Causes of Child Sex Tourism Systematic
Yahya Muhammed Bah1, Pinky Saptandari2

1Yahya Muhammed Bah, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. 

2Pinky Saptandari, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Manuscript received on 11 January 2020 | Revised Manuscript received on 07 February 2020 | Manuscript Published on 20 February 2020 | PP: 328-333 | Volume-9 Issue-3S January 2020 | Retrieval Number: C10770193S20/2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.C1077.0193S20

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Abstract: The tourism industry beyond all reasonable doubts is not only one of the most rapidly growing industries in the globe but one of the largest employer generating billions of dollars annually. However, in spite of that, the industry according to nascent studies has some profound negative socio-economic, political, cultural and environmental impacts on communities. For instant, tourists engaging children in sex for which they are not ready for both physically, mentally and psychologically has negatively impacted them physically, psychological, mentally, emotionally, economically; and socially. Some have even died. Although the precise number of child sex tourism casualties and their circumstances is not scientifically well researched and documented, what is indisputable is they are in millions. This lack of scholarly documentation, beyond reasonable doubt has posed a great challenge to all concern authorities. Thus, this research was meant to address this gap. The fundamental rationale for the systematic literature review is to examine the present scale and degree of the causes of child sex tourism, share knowledge to spark and inspire processes that will usher rapid growth from all directions in the fight against the menace. A systematic review of the literatures using information collected from different sources was actuated. Google Search Engine was used to search these articles. During the search numeration combinations of words and phrases were used to ensure articles reflect the most recent knowledge and scholarly works. In essence, only peer-reviewed articles published after 2008 were selected except extracts perceived to be of fundamental mileage to the study. However, articles published by staunch international organizations working in the protection of children for years and has produced indefatigable knowledge in commercial sexual exploitation of the children were stealthily appraised. Poverty, which is commonly cited, is not the sole justification for the commercial sexual exploitation of children, even though it contributes to an environment that may sequel to such exploitation. In summation, a range of other complex contributing factors include consumerism, culture, economic disparities, social, political instability, environment, corruption, lack of reporting crimes, lack of and/or inadequate laws, poor enforcement, state lack of interest, debt burden, structural adjustment programmes, the practice of offering women as subservient to men, discriminatory policies, poverty, natural calamities, lack of training, demand and supply, power imbalances, sex trade, families encouragement, philanthropic organizations, internet access, crime and violence, transient workers, freedom of movement, domestic tourists, population expansion, child trafficking, individual, loss of communal farmlands; and porous borders. In conclusion, the causes of child sex tourism can be simply pooled and catalogued into social, economic, political, natural, technological, individual; and legal causes.

Keywords: Child, Child Sex Tourism, Perpetrators, Survivors, Tourist, Tourism.
Scope of the Article: Social Sciences