Vernacular Havelis of Bikaner: Indigenous Method for Thermal Comfort
Tanaya Verma1, Tejwant Singh Brar2

1Tanaya Verma, Associate Professor, Sushant School of Art & Architecture, Ansal University, Gurgaon (Haryana), India.

2Dr. Tejwant Brar, Professor, Department of Art & Architecture, Sushant School of Art & Architecture, Gurgaon (Haryana), India.

Manuscript received on 12 February 2020 | Revised Manuscript received on 28 February 2020 | Manuscript Published on 10 March 2020 | PP: 172-178 | Volume-9 Issue-4S March 2020 | Retrieval Number: D10240394S20/2020©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijitee.D1024.0394S20

Open Access | Editorial and Publishing Policies | Cite | Zenodo | Indexing and Abstracting
© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open-access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (

Abstract: Vernacular architecture based on bioclimatic concepts was developed and used through the centuries by many civilizations across the world. Bikaner is a non-river basin settlement in the hot and dry climatic zone of India and cooling of indoor spaces is the single main agenda for habitation design as the temperature is very harsh throughout the year. The vernacular architecture of the Bikaner Haveli’s has provided a comfortable shelter against the harsh climatic conditions of the region and has survived for many decades. Physical analysis of the Haveli’s provide with substantial data on their thermally comfortable design. The indigenous approach of its inhabitants for achieving comfort in these harsh climatic conditions is an exciting study area. Acclimatization plays a vital role in the perception of thermal comfort, and the younger generation does not perceive the same situation as comfortable as their parents and the natives of the land due to behavioural change. Bikaner have many Havelis dating over 250 years old, and these are master examples of vernacular architecture built by the indigenous community in response to the geographical location, climatic condition, and emerging from their cultural needs. The objective of the research is to understand indigenous cooling systems employed by the people and how they work. The process of physiological adjustment that takes place when subjected to stressful situations. The results show that the natural and passive design systems provide a comfortable indoor environment irrespective of the outdoor climatic variation. Is it more useful to re-introduces the native ways of lifestyle practices rather than adapting to global ways of living. In the paper, an attempt to bring forth the climate responsiveness, appropriateness and the adaptive lifestyle of the inhabitants of the vernacular Havelis of Bikaner.

Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Bioclimatic, Acclimatization, Vernacular.
Scope of the Article: Thermal Engineering