, 2009, pp. 100–109.

13.    Wireless Communications & Signal Processing (WCSP), 2013 International Conference IEEE

14.    Ernst, J.B “Cross-Layer Mixed Bias Scheduling for Wireless Mesh Networks” Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference

15.    Cheng, M “Cross-Layer Schemes for Reducing Delay in Multihop Wireless Networks” Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on 2012

16.    Xiang Li “Cross-Layer Routing Metric for Wireless Mesh Networks” Third International Conference, ICICA 2012, Chengde, China, September 14-16, 2012.






Sudha Kushwaha, Sourabh Pandey

Paper Title:

Analysis of Compressed Sending Time-Frequency Training OFDM for Improved Performance of the System

Abstract:  Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is widely recognized as the one important technology in broadband wireless communication systems. In wireless communication orthogonal frequency division multiplexing render higher spectral efficiency as well as enhanced performance over fast fading channel. The time domain synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing also offers enhanced spectral efficiency compared to cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. But interference cancellation problem degrades performance loss in high speed communication channel. The compressed sending based channel estimation increases the spectral efficiency by using time delay and reducing number of pilot symbols.  This paper proposes a new scheme called compressed sending time frequency training orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. This scheme uses training information in time and frequency domain. The simulation shows that the proposed scheme outperforms TFT orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and TDS orthogonal frequency division multiplexing in high speed mobile environments.                                                                                                                                                       

 Wireless, Frequency, Channel, Multiplexing, Pilot, Training


1.          D. linglong, Z.Wang and Z.Yang , “Time-Frequency Training OFDM with High Spectral Efficiency and Reliable Performance in High Speed Environments” IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 4,pp-695-707, MAY 2012.
2.          F. Adachi and E. Kudoh, “New direction of broadband wireless technology,” Wireless. Communication Mob. Com., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 969–983, Oct. 2007.

3.          X. Yuan, Q. Guo, X. Wang, and L. Ping, “Evolution analysis of low cost iterative equalization in coded linear systems with cyclic prefixes,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communication, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 301–310, Feb. 2008.

4.          B. Muquet, Z. Wang, G. Giannakis, M. De Courville, and P. Duhamel, “Cyclic prefixing or zero padding for wireless multicarrier transmissions?” IEEE Trans. Communication, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2136–2148, Dec. 2002.

5.          C. yen Ong, J. Song, C. Pan, and Y. Li, “Technology and standards of digital television terrestrial multimedia broadcasting,” IEEE Communication Mag., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 119–127, May 2010.

6.          Wang, P. Ho, and Y. Wu, “Robust channel estimation and ISI cancellation for OFDM systems with suppressed features,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communication, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 963–972, May 2005. On Computers, 61, 2012, pp. 1507-1520.

7.          J. Wang, Z. Yang, C. Pan, and J. Song, “Iterative padding subtraction of the PN sequence for the TDS-OFDM over broadcast channels,” IEEE Trans. Consume. Electron, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1148–1152, Nov. 2005.

8.          J. Song, Z. Yang, L. Yang, K. Gong, C. Pan, J. Wang, and Y. Wu, “Technical review on Chinese digital terrestrial television broadcasting standard and measurements on some working modes,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Feb. 2007.

9.          Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for Digital Television Terrestrial Broadcasting System. Chinese National Standard, GB 20600-2006, Aug. 2006.

10.       J. Kim, S. Lee, and J. Seo, “Synchronization and channel estimation in cyclic postfix based OFDM system,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC’06-Spring), Melbourne, Vic, May 2006, pp. 2028–2032.

11.       Synchronization and channel estimation in cyclic postfix based OFDM system,” IEICE Trans. Communication., vol. E90-B, no. 3, pp. 485– 490, Mar. 2007.

12.       S. Tang, K. Peng, K. Gong, and Z. Yang, “Channel estimation for cyclic post fixed OFDM,” in Proc. International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (ICCCAS’08), Fujian, China, May 2008, pp. 246–249.

13.       M. Huemer, C. Hofbauer, and J. Huber, “Unique word prefix in SC/FDE and OFDM: A comparison,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM’10), Miami, USA, Dec. 2010, pp. 1321– 1326.

14.       Onic and M. Huemer, “Direct vs. two-step approach for unique word generation in UW-OFDM,” in Proc. the 15th International OFDM Workshop (InOWo’10), Los Alamitos, CA, Sep. 2010, pp. 145–149.

15.       J. Fu, J. Wang, J. Song, C. Pan, and Z. Yang, “A simplified equalization method for dual PN-sequence padding TDS-OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 825–830, Dec. 2008.

16.       L. Bomer and M. Antweiler, “Perfect N-phase sequences and arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communication., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 782–789, May 1992.
17.       V. Oppenheim, R. Schafer, and J. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 4th ed. NJ, USA: Prentice Hall, 2010.
18.       L. Dai, Z. Wang, C. Pan, and S. Chen, “Positioning in Chinese digital television network using TDS-OFDM signals,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’11), Kyoto, Japan, Jun. 2011, pp. 1–5.

19.       Frame Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for a Second Generation Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting System (DVB-T2). ETSI Standard, EN 302 755, V1.1.1, Sep. 2009.

20.       X. Wang, H. Li, and H. Lin, “A new adaptive OFDM system with pre-coded cyclic prefix for dynamic cognitive radio communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communication, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 431–442, Feb. 2011.

21.       W. Song and J. Lim, “Channel estimation and signal detection for MIMO-OFDM with time varying channels,” IEEE Communication. Lett., vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 540–542, Jul. 2006.

22.       W. Jeon, K. Chang, and Y. Cho, “An equalization technique for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems in time variant multipath channels,” IEEE Trans. Communication, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 27–32, Jan. 1999.

23.       P. Schniter, “Low complexity equalization of OFDM in doubly selective channels,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 100–1011, Apr. 2004.

24.       Namboodiri, H. Liu, and P. Spasojevi`c, “Low complexity turbo equalization for mobile OFDM systems with application to DVB-H,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM’10), Miami, USA, Dec. 2010, pp. 1328–1333.

25.       X. Wang, Y. Wu, J. Chouinard, and H. Wu, “On the design and performance analysis of multi symbol encapsulated OFDM systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 990–1002, May 2006.






Kumar Harsha, Anupam Saikia

Paper Title:

Elliptic Curves on Finite Fields

Abstract:   This paper explores the algebraic properties of elliptic curves over finite fields. Elliptic curves are being widely used in modern cryptographic techniques. The rational points on an elliptic curve obey group theoretic laws. As such, computing the order of these groups forms the basis of more complex computations. The first section of this paper deals with the basic group properties of rational points on elliptic curves and an introduction to projective geometry. In the second, algorithms for computing multiplication maps are explained. The later section has point counting algorithms followed by code snippets in SAGE. Also included, is a section on some unsolved problems in the domain.                  

  Elliptic curves, SAGE.


1.    Joseph H. Silverman &John Tate, Rational Points on Elliptic Curves, Springer-Verlag New York, 1992, pp. 15–64.
2.    Lawrence C. Washington, Elliptic Curves – Number theory and Cryptography.  Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2008, pp. 77-102.

3.    Darrin Doud, “A procedure to calculate torsion of Elliptic Curves over.Q“Manuscripta Mathematica, November1997.

4.    Celine Maistret, “Computations on the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for elliptic curves over pure cubic extensions” [Master’s Thesis/Online], Concordia University, Canada, August 2012, Available:

5.    https://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/maths/people/staff/maistret/maistret_msc_f2012.pdf

6.    Andrew Sutherland, 18.783 Elliptic Curves, Spring 2013, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT Open Course Ware.[Online], 2013, Available: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-783-elliptic-curves-spring-2013/index.htm Wikipedia Contributors, Elliptic curve[Online], October 11, 2014, Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elliptic_curve&oldid=629180339






Albekova A. Sh., Tuksaitova R.O., Omarova G.T., Tleugazina Sh.S.

Paper Title:

The National, Ethnic and Cultural Identity of Russian and Kazakh languages

Abstract: In the scientific article the ethno-linguistic aspect of kinship terminology of the Russian and Kazakh languages is considered. It is known that a national, ethnic and cultural identity finds its most vivid expression in terms of the language which is directly correlated with the extra-linguistic realty. In theory of ethno-linguistic it is stated that some words in the language do not reflect linguistic and social structures. That differentiation of the Kazakh and Russian languages vocabulary on the background is a valuable linguistically. The establishment of the semantic matching of terms and cultural realties of the Russian and Kazakh peoples s certainly relevant and interesting research. Relationship is the concept of social, historical, ethnic, and its development is caused not only by general laws but by culture of the ethnic group too.                    

   definition, ethno-linguistic, ethnic culture, kinship terminology, language, .terminology of property.


1.        Ushinsky K.D. Selected pedagogical works. M., 1954.
2.        Orazgalieva F.Sh. National-cultural connotation of the words denoting no consanguinity. // Proceedings of the international national – practical conference. Karaganda: Publishing house of the University, 2002.

3.        Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian language. Ed.by Professor D.N. Ushakov. – M., 1935-1940 . Vol. I-IV.

4.        Ozhegov S.I.  Dictionary of the Russian language -M .: Russian language. 1989. – p.924.

5.        Small Dictionary of  the Russian language V.V. Lopatin, L.E. Lopatina.- M .: 1990.

6.        Explanatory Dictionary of the Kazakh language. Ed.by Kenesbayev. – Almaty: 1959. Vol. I-II.

7.        Explanatory Dictionary of the Kazakh language. Ed.by A.Y.Yskakov. – Almaty: 1982. Vol. I-II.




Volume-5 Issue 12

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Volume-5 Issue-12, May 2016, ISSN:  2278-3075 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Bouchra Gourja, Malika Tridane, Mustapha Bassiri, Said Belaaouad

Paper Title:

Difficulties of Students from the Faculty of Sciences with Regard to Understanding the Concepts of Chemical Crystallography

Abstract: The origin of this work on the learning of chemical crystallography at university is the recurrent finding associated with the difficulty experienced by students, resulting in poor marks. The purpose of this study is to identify the difficult concepts in crystallography, to identify possible causes of these difficulties, and to try to offer remedies for this problem. For this we developed a three part questionnaire:  the general capabilities of the student, the teaching conditions and the difficulties of students in terms of chemical crystallography. We undertook a survey of chemistry students in the Faculty of Sciences of Ben M’Sik Casablanca. After analyzing the data we found that the difficulties encountered in association with chemical crystallography may be due to several factors : the nature of the concept studied in terms of the difficulty of understanding, inadequate basic knowledge especially in geometry, the ability of low and middle level students with regard to the French language impedes their ability to follow the explanations of the teacher, curriculum overload, lack of concentration during the course and lack of motivation of students.

chemical crystallography, learning, student’s difficulties, teaching.


1.    CNRS. Voyage de presse Cristallographie – Marseille – 24 et 25 mars 2014
2.    J. Sivardière, « Comment enseigner la cristallographie ? », Tréma, 3-4 | , 119-12, 1993.






Akwasi Adjei-Kuffour

Paper Title:

A look at Auditors’ Reports to users of financial Statements and to Management: Examples drawn from Societe Generale Ghana and Bank of Africa, Ghana

Abstract:  The purpose of the study is to examine Auditors ‘Report to users of financial statement and to management with examples drawn from Societe Generale (Ghana) and Bank of Africa (Ghana) respectively. Audit Report is the result of auditing process and it is a key medium of communication, between auditor and financial statement user. The auditors are expected to audit the financial statement of companies so as to present a true and fair view of the company. The methodology for the data used for this research was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The former was mainly brief interview and the latter through financial reports, textbooks, magazines and web. The process was mainly table in financial statement between 2013 and 2014.The literature review highlighted variables such as proper accounting records, feature of Audit Report, types of Audit Report, Qualified Audit Reports, Other variables in the literature review were audit circumstances, communication to management audit strategy and planning. The results and discussion of the findings shed light related assets; income retained earnings, cash flows, taxation, shareholder funds concluded that the study was carried out in conformity to audit standards such as audit opinion, level of assurance and audit functions. The recommendation highlights on regulation conformining consistency and continuity, efficiency of performance.

  auditor, auditor report, financial statement, accounting standards,


1. Akinsulire, O. (2011), Financial Management, 7th Edition,, Lagos, Ceemol Nigeria Limited.
2. Alfano, J.B. (1979) Making auditor’s reports pure and simple. CPA Journal, 46(6), 37-41.
3. Beck, C.W. (1973). The role of the auditor in modern society: An empirical approach. Accounting &Business Research, 3(10),117-22.
4. Canada Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA). (1988). Report of the Commission to Study the Public‘s Expectations of Audit (Macdonald Commission). Toronto. CICA.
5. Commission on Auditors’ Responsibilities (car). 1978). Report, Conclusions and Recommendations (The Cohen Commission). New York: AICP.
6. Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance (CFACG). (1992). Report of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance (Cadbury) Committee). London: Gee.
7. Elliott, R.K & Jacobson. P.D. (1987) The auditor’s standard report: the last word or in need of change? Journal of Accountancy. 164(2).  72-78.
8. Epstein, M.J. (1976). The Corporate Shareholders’ view of the Auditor’s Report, in Commission on Auditors’ Responsibility. Reports, Conclusions and Recommendations, New York: AICPA, p.164.
9. Hatherly, D, Innes, J. & Brown. T.(1991). The expanded audit report: an empirical investigation. Accounting & Business Research, 21(84), 311-19.
10. Kelly. A.S. & Mohrweis, L.C. (1989) Bankers’ and investors’ perception of the auditor’s role in financial statement reporting: The impact of SAS No.58. Auditing: A Journal of Practice &Theory, Fall.
11. Lee. T.A. ((1970). The nature of Auditing and its objectives. Accountancy, 81(920), 292-6).
12. Lee, T. A. & Tweedie, and D.P. ((1975), Accounting Information: an Investigation of private shareholders usage. Accounting and Business Research, 24(93), 49-68.
13. Pandey, IM(2010), Financial Management, 10 th Edition, New Delhi, Viskas Publishing House, PVT Limited.
14. Porter, B.A (1993), An empirical study of the audit expectation-performance gap: Accounting and Business Research, 24(93),49-68.
15. Wilton, R.L.  &Tabb, J.B. (1978), An investigation into private shareholder usage of financial statements in New Zealand. Accounting Education, 18, pp.83-101.
16. Woolf, E. (1979). Auditing Today. London: Prentice Hall. Yadalam, H (2010), Financial Statement Analysis, Articles Base Retrieved, Nigeria.
17. Zachery, B.R.(1991), Who understands audit report? 53(2) 9-11.






R. B. Kakkeri, Sayali Surve, Shahrukh Shaikh, Vinita Dhoble

Paper Title:

Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

Abstract:   Diabetes is well known disease and may cause abnormalities in the retina (diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), nervous system (diabetic neuropathy) and is known to be a major risk for cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic retinopathy is a micro vascular complication caused by diabetes, which can lead to blindness. In early stages of diabetic retinopathy typically there are no visible signs but the number and severity of abnormalities increase during the time. Diabetic retinopathy typically starts with small changes in retinal capillaries. This phenomenon is called neovascularization, which is a serious eyesight threatening state and may cause sudden loss in visual acuity or even permanent blindness. For automated screening programs to work robustly efficient image processing and analysis algorithms have to be developed. This work examines recent literature on digital image processing in the field of early detection of diabetic retinopathy using fundus photographs. Diabetic retinopathy pathologies were further categorized into several groups. In this paper several different databases are presented and their characteristics discussed.

diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy Diabetic, work, automated screening,


1.    S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004.
2.    S. J. Lee, C. A. McCarty, H. R. Taylor, and J. E. Keeffe, “Costs of mobile screening for diabetic retinopathy: a practical framework for rural populations,” Aust J Rural Health, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 186–192, 2001.

3.    C. A. McCarty, C. W. Lloyd-Smith, S. E. Lee, P. M. Livingston, Y. L. Stanislavsky, and H. R. Taylor, “Use of eye care services by people with diabetes: the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project,” Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 410–414, 1998.

4.    D. A. Askew, L. Crossland, R. S. Ware, S. Begg, P. Cranstoun, P. Mitchell, and C. L. Jackson, “Diabetic retinopathy screening and monitoring of early stage disease in general practice: design and methods,” ContempClin Trials, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 969–975, 2012.

5.    H. C. Looker, S. O. Nyangoma, D. Cromie, J. A. Olson, G. P. Leese, M. Black, J. Doig, N. Lee, R. S. Lindsay, J. A. McKnight, A. D. Morris, S. Philip, N. Sattar, S. H. Wild, and H. M. Colhoun, “Diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in Scotland,” Diabetologia, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2335–2342, 2012.






Chillarge S M, Shimpale P M, Lokhande R M

Paper Title:

A Study of Shape Effect of Natural Draught Cooling Tower by using Ansys.16.5

Abstract: In thermal power stations cooling Cooling Tower plays vital role. Along with stresses due to wind load, Seismic load, thermal stresses are predominant in tower. Using ANSYS we can check its thermal response which will be function of time.  Natural Draught hyperbolic cooling towers are characterizing land marks of power stations. They comprise of a thin concrete shell of revolution are common place in civil engineering infrastructure. The wind load is always the dominant load in the design of the cooling tower due to its large size, complex geometry and thin wall. This paper deals with the study of thermal analysis of two existing cooling towers of 143.50m and 172m high above ground level with varying thickness in accordance with IS 11504. These cooling towers have been analyzed for thermal loads using ANSYS software by assuming fixity at the shell base. The analysis of two existing cooling towers has been carried out using 8 noded SHELL 181 element with uniform SHELL thicknesses.

 NDCT, Wind Analysis, IS 11504, Finite Element Modelling, ANSYS


1.    ANSYS.Version14.0Documentation. ANSYS, Inc.
2.    G Murali “ Response Of Natural Draught Cooling Towers To Wind Loads” International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development, Issue 2, Vol 4 (May 2012), ISSN 2249-6149.

3.    Mungan and Wittek, 2004, Natural draught cooling towers. Taylor and Francis Group, London, UK.

4.    Orlando M. 2001, Wind-induced interference effects on two adjacent cooling towers, Engineering structures, 23: 979-992.

5.    Prashanth N, Sayeed sulaiman, “To study the effect of seismic loads and wind load on hyperbolic    cooling tower of varying dimensions and  RCC shell thickness” :
InternationalJournal of Emerging Trendsin Engineering and Development Issue 3, Vol.4 (June-July 2013) ISSN 2249-6149.

6.    N Prabhakar (Technical Manager), “Structural aspects of hyperbolic cooling tower”, National seminar on Cooling tower, jan1990, Technical session IV, paper no 9.

7.    IS: 11504:1985, Criteria for structural design of reinforced concrete natural draught cooling tower, New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian standards.

8.    IS: 875 (Part3):1987, Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake loads) for buildings and structures. New Delhi, India: Bureau of Indian Standards.