Heart Rate Variability Assessment by the Lyapunov Exponent
Jae Mok Ahn

Prof. Jae Mok Ahn, School of Software, Hallym University, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea.

Manuscript received on May 16, 2020. | Revised Manuscript received on May 21, 2020. | Manuscript published on June 10, 2020. | PP: 724-728 | Volume-9 Issue-8, June 2020. | Retrieval Number: H6751069820/2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.H6751.069820
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure that evaluates cardiac autonomic activity according to the complexity or irregularity of an HRV dataset. At present, among various entropy estimates, the Lyapunov exponent (LE) is not as well described as approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the characteristics of the parameters associated with the LE to evaluate whether the LE parameters can replace the frequency-domain parameters for HRV analysis. For the LE analysis in this study, two-dimensional factors were adjusted: length, which determines the size of the dimension vectors and is known as time delay embedding, varied over a range of 1 to 7, and the interval, which determines the distance between two successive embedding vectors, varied over a range of 1 to 3. A new parameter similar to the LA, the accumulation of the LE, was developed along with the LE to characterize the HRV parameters. The high frequency (HF) components dominated when the mean value of the LA was largest for interval 2, with 2.89 ms2 at the low frequency (LF) and 4.32 ms2 at the HF. The root mean square of the successive difference (RMSSD) in the LE decreased with increasing length in interval 1 from 2.6056 for length 1 to 0.2666 for length 7, resulting in a low HRV. The results suggest that the Lyapunov exponent methodology could be used in characterizing HRV analysis and replace power spectral estimates, specifically, HF components. 
Keywords: Heart rate variability, Lyapunov exponent, Frequency component, Autonomic nervous system, Entropy.
Scope of the Article: Frequency Selective Surface