Analysis of Composite De-Laval Nozzle Suitable for Rocket Applications
Raviteja Boyanapalli1, Raja Sekhara Reddy Vanukuri2, Prudhvi Gogineni3, Janakinandan Nookala4, Goutham Kumar Yarlagadda5, VinayBabu Gada6
1Mr. Raviteja Boyanapalli, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
2Mr. Raja Sekhara, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
3Mr. Prudhvi Gogineni, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
4Mr. GouthamKumar Yarlagadda, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
5Mr. Janakinandan Nookala, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
6Mr. VinayBabu Gada, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KL University, Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), India.
Manuscript received on 15 April 2013 | Revised Manuscript received on 22 April 2013 | Manuscript Published on 30 April 2013 | PP: 336-344 | Volume-2 Issue-5, April 2013 | Retrieval Number: E0643032413/13©BEIESP
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe via an orifice. A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. A nozzle is a relatively simple device, just a specially shaped tube through which hot gases flow. However, the mathematics, which describes the operation of the nozzle, takes some careful thought. Nozzles come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Simple turbojets, and turboprops, often have a fixed geometry convergent nozzle as shown on the left of the figure. Turbofan engines often employ a co-annular nozzle as shown at the top left. The core flow exits the centre nozzle while the fan flow exits the annular nozzle. Mixing of the two flows provides some thrust enhancement and these nozzles also tend to be quieter than convergent nozzles. Afterburning turbojets and turbofans require a variable geometry convergent-divergent – CD nozzle. In this nozzle, the flow first converges down to the minimum area or throat, then is expanded through the divergent section to the exit at the right. The variable geometry causes these nozzles to be heavier than a fixed geometry nozzle, but variable geometry provides efficient engine operation over a wider airflow range than a simple fixed nozzle. Rocket engines also use nozzles to accelerate hot exhaust to produce thrust. Rocket engines usually have a fixed geometry CD nozzle with a much larger divergent section than is required for a gas turbine. All of the nozzles discussed thus far are round tubes. Recently, however, engineers have been experimenting with nozzles with rectangular exits. This allows the exhaust flow to be easily deflected, or vectored. Changing the direction of the thrust with the nozzle makes the aircraft much more manoeuvrable. Because the nozzle conducts the hot exhaust back to the free stream, there can be serious interactions between the engine exhaust flow and the airflow around the aircraft. On fighter aircraft, in particular, large drag penalties can occur near the nozzle exits. As with the inlet design, the external nozzle configuration is often designed by the airframer and subjected to wind tunnel testing to determine the performance effects on the airframe. The internal nozzle is usually the responsibility of the engine manufacturer.
Keywords: Analysis Composite Applications Rocket.
Scope of the Article: Composite Materials